** • Home • Big Bang Cosmology Needs To Be Placed In Time Out • Top Ten** • USA • January 2017 •

###### Each key point of this *Top Ten* posting about Big Bang cosmology (New Year’s Eve 2016) will be re-worked until the general consensus is that each captures a greater truth.

*“It’s a hot head.”*

Big Bang Cosmology has just one rule:* “It’s all about me.”*

(“And, of course, my hot flashes…”)

Planck Temperature Power Spectrum has no system configuration.

It has no inherent operating system.

It *is* single dimensional.

Yet, it has plenty of personality.

In his article, *Absolute Hot,* Peter Tyson (back when he was the Editor-in-chief of NOVA Online), declared, “…the Planck temperature, equals about 100 million million million million million degrees, or 10^{32} Kelvin.”

Now, our high school kids say, “*That’s wicked hot*.”

Tyson quotes Columbia physicist, Arlin Crotts, “It’s ridiculous is what it is. It’s a billion billion times the largest temperature that we have to think about,” referring to gamma-ray bursts and quasars. And though it may have seemed to be a logical place to begin, 10^{32} K is a most enigmatic concept within which to find answers to questions about the deep nature of our universe.

**Epochs of the Big Bang Cosmology**. Notwithstanding, one of the most significant contributions of the big bang cosmology and its single trajectory, is the definition of as many as eighteen epochs (currently using Wikipedia definitions), all based on its temperature scale that generally outlines the continued expansion of the universe.

**The Epochs of the Big Bang Cosmology**. In our work in December 2011 within a New Orleans high school, we found these epochs are more easily defined using base-2 exponentiation from the other four Planck base units. There appears to be no need for a bang! Yes, within our search for an *Integrated Universe View* (we also dubbed it, the *Big Board-little universe project*, each epoch has a corresponding link within our *Quiet Expansion*.

Also, each epoch gets opened up. Each becomes an on-going process. From our cursory analyzes, none appear to have an ending. The epochs defined by big bang cosmology establish the basic characteristics of an epochal process, even if its texture (personality) changes as the universe expands because in this model everything is necessarily connected to everything.

**Our simple alternative awaits being critically explored by our experts and scholars**:

**January 12, 2017 Editor’s Note**: Unless told otherwise, it appears that we will be working on this chart for a very long time.

**We ignore Big Bang Cosmology’s only rule and postulate that the very earliest beginnings of the universe was not driven by temperature**. It is an affect.

When Planck Time-Length-Charge-and-Mass are tracked together using base-2 notation, there are about 64 notations before encountering the CERN-scale. Those 64 notations are a rich infrastructure to explore. Conceptually and historically it has been given several names. Called the grid (Frank Wilczek), matrix (Sumit Das, Lei Lu, Miao Li and others), aether (Maxwell), plenun (Plato) or vinculum (Hocking, third paragraph), it is truly a small-scale universe and structure. It is smaller than what we call the CERN-scale; it is the first one-third of the total 200+ notations. The human scale goes from 67 to 134 and the large scale goes from 134 to just over 200. The very last notation within this chart is always the current notation, age of the universe, or the Now.

This model is totally predictive; the entire universe throughout all time is covered with numbers and geometries. The first second of the universe is between notations 143 and 144, clearly well-over two-thirds of the way through the entire chart.

The most surprising observation is that the epochs defined by Big Bang Cosmology are also logically captured in the same order, right here, and all without an initial bang! As we survey the numbers within each notation, there is a progressive logic for each of the Planck base units and for each multiple across all 202 notations.

The biggest problem with Big Bang Cosmology is that it ignores the bedrock principles of science, continuity and symmetry. Those two go a long way in explaining homogeneity and isotropy. And the more you spend time within the chart, the more you believe it has a lot to do with dark matter and dark energy. Here is a new ordering system. If big bang cosmology were to address it, perhaps the growing number of open questions about it could be further explored.

Perhaps **Stephon Alexander**, Brown (ArXiv) catches the flavor best. In the article, *Absolute Hot* author, Peter Tyson, says, “Alexander described two potential ways the universe began. Either it was at the Planck temperature and then inflated and cooled to create what we see today. Or, it started off at zero temperature and speeded up as it expanded.”

“So one of two situations could have happened,” he said, “and it would be interesting if, indeed, both situations are really the same underlying phenomenon.”

Top Ten Homepage #9 False Start A few of the open questions! Website homepage

**WORKING NOTES & REFERENCES**:

The Planck temperature is defined as:

*m*_{P}is the Planck mass,*c*is speed of light in a vacuum,- is the reduced Planck constant defined as:
*k*is the Boltzmann constant*G*is the gravitational constant.

**Exploring this quote**: “It requires a *temperature* of 10^{27} K for the average particle energy to be 10^{14} GeV.”

**Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck**, (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. On December 14, 1900, Max Planck presents his work that determined the Planck constant (at the German Physical Society. See 5:27 and 6:26).

**Peter Tyson** (Sky & Telescope Editor in Chief since October 2014. From 1998 to 2012, Peter was editor in chief of NOVA Online” While at Nova, he wrote, *Absolute Hot*. There, he also quoted:

• **Robert Brandenberger**, theoretical cosmologist, McGill University, Montreal

• **Cumrun Vafa**, Harvard string theorist, “Classical general relativity calls for an infinitely high temperature at the very start of the universe, as well as in the centermost point, the singularity, of black holes.”

Others physicists to consider:

- Gerd Binnig (1947–)
- Steven Chu (1948–)
- Wolfgang Ketterle (1957–)
- Andre Geim (1958–)
- Lene Hau (1959–)

As you might imagine, my more theologically-oriented friends have their own special observations and criticisms!

https://www.quantamagazine.org/authors/joshua-sokol/