This “light” pervades all 202 notations that define the universe.


Max Planck Redefined Light In 1899

by Bruce Camber

Planck Time

1. The equations (right). From Max Planck, these equations defines what became known as Planck Time (tP) and Planck Length (lP):


2. Looking at just that first equivalence can be easily rewritten for c, Planck Length divided by Planck Time is equal to light; the simple equation seems to tell us something magical about light and space-and-time.

Planck Length Planck Time

3. Ever-closer approximations of the value of the speed of light:
In 1862 Leon Foucault used rotating mirrors to estimate 298,000 kilometers/second.
In 1879 Albert Michelson also used rotating mirrors and calculated 299,910 k/s.
In 1906 E.B.Rosa and N.E. Dorsey used electromagnetic constants: 299,788 k/s.
In 1972 Evenson et al. used laser interferometry to arrive at 299,792.456 k/s.
Finally, in 1983 at the 17th meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), by consensus among nations the definition was set at 299,792.458 and was said to be “exact.”

4. Max Planck’s calculations. In 1899 the scientific community was introduced to the Planck Length and Planck Time and a simple equation for the speed of light. It appears that nobody did the simple math and made a simple pronouncement. Max Planck’s figures renders the speed of light to be 299,792,422.79 meters/second.

it is equal to .001% of the speed of light in a vacuum.  Of the 202 base-2 notations from Planck Time to the Age of the Universe, between Notations 143 and 144, at one second it is also within .001% of the speed of light in a vacuum; and at every notation, that same calculation for all 201 other notations is within .1%.

The chart is trying to tell us something.

The Velocity of Light and Radio Waves, Froome and Essen
Rosa, EB; Dorsey, NE (1907). “A new determination of the ratio of the electromagnetic to the electrostatic unit of electricity”. Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards. 3 (6): 433. doi:10.6028/bulletin.070.

NASA: Sunrise on International Space Station
First light, 2016, ISS

People like Nima Arkani-Hamed say, “Space-time is doomed.” Of course, the speed of light is more than the speed of photons. We ask, “Could one face of light look and feel like space, another face like time, another face like mass and the fourth face like charge or energy?” Why not? Might it all manifest as a primordial sphere? Why not?

Light fundamentally defines the relation between space and time If continuity first manifests within the formula for pi and within that primordial sphere, we have a discrete starting point. We also have a first principle for order, memory, intelligence and logic.

We can watch — follow the numbers — and see how it is carried throughout every one of the 202 doublings from the Planck Time and Planck Length to the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe respectively. Consider line 10 within the horizontally-scrolled chart of the 202 doublings. Let us assume that it starts at the very beginning of universe with Planck Time and that it unfolds with each step (or each doubling) right up to this current moment.

Within this simple model of the universe, light permeates each and every one of the 202 clusters, or domains or doublings, or groups, or notations, or sets. At the one second mark, as one might expect, the doubling of Planck Length approximates the distance light travels within a second. These figures along line 10 are all approximations, however, within .1% of the laboratory defined speed of light in a vacuum. It would appear that this simple calculation, in some manner of speaking, encourages our simple logic within this chart and model.

Further, one might now hedge a guess that every domain uniquely defines a bit of who we are. And, being a bit more speculative, one might say that each domain is more richly defined as the universe continues its expansion into what we might poetically call the infinite harmonies of life.

So, let there be Light!


Observations & Questions: The simple equation comes right out of Max Planck’s 1899 work when he first defined Planck Time, Planck Length, Planck Mass and Planck Charge. Divide each notational value of Planck Length (space) by that same notational value of Planck Time and you will always approximate the speed of light every moment along the way right from the very first moment of time.

In 2019, the SI unit for Planck Length was defined as 1.616299(38)×10−35 meters, Planck Time was defined as 5.391247(60)×10−44 seconds. Divide Planck Length by Planck Time. It equals 299,792,422.79 meters/second. Prior to 2019, the SI units for Planck Time was 5.39106(32)×10−44 seconds and Planck Length, 1.616255(18)×10−35 meters (299, meters/second).

The scientific community ignored Planck’s equations for over 100 hundred years; we are looking for any studies regarding the place and importance of this equivalence.  Do you know of anybody who has studied it in depth?  Our Google and ArXiv searches have not given us much satisfaction.  Contact…

Einstein showed us how light, space and time are inextricably woven. All of these numbers open a path to tell us so much more.  Although the simple logic goes right back inside the very definition of Planck Time and Planck Length, it appears that this simple equation hasn’t been verbalized, articulated and studied at any point within our academic or intellectual history. We’ll continue our search, but can you help?

This universe is enveloped with light.

Sunrise over the Atlantic Ocean

Mostly non-visible yet penetrating everything, everywhere for all time, within our model, here is a primordial carrier frequency once thought of as the ether. Notwithstanding, this formal definition, also involves the gravitational constant and the Planck Mass which is also a physical constant.  We believe that this Planck scale is quite unlike any definition heretofore given by the academic-and-scholarly community in that it is defined by all the dimensionless constants that define our Planck base units.  More

So, we say, “Yes, let there be light…”     More

 •  An Integrated View of the Universe  •  Center for Perfection Studies  •  The Big Board–Little Universe  •

Planck Time
Planck Length Planck Time