Cubic Close Packing (ccp)

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by Bruce Camber, April 2019, last update, Friday, June 5, 2020
Illustration 2: Kepler 1611

Cubic-close packing (ccp) had its start in year 1587 through the work of Thomas Harriot. Johannes Kepler continued that work in 1611. Calculations were made to attempt to stack cannonballs on the deck of a ship most effectively. It became a more sophisticated study in the 20th century when it was applied to discern atomic-packing factors.

Our application brings ccp down into the Planck scale.

Sphere to tetrahedron-octahedron couplet

Defined by dimensionless constants, the sphere is projected to be the most simple structure and the first structure within space-time. We call it a plancksphere; and with ccp, particularly focusing on sphere-stacking, it is hypothesized to be the basis for all structure-substance-and-function and it is best understood within the very first notations of the first 64-notations out of the 202 that encapsulate our universe.

The deep dynamics of the sphere, ostensibly all the lines within this illustration (dynamic gif, above right) are being analyzed. Here begins the tetrahedral-octahedral tiling and tessellating of the universe. Here is where Aristotle failed. From one sphere to another and another, then within the internal dynamics of these spheres, triangles, tetrahedrons, octahedrons; and then plates of triangles, squares, and hexagonals begin interlocking all things for all time and all spaces.

Another image of the tetrahedron naturally filling space to create the octahedron came out of our high school geometry class many years before 2011 (when we backed down into the Planck scale).

Within the first 67 notations it should be found… the essence of dark matter and dark energy. Here, too, is the basis of isotropy and homogeneity.

These additional images and references implicate the sphere as our first order of space-time business:

John Wheeler, circa 2006

John Archibald Wheeler, a most distinguished Princeton physicist (1938-1975) and University of Texas-Austin (1976-1986).

Seeking to define a fundamental unit within space-time, he conceived of a quantum foam (1955). It wasn’t small enough. Although the Planck numbers have a pre-history going back to 1881 with Irish physicist, George Johnstone Stoney, both Stoney’s and Max Planck’s 1899 work were largely ignored and remained in the background. In 1982 John Barrow introduced both the Planck numbers and the Stoney numbers but that paper did not ignite deeper studies.

When Frank Wilczek wrote the Climbing Mt. Planck I, Climbing Mt. Planck II, and in 2002 Climbing Mt. Planck III for Physics Today, interest in the Planck numbers began to spike.

For us, it all started here:

Sphere to tetrahedron-octahedron couplet

This image was discovered within Wikipedia when I was looking to discern the most fundamental number, and the meaning of that number as it is related to any given a shape. Cubic-close packing, both face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp), has a rich history beginning in-and-around the 1570s starting with the problem of stacking cannonballs on the deck of a ship. The display of the transformation from stacking to tetrahedrons and octahedron was the most compelling.