Among Cold Dark Models

Lambda Cold Dark Model

Touted as a “most-successful” orientation within cosmology and astrophysics, scholars of the λcdm may initially find it a bit of a challenge to adjust their thinking to extended boundaries and functional relations that are imputed from the first instant of the universe –as defined by the Planck base units– to this very day.

We use the spectrum encapsulated by 202 base-2 notation using a starting point created by the primordial base units calculated by Max Planck in 1899. We are also examining the base units calculated by George Johnstone Stoney in 1874.

Obviously both the Planck and Stoney calculations were made without the benefit of 20th and early 21st century scientific advances-and-insight so there are people like John Ralston of the University of Kansas (2021) who are analyzing how best to proceed with recalculations. To the best of our ability, we will continue to follow the Ralston work.

Since 2017, there have been several references to the ΛCDM within these webpages. These include:

  1. Beyond Limited Worldviews: An Integrated View of the Universe
  2. Redefine Space, Time, And Infinity
  3. The Seventeen Epochs of Lambda Cold Dark Matter
  4. The chart of those Seventeen Epoch compared to the Quiet Expansion
  5. From atoms to particles to planckspheres

And, there will be more to come…


  1. Introduction to ΛCDM Cosmology, Joel Primack University of California, Santa Cruz (2013). The Joel Primack overview of all the high points and key players through 2013.
  2. LAMBDA Education & Graphics: NASA’s ΛCDM Graphical History (ongoing update)
  3. Beyond ΛCDM: Problems, solutions, and the road ahead, Physics of the Dark Universe, Volume 12, June 2016, pp. 56-99 Co-authors: Julian Adamek, Yashar Akrami, Tessa Baker, Emilio Bellini, Jose Beltrán Jiménez, Eloisa Bentivegna, Philip Bull, Stefano Camera, Sébastien Clesse, Jonathan H.Davis, Enea Di Dio, Jonas Enander, Alan Heavens, Lavinia Heisenberg, Bin Hu, Claudio Llinares, Roy Maartens, Edvard Mörtsell, and Hans A.Winther.
  4. Wikipedia ΛCDM

Hypothesized Detector of Dark Matter: Logic, Mind, and Mathematics. Dark matter and dark energy are infinitesimal within each notation –always below the thresholds of our measuring devices. Yet, the collective results of Notations 1-64 through all 202 notations is conceptually-rich. One could imagine that these notations are shared by the everything, everywhere throughout the universe. One might say that dark matter and dark energy is the archetypal space of the universe. It is not dark; it is formative.


Yashar Akrami
International Center for Fundamental Physics, École Normale Supérieure (ENS), Paris, France
Subject: The symphony of all symphonies
The orchestration is so entirely fine-tuned and dynamic, perhaps the causal infrastructure is as simple as base-2 applied to infinitesimal base units (like those from Planck or Stoney) as captured here: and examined here:
I am starting a review here:

Would you help? Would you be the conductor? Thanks. Warmly, Bruce