##### Martin López-Corredoira, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias

**REFERENCES**:

ArXiv: https://arxiv.org/find/all/1/au:+Lopez%5fCorredoira/0/1/0/all/0/1

Books: The Twilight of the Scientific Age

Key Article: Non-standard Models and the Sociology of Cosmology

YouTube: https://youtu.be/caKCho7DFYs

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**First email**: Tuesday, 25 October 2016

Dear Prof. Dr. López-Corredoira:

I am having great fun and learning so much from your well-researched, unfiltered arXiv (1311.6324v2 [physics.hist-ph] 17 Dec 2013) submission entitled, *Non-standard Models and the Sociology of Cosmology.*

Thank you for all your work. It is most encouraging.

Notwithstanding, you may find my question that follows most peculiar, but we ask it in earnest: “Is it possible that high school people could come up with a non-standard model worthy of the attention of the scholarly community?”

In December 2011 two teachers and about 80 high school students rather naïvely began to explore a geometric progression that first went down in size to the Planck Length then reversed to go back up all the way to the Observable Universe. That entire story is here.

Almost five years later we are still at it. Our most recent chart of all the base-2 numbers from the Planck base units is here: https://81018.com/chart

It wasn’t until Frank Wilczek (MIT) wrote three articles, *Scaling Mt. Planck*, in *Physics Today* (2001) did anybody take Max Planck’s basic units very seriously. By that time big bang cosmology was firmly entrenched. None of those folks would be inclined to stop to ask, “Is it possible that the Planck base units, anywhere along the base-2 chart, are always ratios of each other, deeply and fundamentally related, and the universe is a highly-integrated whole?”

On its face, it looks like a silly question, appropriate for high school people and all our naiveté. Yet, the further I go within our relatively new study of cosmology, especially looking at the work done within Natural Inflation, the more we see the parallels with big bang cosmology. It mimics the big bang but without the big bang.Would you take a look at our chart, scrolling the top numbers with time, length, mass, and charge? Isn’t it fascinating? If our universe is so ordered, what an alternative to the nihilism of the big bang!

That theory has too many people acting like there is no tomorrow. This theory or model depends on continuity and symmetry where the only time is Now and everything we do is encoded or imprinted on the universe.

What shall we do? Have we gone too far off the deep end? Can we ever be to be taken seriously? Thank you.

Most sincerely,

Bruce

* * * * *

Bruce Camber

New Orleans

Notes to date from *Non-standard Models and the Sociology of Cosmology*:

“Halton C. Arp (1927– 2013), a heterodox observational cosmologist, known through his proposal of (Lopez-Corredoira, 2003,§ 2.8), would point out: ‘Of course, if one ignores contradictory observations, one can claim to have an “elegant” or “robust” theory. But it isn’t science.’ (Arp & Block, 1991) Also see: https://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Arp_H/0/1/0/all/0/1

(Alternative models) fail to account for the abundance of deuterium in the cosmos, because deuterium easily undergoes nuclear fusion in stars and there are no known astrophysical processes other than the Big Bang itself that can produce it in large quantities. Hence the fact that deuterium is not an extremely rare component of the universe suggests that the universe has a finite age.

“Theories which assert that the universe has a finite life, but that the Big Bang did not happen, have problems with the abundance of helium-4. The observed amount of ^{4}He is far larger than the amount that should have been created via stars or any other known process. By contrast, the abundance of ^{4}He in Big Bang models is very insensitive to assumptions about baryon density, changing only a few percent as the baryon density changes by several orders of magnitude. The observed value of ^{4}He is within the range calculated.”