Peebles, P. James E.

James Peebles
Jadwin Hall, Washington Road
Department of Physics at Princeton University

Princeton, New Jersey 08544

Articles: Big Bang theory, Nature, November 2019
Top cosmologist’s lonely battle against ‘Big Bang’ theory, Ivan Couronne, Issam Ahmed
ArXiv (2): Discovery of the Hot Big Bang: What happened in 1948
Books: Cosmology’s Century: An Inside History of Our Modern Understanding of the Universe, 2020 (Preview); Finding The Radiation from the Big Bang (PDF), P. J. E. Peebles and R. B. Partridge, Jan. 2007
Nobel Laureate

 First email 23 March 2021 

“It’s very unfortunate that one thinks of the beginning whereas in fact, we have no good theory of such a thing as the beginning.”

My dear Nobel laureate and emeritus Professor Dr. James Peebles:

We unwittingly focused on a cold-start because there was very little temperature at the level of Planck’s four base units. Built into his equations, however, was an expansion and a rate of expansion through Planck Charge, the dimensionless constants, and Planck Time. Here is a simple perfection of continuity, symmetry and harmony.

We had started inside a tetrahedron looking at the smaller tetrahedrons in the four corners and the octahedron in the middle. One of the students* asked a Zeno-like question so we divided the edges in half, and discovered the smaller octahedrons in each of the six corners and the eight tetrahedrons, one in each face. We had a process! We continued. In just 45 steps going deeper within, we were down with the elementary particles (fascinating and fun), and in another 67 steps we were at his wall chatting with Max Planck.

That required 112 steps going deeper within.

We went out by multiplying by 2; and, in 90 steps we were observing the current expansion and current time. That’s just 202 base-2 steps from the first moment until right Now. Along the way met many wonderful characters — Euler, Kepler (sphere stacking and cubic-close packing of equal spheres), Fourier, Poincaré, Lemaître… and the list goes on. It has been a marvelous voyage… just so fascinating.

Just last month, we decided that Lemaître’s primeval atom was the first sphere. Using Planck Time we then assumed a really rather unbelievable quiet expansion and natural inflation that required a simple ordering structure that mimicked our geometry, so we applied base-2. Then we thought about our primeval sphere, “What primarily defines it?” We decided that pi (π) plays a most pivotal role as one of our earliest working equations (along with all the equations that defined each of the facets of Planck’s base units).  I wrote it up:

I thought you might find its total naïveté amusing and possibly a breath of fresh air!  

Thank you again for your wonderful legacy of discovery.

Most sincerely,


PS. If possible, I would be deeply grateful to discuss the ways that this chart does not work!  It is our chart of base-2 numbers from the first instant to the current time in just over 202 notations.  –BEC

Editor’s note: This letter has been updated a little to add clarity and to correct simple errors. This page is also a homepage and has a reference page within our alphabetical listings of scholars who have been introduced to this base-2 application to the Planck base units.

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