###### by Bruce Camber First draft: July 24, 2017 Prior Homepage

**From the very first moment of time, 13.8± billion years ago to this present moment (today, right Now, within this very instant),** there are just 202 notations using base-2 exponentiation (also called doublings or *the power of 2*). That very first moment is defined by the Planck base units and those constants and universals that are involved within each unit’s definition. The four forces of nature — gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force, and the weak force — are also part of this definition.

Here time is derivative, it is discrete, and it is quantized. It is not infinite or absolute.

It is hypothesized that this equation from Planck Time to the Age of the Universe is the most-simple, most-inclusive mathematical continuity equation possible. Conceptually it could also include simple nested geometries that interconnect (tile and tessellate) the entire universe. This hypothesis particularly focuses on the deep infrastructure created and sustained between notations 1 and 143 as the universe becomes one second old* within Notation 143.

*Yes, those 143 notations define the first second of creation. Out of a total of 202 notations*, well over two-thirds of this chart is devoted to the first second of creation. One might conclude that there is something exquisitely important happening within these very small, seemingly instantaneous, 143 steps or doublings (groups and sets, and clusters and domains).

It will take another 17 notations before a day is defined.

**We hypothesize that these notations do not become the past**. Each notation is always present; each is doing its work in making and sustaining this universe. All of time is always taken together and there is only *the Now*:

One day: 86,400 seconds. Out of the 200+ notations, one day is between the 160th and 161st notations.

One month: An average of 2,629,746 seconds, it is within the 165th notation.

One year: An average of 31,556,952 seconds, it is between the 168th and 169th notations.

One millennium: 1000 years, an average of 31,556,952,000 seconds, is between the 178th and 179th notations.

One million years: An average of 31,556,952,000,000 seconds, is between the 188th and 189th notations.

The first billion years, an eon, is approximately 31,556,952,000,000,000 seconds; it is between the 199th and 200th notations.

13.8 billion years and counting. The universe today has defined more than 435.48 quintillion seconds of the uiniverse. That calculation looks like this: 31.5 quintillion seconds in a billion years, multiplied by 13.8 is 435.48 quintillion seconds.

**We have discussed the nature of time in an earlier posting**. Throughout the years of recorded human history, there have been innumerable postulations and many thousands of books that have focused on the nature of time.

**None of those have been contained within 202 notations**. Just a few discuss time as finite, derivative, and quantized. So, the answer to our question, “Is time infinite?” is a simple, “No, time is not infinite.” In these studies, the infinite is defined as (1) continuity which creates order, (2) symmetry which creates relations, and (3) harmony which creates dynamics. The confessional or religious language around the definition of the infinite is personal. In these studies, our goal is to move beyond personal language to the more universal language of mathematics.

Thank you.

**Endnotes**:

This enterprise is relatively new — still in its earliest stages — and needs to be explored further.

* Within this study the concepts of *past* and *future* are human conventions. Yet, because we have adopted them as commonsense, it will take *a bit of time* to transition out of this historic style and use of language. Making such transitions is never easy to do. -BEC

**Key articles currently under construction:**

• Measuring an Expanding Universe Using Planck Units

• The Thrust of the Universe: What is it?

• Visualizing the Universe

**All the articles and reflections written over the years are listed within the Index**.