**Chart**|**Homepage**|**Notations** (Only those links — words and numbers –highlighted in yellow are active.)

**0** |** 1** | 2 | 3 |4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9|10|11|12|13|14|15|16|17|18|19|20|21|22|23|24|25|26|27|28|29|30|**31**|32|33|34|35|36|37|38|39

40|41|42|43|44|45|46|47|48|49|50|51|52|53|54|55|56|57|58|59|60|61|62|63|64|65|66|**67**|68|69|70|71|72|73|74|75|76|77|78|79

80|81|82|83|84|85|86|87|88|89|90|91|92|93|94|95|96|97|98|99|100|**101**|102|103|104|105|106|107|108|109

110|111|112|113|114|115|116|117|118|119|120|121|122|123|124|125|126|127|128|129|130|131|132|133|134|135|136|**137**|138|139

140|141|142|143|144|145|146|147|148|**149**|150|151|152|153|154|155|156|157|158|159|160|161|162|163|164|165|166|**1**67|168|169

170|171|172|**173**|174|175|176|177|178|179|180|181|182|183|184|185|186|187|188|189|190|191|192|193|194|195|196|197|198|**199**

200|201|202|**Originating document**

# A Study of Notation #1

### The Numbers: A doubling of the Planck base units.

of Planck Time |
of Planck Length |
of Planck Mass |
of Planck Charge |
Vertices |

1.07823×10^{−43} (s) |
3.232458×10^{-35 }(m) |
2.176.470(51)×10^{-8 }(kg) |
3.75109×10^{-18} (C) |
1 |

**Background: **The chart begins with the Planck base units within Notation #0, assumed to the nexus of transformation between the finite and infinite. All the numbers, the ratios of universals and constants, especially the never-ending and never-repeating numbers, that define each of the Planck units, are present. It begs for answers to so many questions:

• *How does this mix of numbers with actual physical dimensionality begin to work?”*

• *What is the initial thrust of the* *universe?*

**Observation**: Within today’s scientific work, there are measurable units of charge and mass that are smaller than the Planck Charge and Planck Mass. It begs the question, “*How can that be?*”

**Hypothesis**: Continuity, symmetry and harmony manifest within infinitesimal units of space and time, yet within parameters that measure charge and mass are measurable units that are smaller.

**Review:**

The three measurements that are smaller than Planck Charge:

• 5.34×10^{−20} C The charge of down, strange and bottom quarks

• 1.068×10^{−19} C The charge of up, charm and top quarks

• 1.602×10^{−19} C The elementary charge, *e*, i.e. the negative charge on a single electron or the positive charge on a single proton

Questions abound:

• If pre-Planck Length and Planck Time, are these charges within the transformation nexus between the finite and infinite?

• Could these be earliest possible measurements of the radii and diameters of circlers and spheres?

The many measurements of mass that are smaller than Planck mass: What are these numbers telling us about the nature of mass? From Wikipedia: “Unlike other physical quantities, mass-energy does not have an *a priori* expected minimal quantity, as is the case with time or length, or an observed basic quantum as in the case of electric charge. Planck’s law allows for the existence of photons with arbitrarily low energies. Consequently, there can only ever be an experimental lower bound on the mass of a supposedly massless particle; in the case of the photon, this confirmed lower bound is of the order of 3×10^{−27} eV = 10^{−62} kg.”

19 September 2017: Here is yet another fundamental challenge to the logic of the *Big Board-little universe*. We will take one step at a time!

Although the Planck mass scale is somewhat disconcerting, the fact is at the top end of the scale is 1.399×10^{52}kg within notation 202. When that number is more carefully calculated for the current time, it will be closer to 4.4506×10^{52} kg, the mass of the observable universe as estimated by NASA. The National Solar Observatory calculates it to be closer to 6×10^{52} kilograms.

**Explanation:**