**The Planck Scale is defined by G, c and h.**

###### by Bruce E. Camber Under construction – pre-first draft Questions **EMAIL** TWEETS COMMENT

Given the illustration above, G is the gravitational constant; *c* is the speed of light in a vacuum; and, ħ is the reduced Planck constant. An expert tells us, “The first two govern the strength of gravity and ħ sets the scale of quantum effects. Using them, one can form a mass, a charge, a length and a time.”

If taken as a given, the resulting values in that illustration, render the first moment of spacetime. With its mass and charge, it has “thingness” and becomes the basis of *Forms*.

Notations 0 and Notations 1-to-64 are not recognized within academia.

The first 64 notations are below our abilities to measure. Notwithstanding, this progression, Notations-1 to 202, easily absorb all the numbers of big bang cosmology. We use Lemaitre’s original notion of a cold start. It has been documented, yet nobody seems to know how or why he shifted to a hot start by the time of his most seminal publications in the 1930s.

**The first physical thing and unit of time**. If something were to manifest in Notation-1, what might it be? When asked that question of our high school geometry students who had been studying circles, spheres, tetrahedrons and octahedrons, there was some discussion, but the consensus was that the sphere would have been the very first object. It was the most simple and cubic-close packing of equal spheres set a causative order. It follows from the formulas where pi (π) dominates, and the “never-ending, never-repeating” numbers of pi seemed to be a bridge between the finite and infinite.

**A theory came much later**. Questions were raised about sphere-stacking and cubic-close packing of equal spheres (ccp). Of course, that then opened further discussion of the Fourier transform (we were just beginning to learn about it).

We hypothesize based on observations. We reify based on intuitions. We hypostatize based on deep-seated beliefs. In this case, our foundations of understanding came out of a belief that infinity is best identified as:

(1) continuity creating order creating number creating time,

(2) symmetry creating relations creating geometries creating space, and

(3) harmony creating dynamics creating spacetime moments creating spacetime-and-mass/charge.

It is the beginning of a theory and it outlines how the four Planck base units are all derivative and are exponentially expanding one infinitesimal sphere at a time.

## Endnotes and footnotes:

- See the reference page to Tony Rothman’s work.
- See International Conferences From the Planck Scale to the Electroweak Scale

## References & Resources:

- Meschini, Diego, 2007, “Planck-scale physics: Facts and beliefs,”
*Foundations of Science*, 12(4): 277–94. https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0601097 (diego.meschini@phys.jyu.fi is not active. ) - Metod Saniga, Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences SK-05960 Tatransk ́a Lomnica, Slovak Republic He says that there is… “a much more intricate and profound coupling between space and time than that dictated by (general) relativity theory.”

URL: http://www.astro.sk/~msaniga - Gorelik, G. (1992). First steps of quantum gravity and the Planck values. In J. Eisenstaedt, & A. J. Kox. (Eds.),
*Studies in the history of general relativity,*Einstein Studies, Vol. 3 (pp. 364–379). Boston: Birkhäuser. - Foundations of Physics: 1970-2020 http://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toc/foundphys.html
- ArXiv:
*Quantum Fluctuations at the Planck Scale*, Fulvio Melia, (May 2019)*Purity is not eternal at the Planck scale*, Michele Arzano, INFN – Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, Italy (March 2014)*The quantum cosmological constant*, Stephon Alexander, Joao Magueijo, Lee Smolin (July 2018)*Flavour from the Planck scale to the electroweak scale*, Stephen F. King (May 2019)

(Fermilab): https://www.symmetrymagazine.org/article/the-planck-scale**Symmetry Magazine**

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## TWEETS

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## Key Dates for the posting, *Planckscale*

This page was initiated on July 15, 2020

Last edit: Saturday, July 25, 2020

This page is: https://81018.com/planckscale/

Related pages: https://81018.com/cern-scale/

First principles and assumptions: https://81018.com/presuppositions/