From atoms to particles to planckspheres


Compare This Classic Structure To Our Base-2 Model

Credit: April 2005, “Particle Physics: Exploring the World of the Small” page 2, by Dr. Emily L. Nurse,
of University College London, Fermilab in Chicago, and CERN Laboratories, Atlas Project, in Geneva.

Planck Units Define A Relational Structure

by Bruce Camber

The classic image above begins at 10-10 meters (our Notation 83) and goes down to 10-15 meters (our Notation 66). There are a total of 202 notations that outline our universe when we apply base-2 exponentiation to the four Planck base units. Each notation necessarily builds on the prior whereby the first moment of time is defined by the Planck base units (Notation 0) and that expansion goes right up to the current time, The Now (Notation 202).

Although the dynamics of each notation will eventually be analyzed, the specific focus of this homepage is from Notations 65 to 84. This range includes the Periodic Table of Elements (in-and-around Notations 80 to 84) and goes down in size to the Standard Model for Particle Physics (in-and-around Notation 64 to 69).

Within the following chart, the first number (the notation), is also the number of times the Planck Length and each result, has been doubled.

In 2011 each notation was defined by just the Planck Length.

84: 3.1261×10-10 meters
83: .1563 nanometers or
…….1.5630×10-10 meters
82: 7.81546348×10-11m
81: 3.90773174×10-11m
80: 1.95386587×10-11m
79: 9.76932936×10-12m
78: 4.88466468×10-12m
77: 2.44233234×10-12m
76: 1.22116×10-12m
75: 6.10583084×10-13m
74: 3.05291542×10-13m
73: 1.52645771×10-13m
72: 7.63228856×10-14m
71: 3.81614428×10-14m
70: 1.9080×10-14 meters
69: 9.54036072×10-15m
68: 4.77018036×10-15m
67: 2.38509018×10-15m
66: 1.19254509×10-15 m
To go deeper:
· Big Board-little universe
· Mathematical UniverseView
· Universe Table
Scholarship since Max Planck’s 1899 work provides insights about our base-2 chart. If all notations are forever and build on each other, each new base-2 expansion is considered a primordial emergence. Though described by big bang cosmology, this model does not start hot. Our base-2 starts very simply with just the four Planck base units.83-85

Redefine the 17 epochs of ΛCDM cosmology.  Our guess is that the first actual instance of physicality is a sphere. It all happens quickly. The first emergence up to our Notation 143 takes less than a second. Today’s first possible measurement of a unit of time is within the 84th notation. A natural inflation and thrust is driven by different doubling processes.


The 78th to 80th notations appear to be the beginning of the Periodic Table of Elements. It would be good to have a young scholar playing with all these numbers in these three columns to see if they might be reconciled with facts and figures that have already been established within our standard models.


The 75th to 77th notations appear too small for atoms but not for particles and composite particles. Though difficult to get precise measurements of a length, ratios can be explored especially by also using the mass, charge and time figures.


The 72nd to the 74th notations will require knowing about the dynamics of particles. We project that each notation may be qualified for special roles within the infamous particle zoo. This Standard Model may well hold the keys.


The 69th to 71st notations are also projected to manifest unique facets of particles. Though the length measurement, may be too small to be precise, very particular ratios could affirm these numbers with data already in use in the Standard Model of Particle Physics.


The 66th to 68th notations are highlighted because it seems to be the boundary between the small-scale universe and the human scale. Mathematically the 67th notation is the beginning of those lengths that can be measured by the instruments of CERN and other accelerators.


The 63th to 65th notations. We will be asking our young scholars to look for numbers that are related to Lie group actions, exponential maps and differentiable manifolds. Our analysis of the 64th notation would benefit from a deeper ratio analysis to see if any of these numbers emerge.


From 0 to the 1st to the 62nd notation.  

The first notation (0) is the Planck Base units. With the next three notations, spheres, often referred to as planckspheres within this website, are projected to manifest as the first definition of physicality. Big bang theories and cosmologies have been blocking our view of these spheres and their geometries. Many pages struggle with the definitions of our horizontally-scrolled chart.

To get a sense of the very early universe, we stopped and thought about Notation 31. With a mass of 46.79 kilograms (about 103 pounds), there are already 1.237 octillion or 1.23794×1027 scaling vertices. That could support quite a structure! However, the density is so tight —  all within 3.470762×10-26 meters —  we had to begin our study of the densities of neutron stars to learn that it wasn’t impossible. Such densities exist today.

The first real comparison with big bang numbers doesn’t begin until the 35th to the 40th notations where it is hypothesized that all but the temperature figures for the electroweak epoch are superconducting cold. Within the quark epoch, our notations 41 to 104, the temperatures are projected to range from a low of 4.84×10-17 Kelvin at notation 41 to 4.47×102 K at Notation 104. 

Of course, there are expert-scholars who focus just on the electroweak epoch. We have not even identified them yet. We have such a long way to go!

Very early, possibly somewhere between Notations 4 and 10, string theory emerges.
We hypothesize that the mathematics of  E8 and the Sophus Lie group 19 will have become well established by the 63rd notation. If so and we begin to see those numbers from within the 202 notations from our chart (just above), this simple work will become a paradigmatic challenge. Our understanding of space-time, light, mass, charge and infinity will all begin to be increasingly refined. Yes, it will require some imagination, openness and work. Young scholars may well chart a path from the simple sphere to a simple Lie group in ways Langlands programs and string theory appreciate and then we will be well on our way to having gained access to various working theories of everything.  More…

STEM: In 2011, we found our ordering system to be an excellent STEM tool.

All our questions were simple then.


Challenge us. Coach us. We need all the help we can get.

History of this page:
• Privately posted on April 22, 2019 @ 11:46 AM
• Publicly posted on April 22, 2019 @ 18:01 PM
• Most-active editing, April 22, 2019 and April 24, 2019