**“There is a perpetual state of big bangs.”**

**Introduction**. Neil Turok was a long-standing friend of Stephen Hawking. He has been a co-author of several articles with Hawking. When Turok was the head of the department of mathematical physics (1997-2006) at Cambridge (DAMTP*), Hawking was the Lucasian Professor (1979-2009). Today, Turok is one of the most credible critics of the big bang theory as constituted by Hawking. Turok believes that the universe behaves as if it is always starting from scratch.

**The big bang theory is still cited as deep truth**. Yes, many scientists and scholars will cite the big bang theory until an alternative theory becomes viable. Then, and only then, will these citations stop. As more and more scholars take the old theory to task — and there is good reason to do so — alternatives will emerge.

Our alternative began in a high school geometry class.

**Not a bang, not a bounce… a quiet expansion**

**Our most simple assumptions and insights for an alternative theory**:

• The finite-infinite relation can always be understood more profoundly. If Newton was wrong and Leibniz closer to the truth, space and time are derivate, finite and quantized. We ask, “Because infinity appears to exist in so many ways, what, therefore, is infinite?” We answer, “Continuity which creates order, symmetry which creates relations and harmony which creates dynamics.”

• The key numbers, functions and geometries recognized by our most-respected scholars all begin their work to define the finite-infinite relations within the very first moment that defines space, time and light.

• Pi and Euler’s number are the first steps within this understanding and define the very beingness of the universe. We live in an *exponential universe*.

• The Planck numbers are also part of these first steps and all subsequent steps. *More…*

• Doubling the Planck units over and over and over again creates a grid or a matrix within which to begin to understand numbers, functions and geometries. The principles of continuity and symmetry become penultimate. Though space-and-time-light are infinitesimal and thought to be meaningless, this is the beginning of a natural inflation and thrust of the universe.

Yes, the Big Bang Theory has problems. Both the TV show and the theory appear to be in their final season! Simplicity first!

** Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics*, University of Cambridge. Turok is now the executive director of the **Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.**