On the Nature of Planck’s base units, particularly Planck Time


Simple Math & Logic At Work In New Ways

by Bruce Camber  Related: Base-2 Model, Integrated Structure, Lemaître-to-today, Subjects-Objects, Framework, View

Our Lab: 202 Notations That Mathematically Outline our Universe (opens new page)

All clocks are local.

To the best of our knowledge, December 19, 2011 was the first time the entire universe was parsed-and-observed as 202 highly-integrated (base-2) notations from a presumed start of the universe at the Planck base units 1 (Time, Length, Mass, and Charge) out to the current age-and-size of the universe today. It follows that the key formative notations, 1-to-64, had never been scrutinized. This article is to encourage people, especially logicians, mathematicians and physicists, to look at the numbers. We believe we have uncovered several possible forms and functions within this construction that might influence our understanding of the nature of emergence and inflation as well as the very nature of time. Here, too, may be the continuity and symmetry equations required for homogeneity and isotropy. Of course, there is much more; however, we know how limited we are, so we also expect that scholars will discover many other key functions, first within those first 64 doublings and then within the 138 that follow.

From our simple work to date, we are hesitant, but hypothesize the following:

  • Dark energy-dark matter.2 An intriguing story is told within the simple mathematics of each doubling of mass and charge from those four Planck base units. Although within the first 64 steps, the Planck Time and Planck Length progressions are operating within periods and sizes much too small for our measuring devices, mass-and-charge can be measured. Those first infinitesimal structures — and we project all spheres — are defined by continuities and symmetries. It appears to us that those doublings of Planck Mass and Planck Charge are the most logical possibility to account for dark matter and dark energy. That’s not trivial; if such logic is substantiated here, the entire model has been worth our time and the time to create these pages.
  • The Deeper Bonding.3 By applying the Fourier transform, each notation has bonding-and-binding functions just like the earliest forms of calcium binding within proteins. That old expression, as above, so below, appears to describe a deeper reality.
  • Homogeneous and isotropic.4 In this model there are no less than 64 layers of tilings and tessellations that readily give rise to our homogeneous-isotropic universe. The domains that give rise to quantum physics are not fundamentally defined by quantum fluctuations, but by dimensionless constants, continuities and symmetries as well as very basic geometries give rise to quantum fluctuations.
  • Leibniz wins and Newton loses.5 The universe is inherently and fundamentally relational.
  • Fundamental Definitions.6 Space and time are derivative, discrete, finite, and emergent. Mass and charge, and light and infinity, all need a more complete definition. That a simple, variable speed of light is easily calculated for each notation builds our case for more substantive definitions. Also, that this speed of light is within .1% of those measurements made at one second in a laboratory’s vacuum seems to tie it all together with a bow.

So, yes, here is a very different sense of time emerging from our studies of the 202.345+ notations from the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe right now.

In some ways it seems a bit obvious, but the ramifications are not.

Numbers are Numbers. Logic is logic.

Bottom line, there is no past. It is all happening, and only happening, Right Now. There is no other time but the present. Others like Carlo Rovelli and Robert Muller have reached the same conclusion from a very different perspective, so at least this point of view is not unprecedented!

Think about it. We all might readily concur that the entire universe shares the same time and all that time is now. Right Now. And, we all might agree that all time is still active, evolving, and changing. We have extensive libraries and records of particular moments in time — natural disasters, wars, births, deaths, coronations, elections, inaugurations, celebrations… inventions and creative breakthroughs and undertakings of one kind or another. It is all recorded.

Sphere to tetrahedron-octahedron couplet

And, we say, “The past is past.” But I rebut, “Not quite.”

The Arrow of Time and The 202nd Notation. The only sense of past and future is within this current notation simply because it is still open. It is still being defined by planckspheres!

Here is the edge of the expansion, the very heart of inflation.

Pages within this website using this image:
[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], and [12]. The most recent.

Current estimates of the age of the universe. The generally accepted figure is 13.799±0.021 billion years (the λ-CDM concordance model with uncertainty down to 21 million years) and goes as high as 13.82 billion years. Notwithstanding, it follows that the 202nd notation, which has a duration of 10.981+ billion years, has only begun to unfold. The prior notation, 201, is about 5.4908+ billion years. The 200th is, of course, 2.7454+ billion years and the aggregation of all prior notations is 10.98+ billion years. If we use the 13.799+ figure, simple math tells us that only about 2.818 billion years of the 202nd notation has manifest. However, every second of the 201st notation has unfolded within its particular space and shape dynamics. The 201st has come to a certain sense of fullness; all prior doublings to the 202nd notation do not need any more Planckspheres “to fill it out.” Each is complete and it is in full, active symmetry with all prior notations. Within all those relations, including the seemingly directional unfolding of notation 202, our little universe is absorbing and changing and happening.

Notations 1-to-201 have each filled out that doubling, but each is not “finished.” The dynamics of each do not end. A necessary part of the whole, each notation continues to evolve and change. Every action, every thought-word-and-deed, becomes part of the fabric of the whole.7  Yes, that is the whole universe.

Just 202 notations. One may well ask, “From where does that first notation come?” and the answer brings back into play the concept of infinity, but here the infinite is defined as continuity, symmetry, and harmony. All are abstractions, but all describe very particular forms and functions. This hypothesis is so important for this model of the universe, it is on the top of each homepage:

Continuity gives us order, numbers, and the foundations of mathematics. Symmetry gives us relations, space, and the foundations of geometry. Harmony gives us dynamics, space-time, and the foundations of a  perfected state (or moment) and a range of imperfect moments (fluctuations) throughout most of the notations. To go further than this introductory description, at this place in our explorations, would be more of a personal expression of how the three work together to give us textures, qualities, and entitive beingness. More on that later.

What’s wrong with this picture?

There are many problems with this picture in light of currently held common beliefs of who we are and why:

  1. Our commonsense view of time. Sir Isaac Newton gave us our sense of absolute space and time within his 1687 publication of his Principia. He believes his absolutes are the very parameters that define our universe. I don’t think so. In the 202.34567+ model, space and time are derivative and totally relational. Each does not have an entitive beingness independent of the current expressions of the other Planck base units, dimensionless constants, and the most complete spectrum of light or the electromagnetic spectrum.8
  2. Infinity? Is it necessary? Yes, it is necessary simply because of pi (π) with its never ending, never-repeating numbers. It is a relation that does not exist within space and time but creates space and time along with mass and charge. If infinity is understood to be continuity, symmetry and harmony, light and other dimensionless constants appear to be the bridge between the finite and infinite. Now, there is such richness within the definitions of the sphere, until we all have a deep-seated intuition for the Fourier transform and cubic close packing of equal spheres, we will continue to be challenged. The hypothesis is when we have such an intuition, we will begin to understand gravity in new ways. Perhaps until that point, we will continue to sag and eventually die.
  3. You are derivative of the totality of your relations. Be careful with whom you associate. Negative skews negative. Positive skews positive. The challenge of life is to skew on the positive side. Continuity, symmetry and harmony open the bridge between quantitative and qualitative analysis9 and our understanding of values and value.
  4. Behavior matters. Every thought, word and deed imprints on the universe and effects its very beingness. Bottom line of this model: “Stop being negative, disruptive, and angry. You are creating “mini dystopias” and one of your little flitty fits just might get out of control!”
  5. Be creative. In just 202 steps you are back to the core of this universe. Not far, especially if space-time are derivative! Creating harmony appears to be the highest order of the universe, so I say, it is long time we all learn how to sing.  “In perfect harmony” will eventually come!

The Next Chapter


Sequential time. There is no question that a day, month and year can be measured with great precision and that our best clocks and watches document that time impeccably well.

So, given our understanding of time (finite, discrete, derivative), we could readily conclude that there is an actual age of the universe that could be measured in seconds. To that end, we have offered a primitive estimate that we call The Universe Clock. It was conceptually developed and discussed at the April 2017 NASA Space App Challenge.


Recognize, however, that these are all measurements going forward. It is the precision of the unfolding universe. We measure it, but we cannot see that “future” nor can we actually turn around and go backwards into the “past.” Within this current notation, the 202nd, there is a direction; and, it is called the arrow of time. It is an asymmetrical, one-way, data stream. So, within this model, in the 202nd notation, the expansion of the universe continues just like it once did in notations 1-201, filling the universe at an unimaginably high speed with planckspheres. And, with every moment, new dynamics become possible.

Could we go positive or will we go negative?


Endnotes, footnotes, references and resources

[*] [1] The 202 notations. First, there are all the numbers. Easily track the doublings of  Planck’s four basic units to this day. By definition, this horizontally-scrolled chart has to be the most simple-but-comprehensive map of the universe. There are many analyses of these numbers from several different periods. Most of it is just repetitious. “We’ve got to go over this one more time. We’re missing something.” However tedious, that has been the clarion call over these years. Until someone tells us otherwise, we’ll continue going over it one more time! Eventually each notation will analyzed. We are slowly finding scholars who are experts within each notation. Obviously the first 64+ notations will require logicians, mathematicians and string theorists!

The Planck base units are four of the most basic numbers there can be. The form of those base units, manifesting as a sphere, is also the most simple form there could be. How natural to have a form, a function, and actual numbers. The horizontally-scrolled chart took shape in April 2016 and it has been corrected several times over the years. It is anticipated it will be continually updated throughout our lifetime!

2 Dark energy-dark matter. Such a simple, but pivotal explanation, an analysis from October 2019 is here.  The initial analysis on this site was written up in October 2018. Another analysis was part of reflections on the Weinberg book, The First Three Minutes. It was then that the first 64 notations of the 202 began to make sense. Though below the horizons for standard length and time measuring tools, scientists had been observing and measuring that mass or energy since the days of Lord Kelvin (1884).

3 The Deeper Bonding and Binding (string theory and unified theories within mathematics).  When things are so small that their entitive beingness can no longer be detected by devices of any kind, there are mathematical relations that continue to prevail the effects of which create actual behaviors of things at the particle scale. Parity is such a relation. It is an alignment.

4 Homogeneous and isotropic. The hypothesized 64 layers of tilings and tessellations would not stop. Though unseen and beyond direct measurements, the effects of this matrix that envelopes the universe is homogeneity-isotropy. More to come…

5 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Isaac Newton’s three-volume work generally known simply as the Principia set down his laws of motion and universal gravitation on such a substantial foundation, he intimidated everyone in his time and continues to do so today. Because we come out of a more Leibnizian (relational) orientation and it is such an unsettled discussion within science and philosophy, we unwittingly and naively took on one of the biggest questions facing scholarship even today! Another analysis

6 Fundamental Definitions. The words — derivative, discrete, finite, and emergent — beg the question, “How so?” One of the world’s most-readily recognized equations tell us part of the story. What is e=mc2 telling us? What role does the speed of light play in the actual definitions? What is light? What is mass? What is charge? What is infinity? Let’s really play with some new ideas. If two of the three faces that give us the deepest nature of the universe are continuity and symmetry, what do we learn? I say that we begin to learn the meaning of derivative, discrete, finite, and emergent. We should be highly-motivated to imbibe the essence of the 26 dimensionless constants that are inherently part of the Standard Model. We need to stop looking for particles and start looking for mathematical relations that give rise to the behaviors of those particles, and then we can look at the particles themselves. How difficult is that? Well, it is not impossible within this lab.

Speaking of fundamental definitions, one of the most fascinating is of the Age of the Universe.  That the uncertainty is down to 20 million years is unbelievable, but Homo sapiens (the modern human) emerges close to 300,000 to 200,000 years ago and Homo erectus 1.9 million years ago, puts it into some perspective.  20 million years might seem like a long time for humans, for the universe it is a very small slice out of time.

7 Fabric of the universe.  Between string theory, Langlands programs, and Wilczek’s grid, are pulled together within the first 64 notations to create  a fabric of the whole. Yes, that is the whole universe.

8 Electromagnetic spectrum. There is a very thin band for visible light that spans from about 380 to 740 nanometers which is primarily within notations 88. Yet, light defines every notation. Though it is not visible, this “light” is understood as the electromagnetic spectrum and most of it is not seen or felt.

9 The Bridge between Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis. Just based on the concepts of continuity, symmetry and harmony, lines extend from the quantitative to the qualitative, then to values, valuations, ethics and morals. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

More to follow… Click on the yellow arrow on the right. Page through all the homepages that followed.

What does it mean to say time is continuity and its sequencing creates order?
Therefore,there will always be more to come:

  • The nature of number… The deep analysis of numbers…
  • Multiplication between notations and addition within notations to create form and function
  • Fibonacci. Addition within the notation. Base-2 beyond it.
  • Prime numbers for foundations of new.
  • Symmetry created by sleeping and recompiling “the newly experienced data.”
  • The sequences of time by the second. Determining the first second by lining up events that followed it.  Going beyond Planck-Dirac-Eddington numerology…

Just a few working notes below that will eventually be reworked or deleted: The Search for a Naturalistic World View: Abner Shimony, Armand Siegel, Michael Martin, Judson Webb, Joseph Agassi, James Hullett, Milic Capek (The Concept of Space and Time, Reidel, 1976), Jaakko Hintikka… “Judson Webb” + shimony Naturalistic Epistemology: A Symposium of Two Decades, Dec 1986. Debra Nails

Commonsense view:  We all look at our wrist watches or clocks and we believe the flow of time is time.