# From today’s Age of The Universe down to the first moment of time, Planck Time, alongside the Size of the Universe down to the Planck Length

###### by Bruce Camber, December 2014 The most current work is on the homepage: https://81018.com

An Introduction to Planck Time: Yes, early in December 2014 we started this page to follow-up earlier work on the Planck Length. We began that effort three years earlier (December 2011) in our local high school’s geometry classes. Because we will continue to find obvious errors (from simple mathematics to our interpretation) of the chart below, this page will be subject to updates.

About the Numbers: The above result, 5.391247(60)×10-44 seconds, is the value used by International System of Units (SI unit first reached in 2014). The prior working value was   tP5.39106(32)×10-44 seconds. At the time this chart (below) and the horizontally-scrolled chart were done, it was the accepted SI value. The new SI base units, confirmed in 2019, is to 5.391 247(60) x 10-44 seconds.

Background: We had been asking around the scholarly community, “Has anyone done a progression of the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe using base-2 exponential notation (a fancy way of saying, multiplying by 2)?” We did it from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe and had wanted to compare that progression to Planck Time.

Going from the smallest to the largest is a simple ordering logic. Using Max Planck’s smallest possible measurements to go to the known limits seems like an exercise high school students should do.

Here we introduce the simple math from the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe.

In July 2014, Prof. Dr. Gerard ‘t Hooft and Stefan Vandoren published a very helpful book, Time in Powers of Ten, a base-10 chart. We were looking for a base-2 chart which would be 3.333+ times more granular. We could not find it anywhere so this page is our working draft, our starting point.

Perhaps it goes without saying… as you read this note, I appeal to you to ask questions and make comments and suggestions. Thank you. –Bruce Camber

Planck Time as the smallest possible unit of measurement of time. The ratios of all 202 multiples of the Planck Time to its respective multiple of Planck Length is consistent across the chart.  The original calculations were done by Max Planck in and around 1899. This chart of 202 notations was done in December 2014. Numbers smaller than the Planck Time, just numbers, cannot be meaningfully applied to anything.

Planck got his Nobel Prize in 1918/9 for the conceptual richness (discovery) of an “energy quanta.” He was also a mentor and friend of Einstein (Nobel laureate, 1921).

The Planck Length and Planck Time are actual values that can be multiplied by 2.
Of course, if one were to multiply each by 2, and the result each time by 2, over and over again, you can assume that you would reach their outer limits. That process looks a bit tedious. After all, the Age of the Universe is somewhere around 13.8+ billion years and the Observable Universe is millions of light years from common sense. Yet, rather surprisingly, to complete that effort doesn’t require thousands of doublings. It is done in just 202 doublings.

That is so surprising the doublings for both are charted below.

These doublings do kind-of, sort-of end up in sync. Where there is a problem, we assume it is within our simple math. Considering the duration and the length, and the nature of very large measurements, for all intents and purposes, they are synced mathematically. We’ve got a bit of work to do to sync them up intellectually!

Though these charts will be tweaked substantially, the best place to start is at the notations (or doublings) that define a second, day, a week and a year (in Planck Time units) to see how each corresponds with the distance light travels in Planck Length units, i.e. a second, “light day”, “light week,” and a light year, These are our first baby steps of analysis. How many hundreds of steps are there to go to discern all the faces of its meaning? Who knows? From here, we will continue to look to see what meaning and relation evolves at a particular notation where one column appears to impart value to the other. Just on the surface, this chart seems to suggest that there are other possible views of the nature of space and time where numbers, order (sequence), continuity, symmetries, and relations seem to play a more fundamental role.

Science and our common sense worldview assume the primordial nature of space and time. As a result of our work with the Planck Units, we hold that conclusion up for further inspection. How do things appear as one begins to approach a synchronized Planck Length and Planck Time?

Planck Units: As we add more Planck Units to this chart, what else might we see? What might we learn? So, we will add mass, electric charge, and temperature to these listings. And then, we’ll add the derived Planck Units (12) and then ask, “Is there anything more we can do to establish a range from the smallest to the largest? What might a comparative analysis at each doubling reveal to us?”

We don’t know, however, we are on a path to explore! We’ll report in right here.

At this point, we are attempting to learn enough to make a few somewhat educated guesses about the nature of things within these scales of the universe. So, as a result of where we are today, I think it is okay to ask the question, “What would the universe look like if space and time were derivative of order-continuity and relation-symmetry, and of ratios where the subject-object are constantly in tension?”

##### (This stream of consciousness continues at the very bottom of this chart.)

Endnotes:

1. We will be refining this chart for a long, long time. This chart with Planck Time began in 2014.

2. Our very first calculation with the Planck Length column (December 2011), resulted in 209 doublings! We found several errors. Then, with help of a NASA astrophysicist, Joe Kolecki (now retired), we updated our postings with his calculation of 202.34. Then, the French Observatory astrophysicist, Jean-Pierre Luminet, calculated 205.1 doublings. We are very open to all ideas and efforts!

We are studying the foundations of foundations. One might call it a hypostatic science based on the simplest mathematics, simple geometries and observations about the way the universe coheres.

One might say, “The Finite is finite, the Infinite is the Infinite, and the constants and universals describe the boundary conditions and transformations between each. One manifests a panoply of perfections; the other has only momentary instants of perfection.”

Open Questions: Is it possible that Planck Length starts first and Planck Time begins on Planck Length’s 2nd or 3rd notation? Could there be a two for one at the beginning and at the transitions? By using experimental speed of light per second, can we force the Planck units from that point? If the ratio of Length/time is consistent across the grid (and it is), how do we fine tune this chart?

What is a second?

What are Planck Units?

By the 64th notation7, time at 9.945379×10-25 seconds is still well below the thresholds of measurement. It will not be until the 84th notation that an actual measurement of a unit of time is achieved. Within attoseconds (10-18 seconds), that measurement was done by a team led by Prof. Dr. Ferenc Krausz, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany. Dr. Vladislav S. Yakovlev advised us.

What is time?

What is a meter?

What is length?

What is space?

What happens just before the Planck time at 10-44 seconds? Theorists say that all of the four fundamental forces are presumed to have been unified into one force. All matter, energy, space and time “explode” from the original singularity.

3. Our online “Google” calculator often rounds up the last digit. It is usually beyond the eleventh position to the right of the decimal point.