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Logic and simple math open new paths to explore

Let Us Collaborate and Compare

Big bang theories have too many loose ends.

by Bruce E. Camber

**Abstract**: Big bang theories (BBT) start with a uniquely-unique singularity[*] that seems well-beyond human grasp. The BBT’s first minute is guesswork and extralogic. The Quiet Expansion starts with simple geometries of infinitesimal, scale-invariant spheres that generate tetrahedrons and octahedrons that are readily understood by primary school students. Big bang theories incorrectly explain the basis for various conditions of our universe today that obfuscate new research and discovery. The Quiet Expansion has a well-defined logic and mathematics to explain those same conditions. Plus, the big bang theories cannot address several open issues. The Quiet Expansion does. It has foundations to examine and begin to explain some of the most troubling issues within science today, i.e. dark energy and dark matter, Planck scale physics, quantum fluctuations, the cosmological constant, and the bridge between quantum gravity and relativity theory. It also recognizes an expanded role of pi, perfected states in space-time, all-natural grounds for valuations and ethics, and an always active finite-infinite relation, whereby continuity, symmetry and harmony are the primary functions of pi.[†]

An open, working document

A first draft for collaborations

There are nine key points, five of which are used to ground the big bang theory and four where it falls short. Unfortunately, the BBT concepts that instantiate those first five points actually obfuscate the four points that follow.

The scholar-theorists holding on to big bang theories are unaware of our Quiet Expansion (QE). They have not looked at a base-2 expansion of the Planck base units. They have not fully considered how Planck Time is logically and symbolically the first moment of time. They have not applied base-2 notation to follow it out the 202 doublings to this very moment in time.

I propose that we collaborate and do a few simple exercises:

1. **Go inside the tetrahedron**. Observe its internal octahedron and four smaller internal tetrahedrons. This is the configuration in every tetrahedron and octahedron. Now, walk down inside 45 steps. You are in the range of particle physics. Continue to choose a tetrahedron and octahedron to go further inside. Walk back the next 67 steps into Planck-scale physics.

Now, go out by doubling those Planck units, over and over again. In 112 steps you will be back where you started. Continue an additional 90 steps. You will be observing the current expansion of the universe. In just 202 base-2 notations (also called doublings), the entire universe is infinitesimal spheres, a network or grid or matrix that encapsulates and interrelates everything, everywhere, for all time. Pythagoras, E.P. Wigner, Max Tegmark and so many others have been right all along — “*It is all mathematics*” — which, of course, includes geometries.

2. **Ponder Planck-scale physics**. What does the first moment of time look like? Length, time, mass, and charge — consider how these units could be a manifestation of a finite-infinite relation whereby the continuity-symmetry-harmony of the sphere is what is manifest as space-time and mass-energy, creating the first instance of our universe as we know it.

3. **Review the stacking and packing of spheres**. Begin with Kepler-Harriot and cubic-close packing of equal spheres. See how tetrahedrons and octahedrons begin to manifest.

We propose that this is the beginning of an alternative theory, a real foundation that starts with pi, the most-simple geometries, and base-2 notation. This exercise began in our high school geometry classes in December 2011. Early in 2012 we began appealing to scholars, “What does it mean?” By August 3, 2014, we even asked Stephen Hawking. Nobody affirmed our work; yet more importantly, nobody denied it. It wasn’t idiotic; it was unprecedented. It was a new insight. It engaged old concepts in new ways. We studied spheres. We studied pi (π) . We studied Wilczek, Dyson, and Guth. We engaged hundreds of our living scholars about some facet of these problems:

1. Quantum fluctuations

2. Dark matter and dark energy

3. Homogeneous and isotropic

4. Natural inflation

Each year we chipped away at our little sculpture and asked, “How could we be so idiosyncratic and out of line with today’s scholarship?”

We also discovered many scholars who were at odds with the big bang. They were earnest. They were searching for truth. They had emerged with very sophisticated perspectives. When we discovered the 1999 conference at the Isaac Newton Institute of Cambridge University, the core prognosticators, which included Hawking, were challenged to rethink the Big Bang. It had been failing in too many ways. Yes, those deepest within the BBT are well aware of its shortcomings. Yet, no alternative theory has been compelling enough to convince enough of these scholars to abandon the big bang in order to create a concerted movement in a new direction.

It appears that the big bang will *de facto* remain in place until such an alternative is uncovered.

There may well be other pressures outside of the scholarly community.

Something curious happened over the summer of 2022. One of the leading critics of the BBT, Neil Turok, seems to have reaffirmed the bang! We all will need to be studying this article, The Big Bang As A Mirror: A Solution of the Strong CP Problem (2022). Having said that the universe acts like it is perpetually starting, it will be interesting to see what Latham Boyle, Martin Teuscher, and Turok have to say when the strong CP problem is recast within the Quiet Expansion.

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**Conclusions**. Somebody is wrong somewhere. If it is this work, it’ll be easy to say “Mea Culpa” as graciously as possible and to apologize to anyone we have offended. We always have so much to learn.

If we are closer to the truth than the big bang cosmology, It will be difficult for many scholars to admit that our leading scholars have been wrong for so long. It will be a difficult time for many. Yet, it’s important for our cultures to know the truth. Whatever the admission, these models will be constantly re-evaluated and more deeply engaged. One never knows, it may even open confessions in other areas of scholarship.

The big bang theory does not work. It fails the Kantian test; it does not answer the questions, “Where did I come from? Where am I going? What is the meaning and value of life?”

We can do better. We must do better.

Thank you. -BEC

*More today*… Want to help? Please drop me a quick note! – BEC

Endnotes and Footnotes

These points already have pages within this website.

**[*] Singularities**. This primary concept in big bang cosmology doesn’t work well. There is dimensionality down to the Planck scale. With this homepage, we will begin immediately reworking our page about singularities. We’ll be searching for the most insightful resources and experts to help us.

**[†] Geometries and mathematics of fluctuations**. The concept of a fluctuation is a primary unsolved problem in physics and we will begin reworking our page with the help of experts. *More…*

[1] **Big bang nucleosynthesis** (BBT). Requiring guesses and jiggering, the BBT hides the simple geometries that opened a path for us in 2011 to go down to the Planck scale. The BBT had never considered simple geometries and the de facto base-2 progression to the Planck or Stoney base units as a starting point. Within those first instants we find many keys. The BBT is locked into a one-of-a-kind inflation that lasts “…a millionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second.” In 2017 within *Scientific American* their editor said, “For physicist and cosmologist Alan Guth, one big question about the big bang remains: ‘What was it that banged?'”

We will answer that question several times over before the end of this article.

**Quiet Expansion** (QE). Within our nascent, emerging model known by many names but most affectionately as the Quiet Expansion (QE), that “…millionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second” has been parsed 98 times. That is, there are 98 doublings or base-2 notations from the Planck Time, each notation with a distinctive look and feel, and each within a progression of mathematics and geometry. Yes, those 98 doublings up until the first millionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second hold many never-imagined configurations and keys to start and grow our universe.

Inflation as described by Alan Guth and his collaborators is unique, highly-imaginative, and a one-of-a-kind event that requires extralogic. Within the QE, all 98 notations are active today and the entire universe is building on them right now. From notations 1-to-64, before the first particle, there is enough mathematics and geometry to lay foundations for nucleosynthesis. Within the QE’s numbers, geometries and functions, it is on-going. It is always on-going.

[2] **The light element abundance**. Helium and other light elements (deuterium, helium-3, beryllium) are believed to be created in the primordial Universe. The existence of these elements is used as a proof for the necessity of a very hot Universe, thus the BBT.

**QE**. Yet, the abundances of the light elements including all the elements of the periodic table are each uniquely pre-defined within a range of notations between Notation-67 and Notation-84 based on the Planck Length multiple. It’s all quite natural. That primordial hot universe is still with us. The same is true about the cosmic microwave background. If the Planck base units are taken as given (even while recognizing the disparity with Stoney’s base units from 1874), the universe starts very dense. There are many different approaches to try to figure out the approximate temperature. From Notations 1-to-64, the most basic forms and functions, structures, substances, qualities, relations, systems are shaped and continue to shape the universe this day and moment.

[3] **The Cosmic Microwave Background** **Radiation** (CMB or CMBR). It all begins with a measuring device, people doing the measuring, and a time stamp. The first was the Holmdel Horn Antenna (Penzias-Wilson, 1965). More recent surveys by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE, John Mather – George Smoot, 1989), the *Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe* (WMAP, Charles Bennett, 2001-2012), and BICEP (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) and Keck Observations (John O’Meara, 2022); all detail the CMBR and are used to justify the BBT.

**QE**. Notwithstanding, the black body, thermal radiation of the universe at a temperature of 2.73 Kelvin is readily supported by the QE within Notation-202 down to Notation-188. That includes this moment right now, and goes back around 13.79+ billion years to 375,000 years from the very beginning, the first moment of time. There are several factors involved with the heating and cooling, a function of the size, mass, and energy (coulombs) of the universe. Even if with an initial blast of light defined by the Planck Temperature, following the inverse square law, by the Notation-106 (4.37402×10^{-12} seconds), it would be in the range of 2.73 Kelvin. More fine-tuning can be done within the QE theory than can be done within the BBT.

[4] **Large-scale structure**. The BBT large-scale structure starts at the QE Notation-188.

**QE**. The QE large scale-structure begins with Notation-134. It is hierarchical, on-going, and ever-changing. All time is Now. There is no horizon problem. The Universe is in fact statistically homogeneous and isotropic because that is exactly how it unfolds. There is a rather different concept of the cosmological principle.^{[a][b][c]} Where the BBT is guessing, our simple calculations are given using either the Planck or Stoney base units. Given we have only used the Planck numbers for our first-calculations, we expect adjustments. For example, there are 539 tredecillion infinitesimal spheres per second using the Planck base units and 4609 tredecillion using the Stoney base units. We have requested that the ISO render a judgement regarding the disparities between the Planck and Stoney numbers. Either way, within the QE model, the universe is dynamic, wholistic, intimate, and inclusive.

One might say that our *universe is a huge, hyper-sensitive grid, one that some might think is overly sensitive, because it appears to respond to the thoughts, words and deeds of everyone as everything-everywhere becomes part of the face of the universe*. Again, the big bang theory (BBT) hides and obfuscates these simple, very basic calculations of natural units and dimensionless constants.

The first and second laws of thermodynamics (you can’t create or destroy matter or energy) is relegated to Notation-202 where there is a directional, linear flow of time. Where primordial fluctuations within the BBT are considered density variations in the early universe, within the QE the seeds of all structure in the universe, the seeds of the large scale structure are given in the perfections (stability) within the earliest notations between 1-64. Within the QE theory, primordial fluctuations are imperfect geometries with gaps that have become systemic and have nothing to do with an inflationary paradigm or scale factors during inflation. More… a direct communication from George Ellis, I learned that Planck Temperature was not a consideration in 1972 when they jointly wrote *The Large Scale Structure of Space-Tim*e, CUP, (PDF), 1973.

[5] **Hubbles’ law and redshift**. The Big Bang theory *de facto* adopts the absolute time of Newtonian physics through the inflationary paradigm of Guth and associates.

**The QE theory** is more aligned with other studies, like Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG), that say there is only the current time. If true, the redshift is looking back within the current time. Thinking about it in terms of all notations being active might help. The concept may be unprecedented. It needs further examination because, if it abides, it changes everything. It immediately changes how we count galaxies. It doesn’t change the nature of the redshift; it changes the way we interpret it. *Much more*… *Hubble* *Natural inflation* *Expansion*

[6] **The initial conditions for structure formation and density perturbation**. Within the big bang theory, structure is generally thought to arise through a growth of *density perturbations* which originate in the early universe. If smooth, the big bang theory is in trouble. There is no consistent logic upon which to build. Everybody realizes that the starting points for structure are still a mystery.

**QE**. At the first notation, the first doubling of our symbolic Planck base units, there are inherent geometries of quantum gravity. The initial condition is the infinitesimal sphere. There is a structure formation with-and-without density perturbations. It’s a radical departure. *More to come*…

[7] **Doesn’t explain the flatness problem**. The **BBT** is stymied by its one-time event with no analogues anywhere in the universe. The density of matter and energy in the universe is determined by all the dimensionless constants. It is all very exacting mathematics. There is no flatness problem. The BBT doesn’t even have a guess at the type of structure or the advance of that structure. It is hidden in the mysteries of that so-called singularity.

**QE**. Each of the 202 notations is unique and a dynamic building block of the universe. It is all interrelated. The first sixty-four notations build successively from continuity, symmetries, and harmonies. Here is a domain that is pre-quantum fluctuations. Eventually our best postdocs will determine ways to test these assumptions. Probabilities will help to assume perfected states. The base-2 progressions for the density of matter and energy in the universe are close, perhaps closer than the current estimates. Again, this is territory for our best postdocs!

[8] **The horizon problem**. The horizon problem is the problem of determining why the Universe appears statistically homogeneous and isotropic in accordance with the cosmological principle.^{[a][b][c]} It is a cosmological fine-tuning problem within the Big Bang model of the universe.

**QE**. The spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic because the space, time, mass and coulombs are all doubling together within abiding and highly-interactive dependencies as already understood via-a-vis Einstein and Planck. More to come…

The horizon problem (also known as the **homogeneity problem**) is a cosmological fine-tuning problem within the Big Bang model of the universe. Fine-tuning is the backbone of the QE model.

[9] **Doesn’t explain monopole problem**. The BBT has nothing to say about the monopole problem. The scholars of nine most basic disciplines (below) will have much more to say about the monopole problem when they begin to accept the 202 notations, and the necessity of the finite-infinite relation.

**QE**: The monopole problem points to the infinite. That is, the primary foot of electromagnetism is within the infinite as understood to be continuity, symmetry, and harmony. At least the QE has a rationale that is consistent with its overall theory. It has everything to do with the concept of quantization which is being addressed by no less than these nine key disciplines: (1) Langlands programs, (2) string theories, (3) supersymmetry (SUSY), (4) loop quantum gravity (LQG), (5) causal dynamical triangulation (CDT), (6) causal set theory (CST), (7) field theories, (8) spectral standard model (SSM), and (9) all the hypothetical particles.

**Even the best of us make mistakes**. https://81018.com/duped/

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References & Resources

As these issues are studied, * updated* key references and resources will be added.

Causal Dynamic Triangulation

• A non-perturbative Lorentzian path integral for gravity (PDF), Ambjørn, Jurkiewicz, Loll, 2000

• Scaling in four dimensional quantum gravity (PDF), Jan Ambjorn, Jerzy Jurkiewicz (1995)

Strengths and weaknesses of the big bang cosmology, Narlikar, Jayant V., Astronomical Society of India, Bulletin (ISSN 0304-9523), vol. 20, no. 2, p. 1-12, March 1992

•**Strengths**: The predictions of the expanding universe, the abundances of light nuclei, and the MW (microwave) background.

•**Weaknesses**: Evidence for anomalous redshift, the age problem, the low abundances of helium, and the failure to find any feature in the microwave background as predicted by the theories of structure formation.

**Day One Project **(of the Federation of Atomic Scientist): https://www.dayoneproject.org/

The team: https://fas.org/fas-experts/ Ryan Buscaglia: URL: https://fas.org/expert/ryan-buscaglia/

Follow-up of these key pages is on-going: https://81018.com/communicate/#4z (Cover-ups),

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Emails

Recent emails. There will be emails to many of our scholars about this page.

• Pascal **Oesch**, Observatoire de Genève (Switzerland), December 4, 2022

• Salvatore **Torquato**, Princeton University, December 1, 2022

• Julia **Collins**, ECU, Joondalup, Australia, December 1, 2022

• Hugh David **Politzer**, Caltech, 29 November 2022

• Corrin **Clarkson**, NYU, NYC, NY Tuesday, November 29, 2022

• Sam **Harris**, NYC, November 29, 2022

• Dr. Oliver **Janzer**, ETH Zurich, November 28, 2022

• June **Huh**, Princeton, November 23, 2022

• Jonathan** Doye**, Oxford, UK, November 23, 2022

• History: Related emails to Stephen **Hawking** in 2016

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IM

There will also be many instant messages to thought leaders about this page.

8:12 AM · Dec 1, 2022 @AyronJonesMusic Our problem as a people of many cultures and beliefs is our limited worldviews. A highly-integrated view of the universe is the beginning of wholeness, acceptance of diversity, and a bit of harmony: https://81018.com is a start on it. RU up for new lyrics? His album, *Filthy*, he says, “Where I’m from, the word ‘filthy’ is the highest compliment in the land. It’s being so good at what you do and who you are that it should be a sin.” Notwithstanding, we need new music with bigger lyrics.

2:25 PM · Nov 7, 2022 Geraint F. Lewis, @Cosmic_Horizons @Sydney_Uni Go inside the tetrahedron (divide the edges by 2, connect new vertices) and in 67 steps you’ll be at the Planck base units. Now multiply those units by 2, 202 times and you have the universe: https://81018.com/chart/ A little math and geometry go a long way!

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Participate **You are always invited.**

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• This page became the homepage on November 23, 2022.

… It is very much *under construction*; it’s open for collaborations to improve it.

• The last update was November 24, 2022.

• This page was initiated on November 7, 2022.

• The URL for this file: https://81018.com/parameters/

• Prior homepage: https://81018.com/old-theory/

• The headline for this article: Let’s Collaborate and Compare

• First byline is: Big bang versus Quiet Expansion

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Still editing (and mostly deleting) these references from the prior homepage.

Hawking’s big bang theory has reached its limits: https://81018.com/old-theory/

- https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/latest-results-cosmic-microwave-background-measurements
- https://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/mission/
- E.P. Wigner
- Pi (π)

Notations 0-to-201 are nonlocal. Locality is limited to each person’s unique space-and-time (universally recompiled within sleep – *more to come*).

Langlands programs and string and M theories need to be dropped into this base-2 container. Structure could easily be confused with points or vertices, but these have dimensional qualities, including qualities defined by the Fourier transform and attractors and repellers (Milnor and Smale).

Some editor needs to take my article for Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi) and help make it work for some one of our science publications.

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**Questions.** Are quarks in the range of 10^{−18} meters? If so that would be in Notations 56-59. Are fermions within Notation-67? What else can be within to be in the range of the Planck base units (10^{−33} meters)? Are all the dimensionless constants? Are they on the cusp of the finite-infinite relation? Are these often misconstrued as vertices or points? Are simple doublings the most basic function in the universe? Does that circle of value and qualities extend to the Planck base units and out tot the current expansion?

**Remember this Summary**. This model is dynamic, wholistic, intimate, and inclusive. Here our universe is a huge, hyper-sensitive grid, one that some might think is overly sensitive, because it appears to respond to the thoughts, words and deeds of everyone as everything-everywhere becomes part of the face of the universe.

**Key pages**:

- https://81018.com/chart/
- https://81018.com/stem/
- https://81018.com/values/
- https://81018.com/duped/
- https://81018.com/analysis/
- https://81018.com/penultimate/
- https://81018.com/mathematical-universe/

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Max Planck Dr. John Mather, pi at its core drives our most significant formulas, foremost among them being that for the infinitesimal sphere.

Foundational Questions Institute Max Tegmark and Anthony Aguirre with financial help from the Templeton Foundation. https://81018.com/3u/ *Strengths and weaknesses of big bang theory* by Jayant Narlikar,

Wikipedia Unsolved Problems. physics, mathematics, and astronomy, particularly cosmology. Cosmology and general relativity.