Is there a basic building block of our universe? Might it be a Primordial Sphere, or Infinitesimal-Archetypal Sphere, or First Particle?

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First things first
By Bruce E. Camber, Started on July 30, 2021. Continued in January 2022
[ Introducing a very special Green Wall ]

Our scholars seem increasingly confident that our universe has a starting point. Notwithstanding, most seem to be holding onto the big bang model, especially the one promoted by Stephen Hawking where he said on PBS-TV in 2016, “Everything in existence, expanding exponentially in every direction, from an infinitely small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense point, creating a cosmos filled with energy and matter.”

Is Hawking saying the entire universe and everything in it had been compressed to an infinitely dense point? I think so; but, I do not think it is true. Hawking was painfully fallible and did not have all the answers. Surely, we all wanted him to have some of the answers.

In 2022, there are very few alternative models. Among them, the work of Paul Steinhardt of Princeton seems to be garnering a fair amount of attention. [1] For me, his model is still not quite simple enough.

Can we just try to define a simple building block?

Most everybody knows that the first physical thing is not an atom. That’s much too complex. It is probably not a particle or wave or a fluctuation — not quite complex enough. There is no amount of colors, shapes, directions, feelings, or charm that may well be part of the overall causal efficacy within a moment of measurement, these each seem quite derivative. What could possibly encompass all those expressions (equations) and have deep causal efficacy? What makes those things be what each is? And, at the same time, could “this something” be magically more simple?

I think that the only thing that might qualify is a sphere, albeit a primordial sphere. Increasingly it seems best to refer to it as the first particle.

Max Planck’s base units. Apply a simple base-2 expansion to Max Planck’s base units and the universe is encapsulated in 202 notations. There are at least 64 steps, base-2 exponentiations, or simple doublings, from the Planck Length to particles that can not be measured. It begs the question, “What is happening between the Planck base units and the electroweak measurements?

Here is the secret universe scholarship has not defined. Here is a conceptual revolution. Many are looking at it. Once defined, it changes everything. Dark energy, dark matter, hidden variables…

Names and Acronyms: Primordial Sphere or Infinitesimal-Archetypal Sphere. We might use “PS” as if we might want to add an addendum or “IAS” (reminding us of the Institute for Advanced Study just down the street from Princeton University). Researching Plancksphere and Planck particle, we are deferring to the first particle because scholars have already use those terms to define a blackhole. Also, the Planck units may get recalculated in light of the scientific advances since 1899.

Base Units. In 1874 George Johnstone Stoney was the first to calculate base units of our universe. In 1899 Max Planck made his calculations. Given Planck’s leadership in the physics community of that day and his working relation with Einstein, his units are best known. Neither are perfect but I say that both are “close enough” to describing a real reality and symbolically both define a first moment of space-time.

Certainly, these figures will be re-calibrated and refined just like the figures for the age of the universe.

Their work became our foundations to begin to define a highly relational universe. We unwittingly backed into the 202 notations of a base-2 grid of the universe. By focusing on Planck Time, in 2014 it was confirmed that there are just 202 notations from beginning of time to today, the Now. The calculation for Planck Time renders a number so small, it is too small to begin to fathom.

We are generally satisfied to measure things within a second. Today, expensive measuring devices measure within a nanosecond, one billionth of a second (10-8). Much more expensive devices measure one trillionth of a second. That’s a picosecond (10-12). A laboratory in Germany, a Max Planck Institute, was the first to measure an attosecond, one quintillionth of a second (10-18). In 2016 they proclaimed measurements in the septosecond range, a trillionth of a billionth of a second (10-21). As infinitesimal as that is, the PlanckSecond is many orders of magnitude smaller (10-44).

What happens at the Planck scale is anybody’s guess. And, there has been a bit of guessing over the years. Logic helps, yet it is often a fool’s paradise. So, I say, “Just stick with the numbers, the dimensionless constants, and all things scale invariant, and even then, be very cautious.”

The Planck Temperature has always bothered me. On November 1, 2021, it started bothering me so much I opened our horizontally-scrolled chart and followed the numbers up and down those 202 notations. Back and forth, back and forth, for some reason, the inverse square law jumped into my simple equation of state and I wondered, “Is that crazy? What is that first moment? Ex nihilo? If the inverse square law applied from Planck Temperature at Notation-0, within 100 notations, it would be within the range of the quark-gluon temperatures. Does that have any logical footing?”

In 2015 Planck Temperature was too difficult, “Put if off into the future. We can deal with it later.”

I put it in Notation-203 and divided by 2. By Notation-0 it was ever so close to absolute zero.

Seven years passed, and later came sooner than expected. Asking, “What would those numbers look like if Planck Temperature is at the beginning (Notation-0)?” Obviously it would not double with the other Planck numbers. Perhaps there is a justification to divide by 2? Maybe the inverse square law could be applied? …surely not with Hawking’s infinitely dense start (his compression of everything from everywhere), but maybe with just light.[2] How might that work?

I took the old chart, made a copy, and began taking those numbers down from the hottest possible start. I asked myself, “Could some kind of extra logic or metalogic help?” With this paragraph and within the context of continuity equations from the smallest to the largest, we begin a process of peeling back the layers of ideation since about 2013 and 2014 as we wrestled with Planck Time, and then 2015 as we wrestled with Planck Mass and Planck Charge. I began thinking about the duration of Notation-202 which is 10.98+ billion years. If the universe is between 13.81 and 14.1 billion years, we’ve only had a small sampling of 3+ billion years of Notation-202 which is currently the notation in which our universe is being defined.

Within systems theory there has to be a rationale for every decision and this was one of the most important that we could make. Is it hot or is it cold? Could it be both? Of course, that’s extremely hot and extremely cold… at the same time? The more I thought about it, the more that an extremely-hot entry point with the inverse square law began to glimmer with possibility. Where is light in all these equations? What is light? What are photons? If Planck Temperature decreases inversely — because there is so-very-little to hold such a temperature — might that open a path for a new inquiry?

So, let us re-explore the question, “Could that kind of infinitely hot start have any cogency?” Could there be a progression within laser thermodynamics [3] that follows the path of Planck Temperature down to the range of the current Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB or CMBR) where the temperature is about 2.725 degrees Kelvin. That is -270 degrees Celsius or -455 degrees Fahrenheit). between Notations 106 and 107. Might that light be Newton’s perception of absolute space and time? Might Descartes‘ 1637 insight that light is corpuscular have some merit? Today we might imagine these to be infinitesimal spheres that when cooled to a range of the quark-gluon soup (plasma) would mark the beginning of measurable particles. So, we’d then asked within what range along this inverse scale cooling might there be an actual beginning of the Planck scale doublings? Or, perhaps given this all happens in the range of a femtosecond (quadrillionth of a second), perhaps that Planck Temperature release creates a finite-infinite bridge.

It’s all speculation. Who knows?

To search for an answer, can we engage the study of laser thermodynamics? Could there be two tracks one that is a distant analogue to big bang cosmology’s compression of the entire universe and the other initially related to the explosive number of infinitesimal spheres being generated? Might it approximate our original chart with the temperature increasing exponentially from close to absolute zero? Does that earliest generation of temperature require differential equations to define the two? As usual, “Yes” seems to be the most appropriate answer to many of these hypothetical questions. Thank you.

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Endnotes & Footnotes

[1] Attention. A new kind of cyclic universe (PDF), Paul Steinhardt, Anna Ijjas, ArXiv 2019. Also see: Scientific American, Physicist Slams Cosmic Theory He Helped Conceive, John Horgan, December 1, 2014

[2] Light. Opticks, 4th edition, W. Innys, 1730 (PDF), Isaac Newton, ArXiv 2019.

[3] Laser thermodynamics. X. de Hemptinne, “Thermodynamics of laser systems”, Infrared Physics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 107–109, (ABS) (IEEE),1985

[More being considered, February 16, 2022… yes, there is work still being done on these pages.]

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References and Resources

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    • [2] Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
    • [3] Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Vienna, Austria
    • [4] Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
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