**Editor’s NOTE: This page was first published on September 10, 2014 within our our secondary school website, http://bblu.org. On March 27, 2017, it was copied into this research and development site, http://81018.com. Some links may open pages within http://bblu.org. These will be converted over time to pages within this site.**

**A question about the question**: It is difficult to know; however, a better question might be,

*“Does a quiet expansion deflate the Big Bang?”*

## The Sequel (June 5, 2016):* This Quiet Expansion Challenges the Big Bang*

**September 2014**: If you think about it, most of the world’s people have never heard of the Big Bang theory (Reference 1 – the cosmological model, not the TV series). Of those who know something about it, a few of us are somewhat dubious, “How can the entire physical universe have originated from a single point about 13.8 billion years ago?” It seems incomplete, like there are major missing parts of the story.

To open a dialogue about this pivotal scientific theory is the reason for these reflections. And, if we are successful, all of us will have re-engaged our ninth grade geometry classes and we will begin to ask a series of “what if” questions about the origins of this universe.

**Big Board – little Universe**. Some of you are aware of our work within several high school geometry classes (Reference 2) to develop a model called the Big Board-little universe (Reference 3). Possibly you even know a little about the 201+ base-2 exponential notations from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe. It is a study that informally began on December 19, 2011, so most of us have only begun to explore the inner workings of each of the 201+ notations.

Because we believe *all things start most simply*, the first 60+ notations are potential keys for understanding a rather different model of our universe. These notations (also referred to as clusters, containers, domains, doublings, groups, layers, sets, and steps) have not yet been studied *per se* within our academic communities (Also, see reference 4). The best guess at this time is that the range of our elementary or fundamental particles begins somewhere around the 66th notations.

The simple mathematics (Reference 5) and the simple geometries are a given; the interpretation is wide open.

This little article is an attempt to engage people who are open to new ideas to look at those first 60+ notations. What kinds of *what-if* questions could we ask? Can we speculate about how geometries could grow from a singularity to a bewildering complex infrastructure within and throughout those first 60+ domains, doublings, layers, notations, and/or steps? What if in these very first steps, there is an ultra-fine structure of our universe that begets the structure of physicality? What would a complexification of geometries give us? Might we call it a *quiet expansion?* Though we have always been open to suggestions, questions and criticisms, we are now also asking for your insight and help.

___________

Updates of both models are being prepared whereby those first 60+ notations of the Big Board-little universe begin to get some projections to study and debate. Also, another version of the Universe Table (Reference 6) is in preparation to emphasize every notation from 1 to 65. Also, at the time this article was introduced, we initiated a chart of base-2 exponential notations of time from the __Planck Time__ to the Age of the Observable Universe side-by-side with our chart for the __Planck Length__ to the Observable Universe. And, to make this study a bit more robust, we also projected a time to add the other three basic Planck Units — mass, electric charge and temperature. (Note: The very-first rough draft of that work was completed in February 2015.)

**Big Bang Up.** Most people start time with the Big Bang. Is there a possibility that there are events between Planck Time and the bang (or whatever sounds there were when things became physical somewhere between notations #66 to 67)?

In their 2014 book, *Time in Powers of Ten,* Natural Phenomena and Their Timescales, Gerard ‘tHooft and Stefan Vandoren of Utrecht University (Reference 7), use base-10 notation and assume there is nothing in the gap between the known time intervals of within theoretical physics and Planck Time.

We are doing a little fact check to see if the authors give those notations from Planck Time any causal qualities. It appears that they were not concerned about those base-10 notations until we pointed them out to them.

The first time period of interest to us is the first 20± base-10 notations which would be the first 67 base-2 notations. What happens between the Planck Units and the emergence of the elementary particles? These are real durations in time. A lot can happen.

We will be exploring this small-scale universe in much greater detail. By the 60th doubling there are quintillions-upon-quintillions of vertices with which to create many possible models. Also, in light of the work to justify the Big Bang theory, there is an abundance of information from all the years of research since the concept was first proposed in 1927 by Georges Lemaître.

Steven Weinberg, the author of *The First Three Minutes* (Reference 8), begins his journey through the origin of the universe at 1/100th of a second. Our hypothesis is that we can mathematically go back to a much, much smaller duration. We believe that we should start at the Planck Time and multiply it by 2. And, just as the fermion within notation 66 would be the size of a small galaxy compared to the Planck Length, 1/100 of a second between notations 137 and 138 represents an even greater gap of the ignored and unknown. We suspect starting one’s analysis so late misses key critical interactions and correlations (Reference 8b).

We’ve just started to see what __the numbers__ can tell us.

A lot of pre-structuring of the universe could be quietly happening within such a duration (1/100th of a second). Using our most metaphorical, speculative thinking, one could imagine that the actual event within those first sixty notations was a gentle, symphonic unfolding, fully homogeneous and isotropic.* Although we should embrace all the key elements of today’s big bang theory, we should also be constantly asking, “What kinds of geometries would be required within each of the first 60 notations to render these effects?”

Perhaps the universe and our future belong to the geometers.

So, this article is to empower all of us to find the best geometers around the world to engage the Big Board-little universe model within what we call “the really-real small scale universe.” Of course, some of the work has already been done within the study of spheres, tilings, and combinatorial geometries.

If you would like to comment politely, please drop me a quick note (camber-at-81018.com).

Thank you.

**homogeneous**Having the same property in one region as in every other region

**isotropic**Having the same property in all directions.

###

**Endnotes and References**:

*3* This image of the Big Board-little universe is Version 2.0001.

*5* The debate within Wikipedia about the importance of base-2 exponential notation resulted in their rejection of the original article. It was judged to be “original research.” We thought that judgment was just a little silly. The concepts were all out there; these articles were just to organize that data.

*6* A WordPress blog page for our emerging UniverseView.

*7* This article about the book, *Time in Powers of Ten* by Gerard t’Hooft and Stefan Vandoren, is the most comprehensive that I could find at this time. If you happened to find a better review, please advise us.

*8* An online version of the entire book, *The First Three Minutes* by Steven Weinberg. There are many reviews, yet this one provides a little counterweight. Weinberg also wrote the forward to *Time in Powers of Ten*. Gerard t’Hooft (1997) and Steven Weinberg (1979) are Nobel laureates.