As the James Webb Space Telescope challenges big bang cosmology…

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CENTER FOR PERFECTION STUDIES: CONTINUITY•SYMMETRY•HARMONY  Oct.5-6,2022
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Go from an infinitesimal sphere to a galaxy
by Bruce E. Camber This is a working first draft.
First Read: Plow thru it; ignore all the links.

Abstract. Our evolving theory posits a most-simple start of our Universe by applying base-2 notation (multiplying by 2) to the Planck-or-Stoney base units.[*] The entire universe is mapped within 202 notations that logically and mathematically encapsulate everything, everywhere for all time.[†] Further, pi (π) integrates these base units so an infinitesimal sphere is defined. All natural units, that sphere is projected to be the first moment of time.[a] Assuming one sphere per unit of time and length, anywhere from 539-to-4605 tredecillion infinitesimal spheres per second manifest.[b] Those infinitesimal spheres, an obvious candidate for dark matter-and-energy, have been filling our universe from the beginning. It creates a grid.[c] A radically different scenario (to big bang cosmology), this grid outlines systems for our universe. We began in 2011 in a New Orleans high school geometry class.[d] Initially considered to be a most comprehensive STEM tool, it was idiosyncratic because it didn’t start with the big bang.[e] Ours is a quiet expansion. All notations are always active. Initially we started with the simple tetrahedron and octahedron until a scholar convinced us the sphere was more fundamental.[f] We then learned about the history and deep dynamics of close-cubic packing of equal spheres (ccp) and its generation of tetrahedral-octahedral structures.[g] It is smooth; there are no-gaps at the start of this model of the universe. There is a perfection of the three faces of the sphere, continuity-symmetry-harmony. [h]

Background: Since the 1980s the big bang theory (BBT) has been the default theory within cosmology; and whether we know it or not, it profoundly impacts us all. There’s a generation of scholars who have known nothing else. So, this effort to lift up a different theory is admittedly ambitious. We do it not to be different or competitive, but because we think our theory answers more questions while being more inclusive, more comprehensive, more kind, more liberating, more integrative, and a bit less judgemental. Also, we are not alone. There are others; highly-respected scholars have said, “The BBT is wrong.” [1]

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Our plan of action for our base-2 model is to study big bang problems and scientific paradoxes to see if our quiet expansion might address them. Big bang advocates like Sean Carroll are so sure of its veracity, he has made statements like, “…it is true that there is no point doubting the Big Bang model.” But then, he goes on to confess, “The first minute is a little bit up for grabs.”[2]

The first minute is everything. In our model even the first second and zeptosecond are everything!

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The model. There are a total of 202 base-2 notations that go from the first moment of time until today. It is 100% simple mathematics. The first second (between Notations 143-and-144) involves over two-thirds of all notations. Carroll’s first minute is between Notations 148-and-149. The first year, a light year, is between Notations 168-and-169. Each notation confirms the mathematics of the speed of light; the Planck Length (or multiple of it) is the distance light travels in Planck Time (or the corresponding multiple of it).

This model readily encapsulates the BBT.[3] It works with all other theories. Simple math is simple math. Yet, the path of scientific discovery and for the absorption of new data is wavering. On our path we’ve found cover-ups,[4] extralogic,[5] and a bit of arrogance.[6]

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Hotspot. Results from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) are pouring in. While most astrophysicists are looking for some way to participate, we’re looking for new challenges to big bang cosmology as we’ve understood it. These old galaxy records are telling us something new: GN-z11 galaxy, discovered in 2015, held the record for seven years by going back to within 400 million years “after the big bang.” That would be 13.4 billion years ago. GLASS-z13, a galaxy found in July 2022, went back to 352.3 million years after the start. That would be 13.4577 billion years ago. A bit later in July 2022 the CEERS-93316 galaxy was observed and it goes back to 235.8 million years after the start. That would be about 13.556 billion years ago.

Astrophysicist Dr. Rebecca Bowler (Manchester), reporting through the Cosmic Dawn Center of the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen and of the National Space Institute at the Technical University of Denmark, comments, “Already we’ve found more galaxies in the very early Universe than computer simulations predicted, so there is clearly a lot of open questions about how and when the first stars and galaxies formed.”

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Retrieved September 24, 2022: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CEERS-93316#Discovery
CEERS-93316 ARXIV: https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.12356 https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2201.1057. arXiv:2201.10576v2
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Yes, there are a lot of open questions and our model opens many more, primary among them is the nature of time.

The JWST is breaking records. Hopefully it’ll continue for many years to come.[7] More to come

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The logic of it all. The 202-notations build on each other. No notation is ever complete. The universe evolves together. What is happening to time? Every notation is sharing it equally. Within the first minutes, everything is okay. But in Notation-169, there is a year’s distance from Notation-1. If Notation-1 is still active and participating in making Notation-169, they share the same time and same moment. The same is true with Notation-179 at 1000 years, 189 (1,000,000 years), 199 (1,000,000,000 years). All notations are involved with the unfolding of Notation-202. Space-time becomes a very different concept. These two no longer separate us. They are dynamically involved with everything all of the time.[8]

That is even a lot for me to process.

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Counting galaxies is not as straightforward as we think. In November 2016 NASA, ESA, and the RSA announced a tenfold increase in our galaxy count to over two trillion galaxies in today’s universe. Although some astrophysicists continue to use the old estimate of 100-to-200 billion galaxies, Dr. Chris Conselice bumped that number up to two trillion based on Hubble data.[9] And now, we know with the JWST, those numbers are increasing. The JWST is exuding new questions. Along with many old questions, the big bang theory will be hard pressed to answer them.

Perhaps a little exercise will help. 13.82 billion years may seem like a long time. But, if we convert it to seconds, the results is 436,117,076,600,000,000 or 436 quadrillion seconds.[10] In that time, does the big bang theory account for all the stars and planets and its smoothness? Some scholars are already saying, “No,” especially as the JWST seems to be reaching further and further back in time.

Perfectly smooth. In our simple model, from Notation-1 to about Notation-64, the universe is perfectly smooth for a reason. The geometries are perfectly filling.[11] There is no “lumpiness.” There are no quantum fluctuations. The essence of homogeneity and isotropy are instantiated here. From Notation-64 to Notation-134, the essentials of our physical world manifest. From Notation-134 to Notations 194, the foundations for our Solar System and Milky Way emerge. From Notation-194 to Notation-202 large scale structure formation evolves. It is all happening in this moment of time within Notation-202. sustained and dynamically related to every other notation. We cannot add the observed galaxies together as we go back in time. We would be looking at the same galaxies as each is being shaped within that given point in time.

That statement can be tested and this theory, a quiet expansion, can be either thrown out or further studied.

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Notations. To date, the Hubble and the JWST only analyze data from the last seven notations:
1. Notation-202 starts at 10.9816+ billion years. There’s only been about 2.8394 billion years of churn.
2. Notation-201 starts at 5.4908+ billion years and goes 5.4908 billion years adding unique substance and structure to the universe, and continues today within Notation 202 and with all shorter notations.
3. Notation-200 starts at 2.744+ billion years and uniquely goes 2.744 billion years adding its unique substance and structures but today functions with and within all other notations.
4. Notation-199 starts at 1.3727+ billion years. It first builds on Notations 1-198 and then extends and builds Notation 200, then 201, and now 202 for about another 11 billion years.
5. Notation-198 at 686.806+ million years, is an extension of Notations 1-197, then becomes symmetrical with all those notations, and that symmetry now extends into Notation-202.
6. Notation-197 at 343.15+ million years is where GN-z11, GLASS-z13 and the CEERS-93316 galaxies were discovered. Interpreting that data correctly will be a challenge.
7. Notation-196 at 171.5+ million years and it today, right now, functions within all other notations.[12]

A Prediction. Among all the pressure points on the big bang theory, I predict the pressure from the James Webb Space Telescope will become so pervasive, alternatives will be demanded. Smoothness at the start is in our favor; at some point in time, among all the alternatives, our model and theory will be critically reviewed and some of several possible alternatives will begin to grow in stature. And, as one of them does, using words like “after the Big Bang” will slowly wane, then stop being used. Living documents will be updated, and then the term will disappear except for within our historical documents.[13]

We’ve contrasted our model with the big bang by calling it a “Quiet Expansion.” Because its simplicity allows for diversity and complexity, I am hopeful that the work within this website will stimulate some discussion that helps the process along to grasp how it is that we go from an infinitesimal sphere to a galaxy to our universe.

Thank you. -BEC

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Endnotes & Footnotes
There may not be many because all these points already have pages within this website.

[*] Base Units. We start with two “natural-units gurus,George Johnstone Stoney with his base units and Max Planck with his. The ISO and NIST may eventually come up with even better numbers. When base-2 notation is applied, these numbers are a parallel construct and by Notation-202 end up in essentially in the same moment.

[†] Another Map of the Universe. “The most detailed map ever created of the cosmic microwave background…” of the universe was done in 2009 when the Planck satellite measured the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background radiation or CMBR). Scholars like George Efstathiou, director of the Kavli Institute for Cosmology at the University of Cambridge, believe it is “380,000 years after the big bang.” For us, time and temperature are works-in-progress; there are so many open questions. Our little map of 202 notations “mathematically encapsulates everything, everywhere for all time” so we are working to grasp the fullness of the Efstathiou 380,000 years, and his time-stamp, “after the big bang.”

In our model, all notations are always active and time is fundamentally redefined; the universe is foundationally exponential.

[a] Infinitesimal Spheres. So once there is a mathematical map of the universe, the question is raised, “What does that first moment look like?” The focus returns to the derivation of the natural units by G.S. Stoney and Max Planck. The most consistent and fundamental part of those equations is pi. So, we assume pi with its special numbers that are endless, totally-changing, and always the same. One enigmatic statement follows others. There are the perfections of sphere; its internal and external symmetries are bewildering. There are the harmonic functions of spheres. There is a deep and inherent energy of spheres. There are electromagnetic and gravitational factors. And, the list goes on. Spheres are magical. The centerpoints come alive. So, an infinitesimal sphere is projected to create the first moment of time.

[b] Tredecillion. If we assume there is one infinitesimal sphere per unit of Planck or Stoney length and Planck or Stoney Time, very large numbers result.

We’ve had to get comfortable with largest numbers and smallest numbers. Students should begin seeing such numbers in the fourth grade. There would be 539 tredecillion spheres per second using Planck Time, and 4605 tredecillion infinitesimal spheres per second using Stoney Time. Each number would be followed by 42 zeroes!

[c] Grid. At one time this grid was called the aether. We adopted a label Frank Wilczek gave it. Does it logically start with the smallest units of length and time? Does it define dark matter-and-energy? We believe this grid of infinitesimal spheres below Notation-64 is an excellent candidate. It has already been well-defined by at least nine disciplinesLanglands programsstring theorysupersymmetryloop quantum gravitycausal dynamical triangulationcausal set theoryfield theoriesspectral standard model, and hypothetical particles. These first 64 notations are where these nine studies get tied to the grid.

Within Notations 0-and-1 we see the Janus-face of the finite-infinite relation defined by pi’s continuity-symmetry-harmony . A tempestuous concept laced with troubles, it actually gives this model stability.

[d] High School. We all want our children to succeed. We all know education is a vital part of it and science-math education is a key. Yet, the big bang theory obfuscates and confuses, and the scholarship around it just doesn’t empower. We must all be grateful for all efforts by scholars to educate the public. But most important is educating the children. Since 2011 we have been pleading with scholars around the world to tell us what is wrong with our model. None have. After hundreds of emails and ten years, I have concluded there is nothing “wrong” with our model; it is just wildly idiosyncratic but we believe it is on the right path.7 That it came out of a high school also suggests that all educators on all levels need to be brought into the mainstream of research. There can be no elitism within scholarship. There is a place for simple observations like ours.

[e] STEM. It is a problem that this first article about it all has been rejected by over a dozen publications without comment. Initially I thought the errors were so egregious it just wasn’t worth their time. Yet, out of hundreds of scholars who have been asked to comment, a few would have pointed out something if they could, so we continue to follow and build upon the geometries, the numbers, and the logic.

[f] Geometry. This project started as a study of the most simple tetrahedron and octahedron. Together they fill space perfectly. Separately, they are the first step within the domain of quantum fluctuations. Our students and faculty need to know these simple geometries, how they work together and what they are capable of doing alone.

Prof. Dr. Philip Davis of Brown University finally convinced us that the sphere was more simple and fundamental. That opened a much deeper analysis of circles, spheres, and pi (π).

[g] CCP. We need a section in our geometry book: Close-cubic packing of equal spheres (ccp). Here begins the generation of tetrahedral-octahedral structures. Here geometry takes its place as a key function of our universe. It is relevant and a key critical part of who we are.

That the Chinese Communist Party shares those initials is fortuitous. There are several Chinese scholars who follow our work yet politics taints scholarship. We become overly sensitive to power struggles (politics) when the most important thing is the veracity of a concept and how it coheres with others. This work is important because it crosses political lines and looks for common ground and we find it within the sphere and pi as the hyphen between the finite-infinite and quantitative-qualitative. We know that hyphen is continuity-symmetry-harmony which is an expression of the first dynamic – the manifestation of an infinitesimal sphere, the second dynamic – sphere stacking, and the third dynamic – cubic-close packing of equal spheres.

[h] Perfections. This exploration began by going inside the tetrahedron and octahedron down to the Planck base units. We learn about geometry, mathematics (base-2), and about natural units and their formulae. We ostensibly learn a little about a continuity-symmetry-harmony that is shared by everything, everywhere throughout all time. We learn about smoothness, no gaps, and perfection and that becomes the centerpiece of this model and theory.

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[1] Big Bang Theory is wrong. There are real experts who believe the big bang theory, as constituted by HawkingGuth and others, is wrong. Their colleague, Neil Turok, says it as if the universe is actually in a perpetual state of big bangs. Turok’s co-author, Job Feldbrugge says, “Our research implies that we either should look for another picture to understand the very early universe, or that we have to rethink the most elementary models of quantum gravity.” Notation-0 within our model is the start, and it is perpetually starting.

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Job Feldbrugge et al. Lorentzian quantum cosmology, Physical Review D (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.103508 Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-06-universe-big.html#jCp

J. Feldbrugge (Perimeter Institute), J.L. Lehners (Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics and Albert Einstein Institute), and N. Turok (Perimeter Institute), “Inconsistencies of the New No-Boundary Proposal,arXiv:1805.01609 (PDF), Universe 4 (2018) no.10, 100.
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Our theory is more liberating because it starts with things that we know, simple geometries and simple math, then goes out and includes everything for all time. Thus, it’s also more integrative and inclusive. And, it is a bit less judgemental because it includes the qualitative. It is a theory with heart and feelings that doesn’t promote nihilism.

[2] Video: R. Penrose, S. Carroll, L. Mersini-Hougton, Big Bang Creation Myths, AIA, (1:58/38:11), 2018

Sean Carroll, a distinguished professor at Caltech, occupies Richard Feynman’s office and uses his desk! He has a natural impatience, yet he seems to be earnestly seeking the truth so I try to understand his logic. His big bang theory is not quite the Hawking-Guth model, yet it’s not yet clear to me how he would differentiate. We know quite assuredly he would not start with the Planck base units, or use base-2 notation, infinitesimal spheres, and 202-notations; and, he would not affirm a no-gap perfection of substance-and-structure within the first 64-notations given through geometries of sphere-stacking. The first minute is between Notations 148-and-149. The first second is between Notation-143 and Notation-144. The zeptosecond (1×10-21) is between Notations 65-to-67, the range of first measuring quantum fluctuations. There’s a lot of work to do to interpret those notations properly.

[3] Calculations. The horizontally-scrolled chart was developed in 2016 and 2017. We did a sampling of six notations — 3167101137167 & 199 — just to examine the logic of the numbers. We could see how it encapsulates the BBT. In that process it became apparent that most of the epochs of the big bang theory could readily be observed as a process within these notations. Turok and his team were right. The universe is perpetually starting. All the notations were always active, building on each other.

That was a huge statement for us; it challenged us to redefine time. Hardly trivial, it’s been challenging. We started to realize that most of the dynamics of the big bang theory could readily be encapsulated within our quiet expansion. The first three epochs of the big bang theory, barely a microsecond, were redefined.

If each notation is always active, these observations aren’t past, but are the activity within the current day within a specific notation. As commented within earlier homepages, a re-interpretation of the redshift is also in order. We have a lot to learn.

[4] Cover-Ups We have found unwitting cover-ups. First, the big bang theory unwittingly covers up the pathway to a quiet expansion. It took the naïveté of high school people to follow basic geometries down into the Planck scale, apply base-2, map the universe, and then rather innocently ask, “What do we do with this?”

Second, in much the same way, quantum physics emerged and slowly affirmed the primacy of its fluctuations and indeterminacy without ever being able to explain those roots or origins. It got established as rigorous theory with a huge unknown for its start. It, too, became an unwitting cover up.

While learning about spheres, we were introduced to a tetrahedral gap and learned about a third cover-up initiated by Aristotle. He made a mistake and scholars didn’t catch it for 1800+ years. Even today, scholars do not know what to do with the geometric gap that Aristotle missed. That gap breaks the perfect filling of space. In the process of that study, we also uncovered a heretofore unrecognized octahedral gap. We work with perfect tetrahedrons and octahedrons, so once the question was asked about five octahedrons sharing a common centerpoint, it took minutes to see the exact same gap as with five tetrahedrons.

We then found more subtle coverups. Our most popular interactive geometry software (IGS) and their dynamic geometry environments (DGEs) easily accommodate these gaps. Never programmed for these gaps, it’s a little like Aristotle’s failure. We also discovered that the geometric construction kits like the Zometool also would not display these gaps. Further analysis of both software systems and construction kits is underway.

[5] Extralogic. Within the circles of people who study logic, there are rules and conventions. There is also extralogic that can be a little like religion and look like Guth’s inflation. MUCH MORE TO COME… See Ed Zalta.

[6] Arrogance. I enjoy Einstein’s quote. It’s true, but arrogance is endemic to the many insecurities of the human family and scholars are not exempt from them.

[7] Hotspot: James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). If we do not have a construct for the first second, there is no way that we will have the first year or the first million years (Notation 189) correct. Observational technology reaches back in between Notation 196-to-197; that 13.556 billion years is 235.8 million years “after the big bang.” The big bang theory misses all the most formative processes of the universe. The JWST started capturing data in July 2022. It sits within a dynamic tension out on the L2 (Lagrange Point 2) about 1.2 km from earth. The Planck satellite mission, also within L2, has been working since 2009. In all probability, the JWST will do equally well, if not better. We have many years to be capturing data to help us determine the real realities of this universe. We look forward to more of the work of Rebecca Bowler and the Cosmic Dawn Center. They are building on a long history about which we are now learning: List of the most distant astronomical objects.

[8] Time. In our model of the universe all notations are always active. Each builds off of the other. There is a dynamic reach from the first notation to the 202nd. It is fully symmetric from Notation-1 to Notation-201 and to just a small sliver of 202. Time is always right Now. In that light, the galaxy counters may well want to re-think their galaxy count. The looking back may be notational. We may be witnessing activity within a notation today. That is a very difficult concept to wrap one’s mind around.

So, if the electroweak processes are based on the Fermi scale whereby one fermi equals 1×10-13 cm or about .00000000000010 centimeters, if it were observable, we’d be looking at today’s activity within Notation-73.

We’ll continue struggling with the logic of it all.

[9] Galaxy Counting. Some astrophysicists like Mario Livio continue to use the old estimate of 100-to-200 billion galaxies even though in 2016 Dr. Chris Conselice bumped that number up to two trillion based on Hubble data. Today some speculative folks are saying that the number is yet much higher.

If all time is now, and there is only a infinitesimal sliver of time that is directional, all these estimates need to be revisited.

[10] 436 quadrillion seconds or a little more closely, 436,117,076,600,000,000, introduces a new reality that it all has to happen within 436 quadrillion seconds. It is the next group of numbers after a trillion. When looked at in this way, 13.82 billion years doesn’t seem much time at all.

[11] Perfections. Quantum theory became the de facto background of our universe through the 1920s and ’30s. In our model, the universe starts out perfectly smooth with no gaps. Quantum physics has little possibility of breaking into the model until quantum geometries become systemic. We suspect in the first pass through the first second within Notation-143, there is too much thrust and density for any of the quantum geometries to manifest. Did it take a year, 1000 years, or a million-or-a-billion years? I wouldn’t hazard a guess. Yet, once there is a system whereby quantum fluctuations begin, I suspect it then works its way back to Notation-67 where it first becomes measurable. This domain will become an entirely new area of mathematics and physics. I call it hypostatic.

[12] Notations. GN-z11 galaxy, discovered in 2015 in the Ursa Major constellation, held the record for seven years by going back to within 400 million years of the start. That would be 13.4 billion years ago. GLASS-z13, a galaxy found in July 2022, went back to 352.3 million years after the start. That would be 13.4577 billion years ago. A bit later in July 2022 the CEERS-93316 galaxy (ArXiv) was observed and it goes back to 235.8 million years after the start. That would be about 13.556 billion years ago.

This model easily accommodates them all.

[13] From Laurence Tognetti’s Universe Today August 2, 2022,  “The record for the farthest galaxy was just broken again, now just 250 million years after the Big Bang”.

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References & Resources
As these references are studied, key references and resources will be added.within this website.

CMBR, Dark Matter-Dark Energy: We’ll be looking into the 1960’s data of Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson from the Holmdel Horn AntennaCMB. We’ll even be going back to the 1933 computations of Fritz Zwicky of Caltech. He had a way of calling people he didn’t like spherical bastards. Given our idiosyncratic approach, I suspect we’d get lumped with them! There’ll be much more to come.

“…space-time itself does expand faster than the speed of light” and “…how it is possible that there may be galaxies that are almost 100 billion light years apart.” – Gerardus ‘t Hooft (Nobel, 2019)

We are opening a path of discovery to find source materials about the Theory of Relativity that could give us insights into those two quotes above by Utrecht professor, Gerardus ‘t Hooft. They come from his book, Time in Powers of Ten, the Forward (page xiv). First we consider a work by deSitter, Einstein’s theory of gravitation and its astronomical consequences (1917). There is this more recent comment by Devin Powell regarding GPS systems: “Relativity describes why a clock on a satellite ticks a few dozen microseconds faster than a clock on Earth; without accounting for that discrepancy, GPS technologies wouldn’t work” (eighth paragraph). It will be important to determine if that could account for the apparent “apartness” between galaxies.

Extralogical:  “…the bulk of extant mathematics is believed to be derivable logically from a small number of extralogical axioms, such as the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (or its extension ZFC), from which no inconsistencies have as yet been derived. Thus, elements of the logicist programmes have proved viable, but in the process theories of classes, sets and mappings, and higher-order logics other than with Henkin semantics, have come to be regarded as extralogical in nature, in part under the influence of Quine‘s later thought.”

Retrieved from Logicism, Wikipedia, September 25, 2022

GN-z11: After seven years, attention is shifting to CEER-93316 and the JWST. However, in 2016 it was Pascal Oesch (Yale, Geneva) and Gabriel Brammer (Niels Bohr Institute) who reported their 2015 findings and have been the voices of GN-z11. If our model has any viability, these two would be excellent minds to reconsider what the redshift is tell using if all time is now. We’ll keep you posted. There’ll be much more to come!

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Emails
There will be emails to many of our scholars about these twelve points.

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IM
There will also be many instant messages to thought leaders about these twelve points.

5:22 PM · Oct 2, 2022 @hankgreen You are amazing. How about taking a look at a more simple approach to cosmic inflation. Start with the Planck base units, assume an infinitesimal sphere manifests. Not unlike Lemaitre’s 1928 earliest theory, this is a disrupter: http://81018.com Hope you enjoy!

@APSphysics and@PhysRevE Remarkable story of the expansion of articles. Too few questions of the basics… time, space, light, Planck or Stoney-base units, the gap to CERN-scale. Apply base-2 to the Planck scale, 202 notations encapsulate all time, all space. Let’s question the first 64 notations.

8:45 AM · Sep 29, 2022 @UoNHumanities (University of Nottingham), @UonHistory and 8 others: The question is really, “What is value?” And the answer opens the universe: https://81018.com/values/ And that opens QUESTIONS about the universe: https://81018.com and that opens all the displinces, the many faces of life we need to celebrate/grasp: https://81018.com/STEM/

2:54 PM · Sep 26, 2022 @NautilusMag Our early universe is just too smooth for the big bang. Could our little thought experiment, base-2 notation applied to the Planck base units account for expansion, CMB, and other key issues? It might: https://81018.com/communicate/ https://81018.com/chart/

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Participate. You are always invited. Let’s have some fun. Poke holes, and make up new lyrics!

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Keys to this page, communicate

• This page became the homepage on September 26. It is still “under construction” even today.
• The last update was on October 2, 2022.
• This page was initiated on September 10, 2022.
• The URL for this file is https://81018.com/communicate/
• The headline for this article: About how an infinitesimal sphere becomes a galaxy.
• First byline is: Results from the JWST will put pressure on Big Bang Cosmology.

25 at 4:54 PM

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