**Jamie S. Farnes**, Oxford e-Research Centre (OeRC email is not active)

Oxford University, Oxford, UK

Articles: Conversation

ArXiv: “A unifying theory of dark energy and dark matter: Negative masses and matter creation within a modified LambdaCDM framework” within *Astronomy & Astrophysics* (2018). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201832898 , arxiv.org/abs/1712.07962

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References to Jamie Farnes within this website:

– In an email to Gary Rybka: https://81018.com/2020/07/05/rybka/, https://81018.com/oxford/

Second email: Thursday, April 14, 2022

Dear Dr. Jamie Farnes:

A couple of years ago I started a page of references to your work; your openness to explore unprecedented concepts is actually rare, creative, and compelling. Recently, I was re-reading your 2017 article on the dark energy and dark matter and wondered if you planned a five-year update for later this year, ”What have you learned? Are we truly any closer to a new paradigm?” I would also dearly appreciate your comments on the Planck scale and its relation to your emerging model. Thank you.

Warmly,

Bruce

First email: 5 July 2020

Dear Dr. Jamie Farnes:

I hope you might find our work out of a high school to be of interest. We began in 2011:

Our history: https://81018.com/hypostasis/home/

Our first chart: https://81018.com/big-board/

Our current chart: https://81018.com/chart/

Our STEM perspective: https://81018.com/stem/

Our thoughts on dark matter and dark energy: https://81018.com/dark/

Our homepage: https://81018.com/

*What if*the universe starts with the Planck base units? What would be created first?*What if*the first thing created is a sphere defined by those Planck base units?*What if*there is an endless stream of spheres and the first functional activity is sphere stacking?*What if*sphere stacking opens cubic close packing of equal spheres and tetrahedrons and octahedrons are generated? Does Plato follow?*What if*the concept of infinity has been so tainted by philosophies, we miss its most simple definition that comes directly out of pi (π), i.e. |continuity creating order, symmetry creating relations, and harmony creating dynamics; and then we add, “Please keep all other definitions to yourself. They are not necessary here.”- And so we finally ask, “Is there a glimmer of truth to our simple
*what if*questions? If so, doesn’t that change our basic equations a bit?”

We stopped using all of this “wild-and-crazy thinking” in our high school curriculum because we didn’t want to taint the students with something so idiosyncratic! Though it has a special logic, it needs deeper exploration. Your thoughts? Thank you.

Most sincerely,

Bruce

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“Bringing balance to the universe: New theory could explain missing 95 percent of the cosmos”

DECEMBER 5, 2018 “Bringing balance to the universe: New theory could explain missing 95 percent of the cosmos”

by University of Oxford …Our current, widely recognised model of the Universe, called LambdaCDM, tells us nothing about what dark matter and dark energy are like physically. We only know about them because of the gravitational effects they have on other, observable matter.

The existence of negative matter had previously been ruled out as it was thought this material would become less dense as the Universe expands, which runs contrary to our observations that show dark energy does not thin out over time. However, Dr. Farnes’ research applies a ‘creation tensor,” which allows for negative masses to be continuously created. It demonstrates that when more and more negative masses are continually bursting into existence, this negative mass fluid does not dilute during the expansion of the cosmos. In fact, the fluid appears to be identical to dark energy.

Dr. Farnes’s theory also provides the first correct predictions of the behaviour of dark matter halos. Most galaxies are rotating so rapidly they should be tearing themselves apart, which suggests that an invisible ‘halo’ of dark matter must be holding them together. The new research published today features a computer simulation of the properties of negative mass, which predicts the formation of dark matter halos just like the ones inferred by observations using modern radio telescopes.

Albert Einstein provided the first hint of the dark universe exactly 100 years ago, when he discovered a parameter in his equations known as the ‘cosmological constant,” which we now know to be synonymous with dark energy. Einstein famously called the cosmological constant his ‘biggest blunder,” although modern astrophysical observations prove that it is a real phenomenon. In notes dating back to 1918, Einstein described his cosmological constant, writing that ‘a modification of the theory is required such that “empty space” takes the role of gravitating negative masses which are distributed all over the interstellar space.” It is therefore possible that Einstein himself predicted a negative-mass-filled universe.

Dr. Farnes says: “Previous approaches to combining dark energy and dark matter have attempted to modify Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which has turned out to be incredibly challenging. This new approach takes two old ideas that are known to be compatible with Einstein’s theory—negative masses and matter creation—and combines them together.

The outcome seems rather beautiful: dark energy and dark matter can be unified into a single substance, with both effects being simply explainable as positive mass matter surfing on a sea of negative masses.”

Proof of Dr. Farnes’s theory will come from tests performed with a cutting-edge radio telescope known as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an international endeavour to build the world’s largest telescope in which the University of Oxford is collaborating.

Dr. Farnes adds: “There are still many theoretical issues and computational simulations to work through, and LambdaCDM has a nearly 30 year head start, but I’m looking forward to seeing whether this new extended version of LambdaCDM can accurately match other observational evidence of our cosmology. If real, it would suggest that the missing 95% of the cosmos had an aesthetic solution: we had forgotten to include a simple minus sign.”