From Planck Charge…


The Thrust Of The Universe

by Bruce Camber First Draft Initiated: June 5, 2017 Last update: February 2023

Précis. Let us try to open a door to wider postulations and analyses of three primary thrusts in the universe. Primary is light and its dynamic definition of time, length, mass, and charge. A possible second is the infinite-finite generation of never-ending, never-repeating numbers. Some of those numbers are referred to as the incommensurables, transcendentals, or irrationals. We include fundamental physical constants and mathematical constants. And, possibly the third thrust is a mechanism of each actual doubling, the power of two, the geometry of interiority, base-2 exponential notation, period doubling and/or emergence.

Observations and Speculations

1. Light. Of course, the keynote of Einstein’s famous equation, light (c) is the primary thrust of the universe and binds the universe as a simple whole. It is the magic within the definition of each base unit.

Planck charge. This charge is one of the first mathematically-defined faces of thrust. Although a difficult analysis for most of us because it becomes so complicated so quickly, it will require a concerted study by many to begin to grasp all the “fine structure” and details. Planck charge is defined by c (the speed of light in a vacuum), ℏ (hbar, the reduced Planck constant), ϵ (the permittivity of free space), e (the elementary charge) and α (alpha, the fine structure constant).

All these values are primary finite-infinite transformations. Following just the doubled number of the Planck charge as it progresses up each notation is easy; understanding (1) the processes involved and (2) the manifold potential for exponential growth is not.

Although each successive doubling of Planck Charge is a natural extension of the many finite-infinite transformations, there are many opportunities for complexification. Max Planck defined Planck Charge as:

Planck Charge

Certainly it is a very small number, yet the charge of up, charm and top quarks is smaller and the down, strange and bottom quarks yet smaller (See the Orders of Magnitude-Charge). By the 67th notation, which we call the CERN-scale, the charge has gone from that very small number at the Planck Scale, 1.875×10-18 coulombs to 276.7891 Coulombs, now equivalent to the discharge of a few average lightning bolts. Every facet of charge is also a facet of thrust. Notwithstanding, the International System of Units (SI), the coulomb (C) is the preferred unit of electric charge quantity and we will try to grasp all the facets of thrust found within it.

By the 137th notation, now part of the large scale universe, the coulomb’s value has become the very substantial 3.2677×1023 within a universe that is still a fraction of a second old with a density of a neutron star (3.7920×1032 kilograms) in the range of 2815.8174 km (or 1749.67 miles).

2. Infinite-finite transformations. Is the most basic continuity/order that defines the infinite within the non-repeating, non-ending numbers? Is its most simple expression the circle-line (diameter) ratio known as pi?

What is pi?

In all our work, continuity is the first face of that which is infinite. Continuity gives us some confidence that the the universe is fundamentally defined by order, and constants-and-universals. Yet, the non-repeating, non-ending numbers also give us a sense that a certain kind of uniqueness is inherently part of everything, everywhere throughout all time. Within our most simple geometries we see how this uniqueness becomes even statistical and even more unpredictable. These qualities appear to be profoundly ingrained within who we are and what we are. That data set appears directional; however, it may be wise to leave that issue open for further discussion. Within this model, it is the beginning of thrust and the thrust of life.

IBM Research – Zurich:
Nanographene molecule,
Olympicene, 2010

3. Doublings — the power of two — and the geometries of interiority. The most-studied, entirely obvious thrust is cellular development, especially from conception to birth and then throughout life. Our approach is to begin to open up the mechanisms of these doublings assuming that these are analogues of a more fundamental doubling within the notations that precede cellular development. The first expression of cellular doublings is within notations 97 (red blood cells). The DNA helix is within notation 87. In this range prime numbers include 89 (cell wall thickness), 97 (sperm cell), 101 (hair cells), and 103 (egg cell).

The first 67 doublings or notations. Prior to the Big Board-little universe project, we found no discussions or articles about the first 67 notations, i.e. the Planck scale to the CERN-scale (electroweak scale). If the concept of continuity means anything at all, there should be a bridge between the two. A most-simple, logical bridge could be constructed using base-2. Perhaps it is purely mathematical. There can be no measurement of physicality. So, in that light, among our more speculative postulations is the concept of the long-disputed dark energy (perhaps 68% of the total energy in the universe) will never be measured by standard processes today which are just below the 67th notation.

David Bohm
David Bohm

Quantum fluctuations. If that which cannot be measured by standard processes today is dark energy, perhaps David Bohm described it best in 1957 (Causality & Chance in Modern Physics pages 163-164): “Thus, in the last century only mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical, luminous, and gravitational energy were known. Now, we know of nuclear energy, which constitute a much larger reservoir. But the infinite substructure of matter very probably contains energies that are as far beyond nuclear energies as nuclear energies are beyond chemical energies. Indeed, there is already some evidence in favour of this idea. Thus, if one computes the “zero point” energy due to quantum-mechanical fluctuations on even one cubic centimetre of space, one comes out with something of the order of 1038 ergs, which is equal to that which would be liberated by fission of about 1010 tons of uranium.”

Other analogies. There are many thrusts described within mathematics and many of these are summarized on line 11 within the chart of the universe.

Search. The words, “thrust of the universe“, were entered (with the quotes) into Google on Sunday, June 4, 2017; only seven (7) results were returned. One was an article on cosmological inflation that I wrote on July 12, 2016. The first entry was by David Birnbaum of NYU. In time each of those six other entries will be examined in depth. In September 2023, the same entry brings up over 560,000 entries and the first four are from our associated websites.

John Niemeyer Findlay

Personal history. In and around 1975, I first heard the term, thrust of the universe within a classroom with John Niemeyer Findlay, a Rhodes scholar and expert on both Plato and Hegel. On occasion he lectured about the fabric of life, an energy and direction, an abiding thrust, to make things better. Although I enjoy my memories of that ever-so-dear professor with a small smile and all-knowing twinkle in his eye, most philosophy does not shape, texture and extend the concepts of thrust.

Center for Science Information (CSoI). At one time, this center made “thrust” a focal point of their work. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), this consortium of universities and scholars is based within Purdue University and it was here that I was introduced to the work of Princeton’s William Bialek. He is the John Archibald Wheeler-Battelle Professor of Physics. Like John Wheeler whose chair he holds, Bialek is one of those scholars who searches for abiding principles. I thought that he just might find our work using base-2 exponentiation to be of interest so I was learning as much as possible about his research, particularly about his work to develop a mathematically-sophisticated introduction to the natural sciences. He was carrying on the Wheeler spirit and tradition; one of his projects resulted in a special Freshman class seminar called Integrated Science. Wheeler once said, “Behind it all is surely an idea that is so simple, so beautiful, that when we grasp it — in a decade, a century, or a millennium — we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise?”1

Footnote #1: John Archibald Wheeler, 1911-2008, physicist, How Come the Quantum? from New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 480, Dec. 1986 (p. 304, 304–316), DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1986.tb12434.x

When I first discovered the Center for Science of Information, they had a clear focus and mandate from the NSF to grapple with thrust from large-scale to small-scale and throughout all of life. According to Bob Brown, the Managing Director of the center, in this period of their work (July 2017), none of their 50+ scholars are currently focused on the cosmological thrust of the universe. That’s unfortunate. There are many possibilities to consider to find the deepest sources of thrust within this universe. Because this article will be under constant pressure to be updated with the latest and greatest insights within emergent scholarship, we will consider it to be an open working document. We will continue to write to anybody and everybody making scholarly contributions within this subject area and we’ll update this article appropriately. Of course, one of our earliest emails was sent to William Bailek and Bob Brown.

Looking ahead. We been been trying to reconcile the Planck Length multiples with each of the other Planck units. Assuming the concept of continuity is meaningful, one might conclude that Notations 1 to 67 define a truly small-scale universe. Notations 67 to 134 define the human scale. And, notation 134-to 202 define the large scale. However, Planck Time is necessarily defined by Planck Length and the speed of light within every notation. Given we live and die within Notation 202, it is as if Carl Jung was right about archetypes and all these human-scale notations are in some manner of speaking archetypal. All appear to be deeply interrelated; and in some measure, each of us constantly participates within multiple notations. Can we further develop the concept of non-locality, both quantum nonlocality and the nonlocal Lagrangian, to define a concept that spans multiple notations? Perhaps our mind and sleep are within notations 40 to 50. Hypothetically our functional parts for perception and beingness may be defined by their Planck Length notation, an instantaneous systems integration brings together all the notations within the Now of the 202nd notation.  (Does that make any sense to you?)

Ratio analysis. It surely seems that the thrust of the universe is found in all the ratios. And, if these ratios are the truly real or really-real, and entities-and-things are derivative, we all need to reconsider our subject-object logic.

Can we “go inside” Max Planck’s formula for charge? Can we so totally identify with each facet of his formula, we feel the results?PlanckCharge

How does this combination of ratios work together to define the base unit for charge? Ratios, a dynamic tension, are the immediacy of the infinite within every facet of the finite.

Point process theory: Nagel and Mecke The dimensionless constants within the context of the first 67 notations just might become a new full-scale science. The first simple bridge between the finite and infinite may well be with their non-ending, non-repeating numbers. Are all dimensionless constants never-ending and non-repeating? That area of research is another vibrant area of scholarship and worth our time to consult with the experts.

Naive Assumptions. Within our initial analysis, it seems that our fundamental assumptions are:

1. The infinite is the source of the finite, its structure and energy (thrust).

2. The primary bridges between the infinite and finite are the dimensionless constants.

3. A well-studied mechanism for thrust can be found within cellular division.

4. The structures of the small-scale universe give rise to the CERN-scale, human-scale, and large-scale structures.

5. The mathematics of period doubling bifurcation, pi, the coupling constant, point processes hold clues for further study. Yes, all the mathematics introduced within line 11 of the horizontally-scrolled chart are part of this study. The scaling vertices (line 9 just above two rows above) are called construction vertices for our use within pointfree geometries. All five assumptions will be woven into the fabric of this open study. One of our most simple-but-complex places to start is within pi.

Power of Pi. The most commonplace, best known, and longest studied of all the dimensionless constants, there is a special place for pi in this website. Since the very first writing about this project in December 2011, there have been several discussions about pi ( π ). The focus will be to build on two of those discussions: (1) an early-draft article from January 2016 about numbers and (2) a very current working article about visualization.


Resource pages for this article:

• Chart of the Universe • Measuring an Expanding Universe Using Planck Units

Thrust SSC, 15 October 1997: World land speed record, 763.035 mph, a “first and only” to exceed the speed of sound.

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