AI is more natural (versus artificial) than we currently understand.


One of the twelve recommendations of the Defense Innovation Board (July 2018)

The issues around artificial intelligence are the focus of this page. It will be under construction for a long, long time.

There are several related pages of which the homepage is here.  Your feedback  is most welcomed.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a natural flow of numbers within an algorithmic system. More so than we currently understand, there also appears to be a natural flow of unique algorithms from within algorithmic systems. A possible block to that flow may be our understanding of prime numbers and their role to create new bridging and branching from systems to systems.

So now, an explanation shall be forthcoming.  Some of the resources being engaged are listed below.

Yes, this page was initiated on Thursday, July 12. There is much more to come…


  1. Calculating Space    Digital philosophy
    Edward Fredkin, Finite Nature,  Proceedings of the XXVIIth Rencontre de Moriond. 1992 especially the chapter: Consequences of Finite Nature
    — “A New Cosmogony.” Proceedings of the Physics of Computation Workshop. October 2-4, 1992. Also, see:
    — “Digital Mechanics: An Informational Process Based on Reversible Universal CA.” Physica D 45 (1990), at pp. 254-70.
    Fredkin’s 1992 Finite Nature, chapter: Consequences of Finite Nature
  2. Witten, Edward (2005). Unravelling string theory (PDF). Nature. 438: 1085. Bibcode:2005Natur.438.1085W. doi:10.1038/4381085a.
    Fredkin’s website Digital
    Abstract for Fredkin’s 2005 paper “A contemporary architecture for physics”
  3. A New Kind of Science, Wolfram
  4. arXiv:math/0506552  [pdf, ps, other]  Epistemology as Information Theory: From Leibniz to Omega, G. J. Chaitin

    Abstract: …whose bits are irreducible, i.e., maximally unknowable mathematical facts. More generally, these ideas constitute a kind of “digital philosophy” related to recent attempts of Edward Fredkin, Stephen Wolfram and others to view the world as a giant computer. There are also connections with recent “digital physics” spec…

    27 June, 2005; v1 Alan Turing Lecture on Computing and Philosophy, E-CAP’05 MSC Class: 68Q30

  5. arXiv:nlin/0501022  [pdfnlin.CG  Two-state, Reversible, Universal Cellular Automata in Three Dimensions   Authors: Daniel B. Miller, Edward FredkinAbstract: A novel two-state, Reversible Cellular Automata (RCA) is described. This three-dimensional RCA is shown to be capable of universal computation. Additionally, evidence is offered that this RCA Is capable of universal construction. 

    5 May, 2005; v1 Proceedings of ACM Computing Frontiers 2005 (CF’05): 1st Int’l Workshop on Reversible Computing:

  6. Alastair A. Abbott, Dominic C. Horsman  7th International Workshop on Physics and Computation (PC 2016). The workshop was held on the 14th of July 2016 in Manchester, UK, as a satellite workshop to UCNC 2016, the 15th International Conference on Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation
  7. Jonathan P. Sorenson / Daniel J. Bernstein
  8. Douglas Bruce Lenat, CEO of Cycorp, Inc. of Austin, Texas  Stanford, 1976 PhD thesis: An Artificial Intelligence Approach to Discovery in Mathematics as Heuristic Search
  9. Danah Henriksen, ASU Pattern of prime numbers in the form of sinusoidal wavesPrimePattern