Abstract. A model of the universe is introduced, based on simple logic, mathematics, and geometries, created by parsing the universe into 202 base-2 notations.* It starts with Planck Length and Planck Time and goes to today’s size and age of the universe. Those Planck’s units are placeholders, symbolically the very first units of everything, everywhere for all time. Our hypothesis about the look and feel of the first moment that defines space and time, posits the sphere and pi to be the most logical. Qualities and quantities are manifest. The qualities appear infinite and perfect and are represented by continuity, symmetry and harmony, the primary three qualities of spherical geometries. Through cubic-close packing of equal spheres, tetrahedrons and octahedrons are rendered, perfectly filing space; it’s a smooth beginning with no gaps. At a point in time five tetrahedrons share a center point to create a gap and fluctuations emerge. Five octahedrons create the same gap, and together they create many kinds of gaps, and the probable beginnings of quantum physics. This a very different, simple model that needs the courtesy of a critical review. Here, too, is a most-comprehensive STEM tool that lays out the first second (Notation-143), the first millennium (Notation-179), and the first billion years (Notation-199). Notation-202 is 10.9816 billion years in duration; less than 2.83 billion years has manifest. This simple model absorbs big bang cosmology.† After discussions (with charts and other graphics), our savants from our sixth-grade classes began to grasp it, so your comments and questions are always welcomed. Thank you. -BEC
Key words: Time, space, mathematical models, geometric models, pi, spheres, tetrahedrons, cubic-close packing, octahedrons, perfection, imperfection, continuity, symmetry, harmony, 202 base-2 notations, integrated UniverseView, Frank Wilczek, Carl Hogan, Joanne Baker, Nature Magazine, time, space-time, Max Planck Institute…
Consider a simple concept of time.
What do we believe about time? In a limited survey, a commonsense belief is that time goes on forever. In this model time is finite. Most people have an intuition about a second. Possibly it is the most-used, shortest duration of time. There are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour (3600 seconds), 24 hours in a day (86,400 seconds), and 365 days per year (31,536,000 seconds). Factor in Leap Year with its 366 days, we’re up to 31,556,952 seconds. Multiply that by 10 billion years for 31,556,952,000,000,000 seconds. Factor in 13.82 for a generous estimate for the billions of years, and that would give us 436,117,076,640,000,000 seconds. That’s from the very start of the universe to this day with some room for error. For Isaac Newton time goes on forever. Again, within this simple model, time is finite. The universe is somewhere around 436 quadrillion seconds from the very first moment of time to this day, right now.1
Consider everything, everywhere, for all time.
The story of our first new idea that we uncovered has been told and retold many times. It is the story of the 202 base-2 notations from the Planck base units up to Now. We came up with a simple chart for length — https://81018.com/big-board/ — and lived with it for several years. Then we added Planck Time, and a year later we added Planck Charge and Planck Mass. It.was difficult to follow the numbers on each line so in 2016 a horizontally-scrolled chart emerged — https://81018.com/chart/ — and then a website so we all could access it at anytime.
That new chart literally came alive. We had observed how each notation was building on the prior notations. There was a causal efficacy; the geometries, pi, dimensionless constants, and cubic-close packing were tying each notation together. At some point it became apparent that all notations had to be active all the time. That was a steep learning curve. We had to ask ourselves, “If that’s true, then what is time?” We started at the Planck base units and assumed Planck Time is the smallest unit and the first unit. That work in 2017 was part of a NASA Space App exploration at their facility in Huntsville.2
We thought we had emerged with our own homegrown STEM tool and began sharing it with other schools. It came with our rough outline of the universe in 202 base-2 notations. We had slowly started learning a bit more cosmology and theoretical physics; Frank Wilczek’s books were helping to guide us and there were people like Freeman Dyson who tried to keep us on the straight and narrow.
That the first second wasn’t until Notation-143 was quite surprising. We surmised, “This chart is mostly about the first second of the universe after that very first instant when it all began. This model is mostly about the infinitesimal.” One of the many ah-ha moments was when we asked, “Isn’t that the first second of the universe even as it unfolds today?” It was a puzzling question to ask. We began to see that the universe is almost fully symmetric. It appeared to have a dynamic, causal, working relation back to Notation-0 and up to Notation-201. I thought, “That puts a lot of pressure on Notation-202, especially the current time. All the peculiarities of time symmetries and asymmetries have to be within Notation-202.”
Plus, there were so many other questions. Where does gravity come in? How does inflation work here? What about quantum indeterminacy and fluctuations? Is it a quanta of energy or a dynamic relation? What are blackholes and dark energy-and-matter?
We knew we had a long way to go before we could truly tackle those well-known unknowns. At that point, we were trying to figure out the geometries and numbers for those first few notations. We were being pushed to study pi and infinity more closely.
Reconsidering the nature of pi and infinity
The concept of Infinity has been a problem for the world. Self-assured people have come up with special concepts and stories about the very nature of infinity. Told for many generations, those stories have become a key part of a family’s traditions. Not only are these the stories of Mom-and-Dad, but from the generations; “This must be the truth. Absolutely so.” That kind of assurance can become arrogance; and when it does, it becomes a problem. It is often difficult to discuss new ideas and concepts if there is limited or no openness. So I asked myself, “Is there a way to respect those stories but have mathematical and scientific concepts that everyone might embrace and about which these should not offend, even if an atheist?”
We concluded that it had been undervalued and under-analyzed among our scholars. It provides a pivot point between the finite and infinite. It is a natural connection. It is a key part of so many basic equations that describe fundamental things and nobody was talking about those keys or essence as a starting point. The more I learned about Hilbert, Gödel, and infinity, it seemed a simple redefinition was in order. They didn’t have those early notations to challenge them. Let pi provide the simple bifurcation whereby the infinite is qualitative with its continuity/order, symmetry/relations, and harmony/dynamics. And, the finite is the quantitative. It’s measurable. The more time we spent with pi, the more challenging and exhilarating it became. The most speculative jump we made was to consider that a natural inflation could be assumed at a rate of one infinitesimal sphere per infinitesimal unit of time and space. Using the Planck numbers that calculated out at 539 tredecillion spheres per second. Using Stoney’s numbers renders 4609 tredecillion spheres per second. The nature of that inflation, explored in an earlier homepage about thrust, is slowly being expanded and pi is leading the way.
Consider these the foundations of our foundations.
The first 64 notations are currently below possibilities for physical measurements. Might these be considered the foundations of the foundations? If primordial spheres manifest at the Planck scale and there are 64 base-2 doublings before anything can be measured, isn’t that a new domain, a major amount of space? Just one sphere doubled 64 times would amount to over 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 infinitesimal spheres. It may be too small for arrogance but perfect for Langlands, string-and-M theory, SUSY, hypothetical particles… and so much more.
And finally, consider simple complexity.
On the cusp of the finite-infinite relation. It looks simple, but there is nothing simple about a sphere. Her numbers go on forever, always changing and always the same. Those symmetries appear simple, but are the expression of those endless numbers. Attractors and repellers are seemingly in the fiber of its being. The Fourier Transform and dimensionless constants are quite literally everywhere. One might say that the sphere is a bundle of nerves, infinitesimal but profoundly alive. Here is the continuity-order, symmetry-relations, and harmony-dynamics within the perfections of the infinite unfolding within everything quantitative. The perfectly perfect is hypostatic. Simple configurations of five tetrahedrons or five octahedrons come together and become a gateway for fluctuations, imperfection, and creativity.
The new is opened. A deeper complexity is defined. And, there is so much more to learn, do and explore. Thank you.
We especially welcome your comments and insights. Thanks again.
Endnotes & Footnotes
These points have already been made within pages within this website.
[*] 202 base-2 notations. The first chart was based on length alone. The second chart was to put it all on an 8.5×11″ piece of paper. The third included Planck Time. The fourth chart included Planck Mass and Planck Charge. And, the fifth chart laid it out horizontally.
A key part of this chart is between notations 64-and-67 where quantum fluctuations become dominant. There comes a place when the composition of measuring devices and the people using them interfere with the measurement. As we go smaller, it becomes increasingly difficult. There will be three zones: 1).Not measurable, 2).Transitional area, and 3).Measurable. The area that is not measurable has had major studies some of which are noted here.
Note: The tetrahedrons and octahedrons used in these models have an actual place along the Notations 0-202. The length of the side is about 2.5 inches with is between Notations 111-and-112 (1.65 to 3.3 inches). The models are representational, not literal and become structural within Notation-1 and are infinitesimally present within Notation-202.
[†] Approximating the epochs of big bang cosmology. When its epochs are considered to be forever, this comparison begins to work.
 It is always right now: No matter how large the numbers or how small the numbers, right now, this moment, is the only time there is. Any number brings us into the scale at that moment.
 To infinity and beyond. Buzz Lightyear’s key expression opens this discussion on a light note. The star of the Disney-Pixar animated film, Toy Store, makes the point anticipated by our scholars when they began developing multiverse models.
 Ethics. This platform of continuity-order, symmetry-relations, and harmony-dynamics readily creates a many-sided valuation that on closer inspection appears to be an ethical model as well. We have an ever-deeper sense of what solipsism, narcissism, nihilism, and dystopia are.
References & Resources
As these references are studied, key references and resources will be added.
• Joanne Baker‘s three books about the basics of physics, the universe and the quanta
• Craig Hogan, Symmetries of the Primordial Sky, ArXiv, (PDF), 31 Mar 2022
• Frank Wilczek, Fantastic Realities, World Scientific, 2006
• On August 23 in the header, Gravity| Hope.|.Hypostasis is replaced with Hattie’s Birthday Today …
• Joanne Baker, Nature Magazine, August 4, 2022
• Craig J. Hogan, University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, August 4, 2022
• Jürgen Jost, Max Planck Institute, Leipzig, August 4, 2022M
• Sir Peter Knight, Imperial College London, August 2, 2022, at 3:320 PM
• Peter Scholze, Max Planck Institute for Mathematic, Bonn, August 1, 2022 at 4:51 PM
There will also be many instant messages to thought leaders about these ideas and concepts.
1:23 PM · Aug 20, 2022 @NSAGov We’ve all got to work on an integrated view of the universe because our little worldviews are just so small, they ultimately create conflict. We’ve got to get beyond the “isms.” Here’s a modest start: https://81018.com Let us all reinvent ourselves! Note: China, Russia, and Iran can see the world as part of a very small, very tight universe such that whatever one does affects us all.
11:41 AM · Aug 20, 2022 @R_Trotta and @GreshamCollege Congratulations only all your work. You’re working round the clock and have become the go-to person for calculations. If the universe started 13.8 billion years ago, is it necessarily exponential to create at least two trillion galaxies (CJ Conselice, 2016)? Thanks. -Bruce Editor’s Note: Trotta can figure this out! –BEC
9:07 AM · Aug 20, 2022 @chelsea_gohd Is the James Webb Space Telescope finding too many galaxies and not enough time to make them? 13.8 billion years is 435 quadrillion seconds. Is it time to redefine time or our understanding of redshift, distance…? Are we miscounting? Is it all exponentiation? Note: Chelsea “Foxanne” Gohd has been communicating science from JPL’s News Office (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory) in Pasadena, California. @NASAJPL
World leaders, especially China, Russia, and the USA.
5:26 PM · Aug 18, 2022 @msu_ru We’ve all got to work on an integrated view of the universe because our little worldviews are just so small, they ultimately create conflict. We’ve got to get beyond the “isms.” Here’s a modest start: https://81018.com Let us all reinvent ourselves!
@the_xijinping This very simple model of the universe is based on simple mathematics, geometries and logic — https://81018.com — whereby continuity, symmetry and harmony becomes the basis for ethics and value — https://81018.com/ethics/ — and rises above politics.
Li Keqiang, Xi Jinping, Li Zhanshu, Wang Yang, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, and Han Zheng
Editor’s note: We all need to start files our communications to all leaders! We will do it. -BEC
4:38 PM · Aug 8, 2022 @sipappas You might enjoy a very simple model of the universe based on simple mathematics and geometries and logic. https://81018.com It all started in a high school geometry class in New Orleans!
• This page became the homepage, Monday, August 8, 2022.
• The last update was Monday, October 3, 2022.
• This page was initiated on August 4, 2022.
• The URL for this file is https://81018.com/ideas/
• The headline for this article: A simple model of the universe
• First byline is: Ideas… become concepts and sometimes theories and first principles.
• Section: Consider these the foundations of our foundations
It is time to get back to the basics. What did we miss? Where’d we go wrong?