Jean-Luc Lehners, Max Planck Research Group Theoretical Cosmology

ArXiv: No Smooth Beginning for spacetime

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• Get a grip. Get the universe.

• If Turok Tells Us That Hawking Is Wrong, The Big Bang Apple Is Falling.

**Notation** **Doubling of **

** —- Planck Time** **Planck Length ** **Planck Mass** **Planck Charge**

173 **645,492,017.5 s** 1.935015×10^{17} km **2.605×10 ^{43 }kg** 2.245×10

^{34 }C

**199**

**4.331×10**1.298×10

^{16 }s^{24}km 1.748×10

^{51 }kg 1.506×10

^{42}C

*LAST SCATTERING* SURFACE. According to the standard Big Bang theory, the *early Universe* was sufficiently hot for all the matter in it to be fully ionised. … These photons reach present-day observers as the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB).

__Job Feldbrugge__, Jean-Luc Lehners, Neil Turok ** No smooth beginning for spacetime**. 2017. [arXiv][pdf]