by Bruce Camber Initiated in December 2019
There is a continuum of light that starts simply defined as the speed of light, c, and then another at c2. Suprasets, c3, c4, c5 and beyond, are used in the definitions of the Planck base units. Hopefully our scholars will be the ones who will lead us into these areas. Important for all of us is to grasp the finite, derivative, and necessary relations between these four basics, the first faces of physicality. Of course, within the world of our scholars, that is a heretical statement. More common among them would be comments like Frank Wilczek’s summary, “Because Newtonian space is infinite and homogeouous (sic), Earth and its surface are not special places.” He says this on page 5 in his book, Lightness of Being, Basic Books, 2008. The sic reference is to the easy misspelled “homogeouous” for homogeneous. In this emergent model of the universe, space is derivative and every place is special, i.e. uniquely defined.
Consider the one face of light we thought was well- understood. Yes, consider the speed of light. The simple calculation, divide Planck Length by Planck Time, renders 299,792,422.79 km/second (Notation #0: 1.616229 divided by 5.39116). Consider it: 299,792,422.79 m/second. At Notation #1: it computes as 299,792,994.074. These simple results, first posted on May 3, 2016, will be tweaked.
Of course, the result of experimental measurement is 299,792,458 meters/second in a vacuum.
Within Notation #73, the Planck Length divided by Planck time equals 299,764,336.21. That appears to be the slowest calculation. The fastest appears to be within the 16th notation: 299,982,157 meters/second. That slowest-to-fastest span is just 217,820 or less than .1% of the laboratory-measured speed of light. Within our new model, there is a variable speed of light across most notations.
These simple calculations are listed to challenge us to think of the processes and relations between numbers. This ratio, the notational multiples of the Planck Length to Planck Time, is a key. Again, the experimental measurement is 299,792,458 meters/second in a vacuum. Between the 143rd and 144th notations, at one second the calculation renders 299,792,422.79 meters/second.
Yes, those 144 notations capture the first second of creation. Out of a total of 202 notations, well over two-thirds of this chart is devoted to the first second of creation. One might conclude that there is something exquisitely important happening within these very small, seemingly instantaneous, 144 steps or doublings (groups and sets, and clusters and domains).
It will take another 16 notations before a day is captured and defined. The large-scale structure of the universe will not begin to emerge until Notation 187 which is about 330,000 years and the early start of the Recombination Epoch (as defined within Big Bang cosmology).
Our documents about space and time
- Four Key Missing Pieces from Our Puzzle
- Space and Time Not Infinite, But Quantized, Derivative, Discrete
- Versus Newton’s Absolute Space and Time
- The quaternion-and-octonion space
- On defining concepts like free space, singularity…
- “The Quantum Structure of Space and Time: 23rd Solvay Conference
- Part II: Derivative-Emergent-Finite Spacetime
- An Introduction to Derivative-Emergent-Finite Space/Time
- The authors of major works on space, time, space-time and the like
- Is continuity-and-symmetry involved in the creation of time-and-space?
- What is space-and-time?
- Redefining Space & Time: #2 NASA SpaceApps Challenge Report
- What is space? What is time? November 2015
Wikipedia and other references:
Speed of Light in Wikipedia