“The big bang theory is wrong,” says Prof. Dr. Neil Turok…

HOMEPAGES: Assumptions | Dark | Formulas | Infinity | Map | Keys | Review | Transformation | Up

“There is a perpetual state of big bangs.”*
by Bruce E. Camber, 2017. Update: 2022 Turok reinstates the big bang.

Introduction. Neil Turok[1] was a long-standing friend of Stephen Hawking. They co-authored[2] several articles. When Turok was the head of the department of mathematical physics (1997-2006) at Cambridge (DAMTP*), Hawking was the Lucasian Professor (1979-2009). Today, Turok is one of the most credible critics of the big bang theory as constituted by Hawking-Guth. Turok believes[3] that the universe behaves as if it is always starting from scratch.[4]

Yet the big bang theory is still cited as deep truth. Yes, many scientists/scholars will cite the big bang theory until an alternative theory[5] becomes viable. Then, and only then, will these citations begin to cease. As more scholars take the old theory to task[6] — and there are many good reasons to do so — alternatives will emerge.

Our alternative began in a high school geometry class[7] and to say little more, it’s evolving.[8]

Not a bang, not a bounce, it is a quiet expansion.[9]

Our most simple assumptions and insights for an alternative theory:
• The finite-infinite relation[10] can always be understood more profoundly. If Newton was wrong and Leibniz closer to the truth, space and time are derivative, finite and quantized. Because infinity manifests itself in so many ways, it is natural to ask, “What is infinite?” We start to answer by observing pi and three facets or faces of the sphere: continuity, it creates order;.symmetry, it creates relations; and, harmony, it creates dynamics.

The key numbers, functions and geometries[11] recognized by our most-respected scholars all begin their work to define the finite-infinite relations within the very first moment that defines space, time and light.

Pi and Euler’s number[12] are the first steps within this understanding and define the very beingness of the universe. We live in an exponential universe.[13]

• Planck units give us the sense of the scale within these first steps and all subsequent steps.[14]

Doubling the Planck units over and over and over again creates a grid or a matrix[15] within which to begin to understand numbers, functions and geometries. The principles of continuity[16] and symmetry [17] become penultimate. Though space-time-light are infinitesimal and thought to be meaningless, this is the beginning of a natural inflation[18] and thrust of the universe.[19] Yes, the Big Bang Theory has problems. Both the TV show and the theory appear to be in their final season! Simplicity first![20]

* Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge. When this page was first written, Turok was the managing director of the Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Today, he occupies the Higgs Chair at the School of Physics & Astronomy, Edinburgh University.


[1] Neil Turok: Webpage: https://81018.com/turok/ Correspondence and key references
The most recent analysis: https://81018.com/old-theory/#2z

[2] Co-authored. Webpage: https://81018.com/lefschetz/#Endnotes Hawking

[3] What does Turok believe. Webpage:  https://81018.com/2016/08/02/turok/

[4] Starting from scratch. Webpage: https://81018.com/lefschetz/

[5] Alternatives. Webpage: https://81018.com/big-bang-theory/

[6] Scholars’ task. Webpage: https://81018.com/flood/

[7] Our Story. Webpage: https://81018.com/home

[8] STEM story. Webpage: https://81018.com/stem/

[9] Quiet Expansion. Webpage: https://81018.com/exponential-universe/

[10] Finite-infinite. Webpage: https://81018.com/fabric/ Fabric of the universe

[11] Keys. Webpage: https://81018.com/number/#3 numbers, functions and geometries

[12] Key numbers. Webpage: https://81018.com/langlands-frenkel/ Pi and Euler’s number

[13] Exponentiation. Webpage: https://81018.com/spacetime/ Exponential universe.

[14] Planck universe. Webpage: https://81018.com/planck_universe/#Six/

[15] The Grid or a matrix. Webpage: https://81018.com/chart/ The Chart.

[16] Continuity. Webpage: https://81018.com/introduction/

[17] Symmetry. Webpage: https://81018.com/symmetry/

[18] Natural inflation. Webpage: https://81018.com/ni/

[19] Thrust of the universe. Webpage: https://81018.com/thrust/

[20] Simplicity first. Webpage: https://81018.com/langlands-programs/

Keys: The name of this file is bbtheory.

• The last update was on October 28, 2022.
• This page was initiated on September 2, 2017.
• The URL for this file is https://81018.com/bbtheory/
• The headline for this article: “There is a perpetual state of big bangs.”
• First byline is: “The big bang theory is wrong,” says Prof. Dr. Neil Turok.
• Key Related Page: Turok on Hawking and the Big Bang