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Reformulating Space, Time, and Infinity
Starting with the very-first moment of time
proceeding over 202 doublings to this very moment
by Bruce Camber Related Pages: “To Infinity & Beyond”
This article is based on the key points of the prior posting, “To infinity and beyond!?!” Several told me that it was too hard to understand, “What does it mean? How does it work?” Hopefully, this discussion of the first key idea will help a little to clarify this young model.
Endnotes, Footnotes, References and Resources:
First, please notice that Planck Length [1.616229(38)×10-35 (meters)] divided by Planck Time [5.39116(13)×10-44 (seconds )] [equals 299,792,437.99 meters/second] does approximate the speed of light in a vacuum [299,792,458 m/s]. At about the one second mark within notation 143, the calculation is 299,773,654.24. It is always within less than 1% of the experimental value.
Which concept is strongest? Which is weakest?
Key documents that were recently homepages:
PLEASE NOTE: Many of the links below may take you to a page outside this website.
An excellent resource to translate any of our pages by its URL:
Afterthoughts and ruminations:
Change does not come easy for most of us. We adopt a view of the world that works with our image of ourself, and that’s that “…and I’m sticking to it. It’s just commonsense.” A key part of that commonsense worldview is called “absolute space and time.”
More References, Resources, and Research
Though part of the intellectual debates about boundaries, going back 3000 years and more, our particular brand of it comes from Sir Isaac Newton, a point of view formalized in his 1687 book, generally known as The Principia.
If you look up into the heavens on a clear, crisp evening, it looks like it goes on forever. That’s Newton. Another person might say, “It goes just as far as the current expansion of the universe.” To which one of the kids quickly ask, “Well, what’s behind that?” To which I would reply, “infinity.” And, of course, that begs the question, “What’s infinity?”
Infinity is not an easy concept to grasp. As a recent college graduate in 1969, I remember asking myself, “How can we take religion out of infinity and make it more accessible to everyone?” The effort by scholars has become a formal discipline called renormalization. And like so much of scholarship, it is not easy for regular people to understand. Even scholars have problems with it. Freeman Dyson worked on it back in 1949 and more recently, Steven Weinberg re-formalized it in 1986. Infinity is such a character, it needs to be corralled so the work of mathematicians and physicists can go on. Of course, it can’t be corralled, but it can appear to be tamed enough to carry on one’s work without getting bitten too badly.
Physicists developed this means to avoid engaging the concept of infinity, then they made that work an art form, and then a fine science unto itself. Initially called renormalization, the process began in earnest with KG Wilson: “His work in physics involved formulation of a comprehensive theory of scaling: how fundamental properties and forces of a system vary depending on the scale over which they are measured. He devised a universal divide-and-conquer strategy for calculating how phase transitions occur, by considering each scale separately and then abstracting the connection between contiguous ones, in a novel appreciation of renormalization group theory.
- Living With Infinities, Steven Weinberg: https://arxiv.org/pdf/0903.0568.pdf
The Net Advance of Physics: RENORMALIZATION
- Baez: “…assume you vaguely know what a Lagrangian for a quantum field theory looks like.” http://www.math.ucr.edu/home/baez/renormalization.html
- Feynman, QED: Strange Theory of Matter and Light: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QED:_The_Strange_Theory_of_Light_and_Matter
- A Quantum Pioneer Unlocks Matter’s Hidden Secrets by Elizabeth Gibney (Nature, Sept. 2017): “What if each quantum critical point is just the beginning of another generation? …probing the boundaries around those states could reveal more phases, and studying the boundaries of those could reveal yet more, with discoveries unfolding in a fractal manner.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_George_Lonzarich
- On the Revolutions of the Internal Spheres:A New Theory of Matter and the Transmission of Light, K. Troy.
- An infinite number of symmetry groups are possible within the first-64 notations.
- key conceptual transitions https://81018.com/beyond/ https://81018.com/overview/
- Michael Tooley (in 1997) and Peter Forrest (in 2004).
- Tooley, Michael (1997). Time, Tense, and Causation (pdf). Oxford University Press. ISBN ;9780198235798.
- Bourne, Craig (2002). “When am I?”. Australasian Journal of Philosophy. ;80 (3): 359–71. doi:10.1080/713659472. hdl:2299/8627.
- Braddon-Mitchell, David (2004). “How do we know it is now now?”. Analysis. 64 (283): 199–203. doi:10.1111/j.0003-2638.2004.00485.x.
- Forrest, Peter (2004). “The real but dead past: a reply to Braddon-Mitchell”. Analysis. 64 (284): 358–62. doi:10.1111/j.0003-2638.2004.00510.x.
- Merricks, Trenton (2006). Zimmerman, Dean, ed. Good-Bye Growing Block (pdf). Oxford Studies in Metaphysics. 2. Oxford University Press. p. 103. ISBN 9780199290598.
- External Links: https://www.iep.utm.edu/time/ (excellent references at the end) Bradley Dowden, California State University, Sacramento