# Challenged by the James Webb Space Telescope: What is space?…time?

13.81 billion years and billions, maybe trillions, of galaxies

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) [1] is finding so many new galaxies, people are again asking, How is it possible? Are there too many galaxies and not enough time? Should we redefine time? Possibly there’s a better way to interpret the redshift data. [2] Perhaps we are unwittingly double-counting (or more). Is our understanding of galaxy formation too incomplete? What if this universe is fundamentally exponential? Could base-2 notation be a key to it all? [3]

Time redefined.
A dynamic equation that makes numbering possible

Einstein and others tell us that time is not absolute. It’s finite. Not to be confused with a second or some part of it, time is also dynamic. Time is an equation; it makes numbering possible. And as a result, it makes measurement possible. Seconds-minutes-hours-days are all human conventions. Simple equations make time, i.e. one infinitesimal sphere per unit of infinitesimal dimensionless constants and it all manifests as space-time. Time is the result of equations that render Planck units. Yet these current numbers are still just placeholders. NIST and the ISO could adjust those values. Even the 1874 calculations by Stoney could be used to help determine a new set of values based on current data.

Base-2 applied to the symbolic Planck units goes from the first possible moment of the universe to the current time in just 202 highly-integrated, richly-mathematical notations. It is no longer spaceship earth; it’s spaceship universe. We are intimately one; and, we create space-time as we go.

Redefine infinity, too.
Infinity is the perfection of continuity-symmetry-harmony.

The first notation opens the finite-infinite relation and the most logical manifestation is within pi. Here we find pi’s continuity, symmetry, and harmony which manifests as the finite-infinite, a quantitative-qualitative bond (relations and/or equations). Those three faces of pi create sphericals, and those geometries stack, create space, then together perfectly fill space by creating tetrahedral-octahedral packing based on symmetries-as-relations, then harmony-as-dynamics.

Imperfection — discontinuity, asymmetry and dissonance — comes.

Again, the domain encapsulated by the first groups of notations would be perfectly filled and smooth (no gaps) until there is a formation of the five tetrahedral and five octahedral gaps. A speculation is that due to compression (densities), these geometries would be encapsulated and not become systemic. We know, however, that at some point there comes a notation with encapsulated gaps that becomes systemic, giving rise to quantum fluctuations. And then, those fluctuations begin to reach down into the prior on-going notations (we’re beginning to learn how all notations are always active).

Speculating further, it seems that functional analysis is a key to interpreting the first 64 notations and key intersections between the mathematics of (1) Langlands programs, (2) string theory (including M-Theory, F-theory, type II and offshoots), (3) supersymmetry (SUSY), (4) loop quantum gravity (LQG), (5) causal dynamical triangulation (CDT), (6) causal set theory (CST), (7) field theories, (8) spectral standard model (SSM), and (9) all the hypothetical particles. Of course, there are many thought leaders and dabblers (like me), working on the edges of our most seminal of scientific formulations. Some of the work of these folks will eventually be added.

We will all be learning key integral transforms! Eventually equations will no longer intimidate!

Ontological and Cosmological Openings

Concepts that could help open historic worldviews that confine us:

• Simple mathematics. Looking at those 202 base-2 notations from the Planck base units to the current time, the first 64 notations are below thresholds of measurement and are the subject of the nine studies cited just above.
• Redefine time. Newton’s concept of absolute time has been our common-sense worldview for about 300 years and the alternatives are not common sense. We can’t give up. We need to redefine time. It is a major hurdle for most of us. We can do it.
• Finite-and-infinite. This Janus-faced relation has been controversial throughout time. Let’s define it as the quantitative-qualitative in light of those three faces of pi and in light of the first 64 notations. Historic and personal issues regarding infinity are placed on hold.
• Perfection-imperfection. There has been a lack of engagement with (1) the geometries and physics of perfections, particularly of continuity-symmetry-harmony where there are no gaps, and (2) imperfections, where there are fluctuations (our constructions are all formative and being developed) and squishy or quantum geometries within an idealized Euclidean base.
• The nature of sleep cycles. Within sentient and thinking things, there is a constant process by which linear time is recompiled within exponential time and the current moment of the universe. Notation-202, the Now, is always on the edge of the current expansion, could appear to be a time asymmetry but is forever being recompiled within the whole as everything that sleeps does within an infinite cradle of continuity-symmetry-harmony.

Conclusions
A hypostatic geometry, hypostatic physics, and hypostatic science

Of course, the word, hypostasis, is loaded with a prehistory that is not ignored, but could be. If today, right now, is the only time that is really real, it seems that we could engage the word as given within its meaning of “that which stands under” or perhaps “the foundations of the foundations.” It is about giving those first 64 notations a special name and definition. It’s a pre-physics that is still physics. It’s a most seminal geometry of nodes, lines and faces that are always dynamic, interactive, testing, defining, creating… and so much more. Scholars have spent their lifetime feeling, contexting, and writing about the subject. They each know a face of that mathematics. They have the textures and refinements. So, let us turn to them and ask, “Can you tell us more? Can you all work together? Might those five bullet-points just above help?”

Thank you (September 2022). -BEC

Editor’s note: Perhaps easier reading are the last few homepages about these issues:
• A simple model of our universe
Eight Concepts toward an Integrative Universe
The finite-infinite starting point is an infinitesimal sphere.

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Endnotes & Footnotes
There may be more endnotes than footnote because all these points already have pages within this website.

* All these new images from the JWST, such as the Carina Nebula pictured above, enliven cosmology by bringing people out beyond our limited world, beyond our Solar System, into the Milky Way, into our Local Group, and even beyond into the Virgo Supercluster. The Carina Nebula is located in an arm of the Milky Way and is approximately 8,500 light-years from Earth. It all seems so vast and confusing until it is placed within the our 202 base-2 notations where our basic assumptions of space and time are challenged.

Please note: NASA’s image of the Carina Nebula can be explored more deeply by anyone online.

[1] James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) follows the work history of the Hubble Space Telescope. In 2016 Prof. Dr. Christopher Conselice defended a two-trillion galaxy estimate from his analysis of the Hubble data. He believed that number was consistent with big bang cosmology as understood by Stephen Hawking and his followers. Other respectable astrophysicists like Mario Livio (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore) have not disputed the Conselice estimate but hold to a more conservative number between 100 and 200 billion. Notwithstanding, the JWST will continue to put pressure on that count and on the adequacies of classic big bang theories. Also, it will be anyone’s guess what is behind all the blindspots between us and the rest of the universe. The New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars and other deep sky objects will become the largest document in the universe!

[2] Our understanding of the redshift (color, distance, frequency, light, time and wavelength) just might be challenged. We will start a pointed study of the redshift as currently understood.

[3] Counting within base-2. As noted in the prior homepage, just one sphere doubled, then doubled again and again, 64 times or 264 (our Notation-64) would amount to over 18,446 trillion infinitesimal spheres. At one second (as noted in just the prior paragraph of that homepage) is 539 tredecillion spheres per second. We have just scratched the surface in our quest to learn about exponential notation and all the possible counting schemas. The possibility of trillions of galaxies with quadrillions more planets has begun to peep into our spheres of plausibility.

Possibly more to come…

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References & Resources
As these references are studied, key references and resources will be added within this website.

Longing for the Harmonies, Frank Wilczek and Betsy Devine, W. W. Norton, 1988
Editor’s note: More true today than at any time, Frank and Betsy’s dedication quote to Amity and Mira, sets the tenor of this book, “…awaken our understanding and longing for the harmonies” (which comes directly from Kepler).

Mapping the Heavens, Priyamvada Natarajan, Yale University Press, 2016
Editor’s note: The Cosmic Microwave Radiation provides the makings of a map of the universe and our abundance of space telescopes (Hubble, WMAP, and JWST being among the most well-known) provides the data. We rather timidly believe, however, that the most comprehensive map, from the first instant of the universe until this moment, is the one that we started in 2011 as a high school STEM project. An ordered set, continuous-but-discrete, fully-integrated within 202 notations, it truly is a very special outline to begin mapping the heavens.

Keith Cooper cites these articles as the first analysis of data from the JSWT:
1. Haojing Yan, Zhiyuan Ma, Chenxiaoji Ling, Cheng Cheng, Jia-Sheng Huang and Adi Zitrin, First Batch of Candidate Galaxies at Redshifts 11 to 20 Revealed by the James Webb Space Telescope Early Release Observations, 23 July 2022
2. C. T. Donnan, D. J. McLeod, J. S. Dunlop, R. J. McLure, A. C. Carnall, R. Begley, F. Cullen, M. L. Hamadouche, R. A. A. Bowler, H. J. McCracken, B. Milvang-Jensen, A. Moneti & T. Targett, The evolution of the galaxy UV luminosity function at redshifts z ‘ 8 – 15 from deep JWST and ground-based near-infrared imaging, 25 July 2022
3. Steven L. Finkelstein et al., A Long Time Ago in a Galaxy Far, Far Away: A Candidate z ∼ 14 Galaxy in Early JWST CEERS Imaging, 25 July 2022

And thousands of articles by thousands of scholars will follow. By August 3, 2022 dozens of articles were published, each by literally hundreds of scholars. A case in point is the consortium of 121 writers who published their JWST CEERS results detailing the difficulties in properly identifying a galaxy in our universe: A dusty starburst masquerading as an ultra-high redshift galaxy in JWST CEERS observations

There may be more to come...

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Emails
Here are a few of the emails to scholars about these points.

Christopher J. Isham, emeritus, Imperial College London, UK, Wednesday, September 7, 2022
Fotini Markopoulou, NYC, Wednesday, September 7, 2022
Valerie Jamieson, The Fusion Cluster, Oxfordshire, UK, Tuesday, September 6, 2022
Susan Kassin, Galaxy Slice and Dice Group, STSI, Baltimore, Monday, September 5, 2022
Sarah A. Hart, Gresham College, Birkbeck College, London, September 4, 2022 at 4:33 PM
Helge Stjernholm Kragh, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, September 3, 2022
Evans M. Harrell II, Mathematics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, September 2, 2022
Mohsen Heidari, Center for the Science of Information, Purdue University, September 1, 2022
Jonathan Bagger, CEO, American Physical Society (APS), August 31, 2022
Sayan Mandal, Stony Brook, New York, August 31, 2022

Perhaps a few more will be added

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IM
There will also be many instant messages to thought leaders about these twelve points.

10:52 PM · Sep 4, 2022 @PhysicsWorld It is so obvious that there is so much we don’t know. It might be helpful to have it all in context vis-a-vis base-2 notation from the Planck units to this day. That gives us 202 notations within which to begin to parse deeper relations: JWST Carina Nebula – Ontological and Cosmological Conundrums

There is so much insecure arrogance in our world. One would think with all that we don’t know and all we learn every day about the depth and breadth of what we don’t know, well, wouldn’t you think we’d become a little more reflective and introspective.

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• This homepage began on August 27, 2022.
• The last update was September 9, 2022.