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## “We All Need To Reconsider The Necessity Of A Big Bang.”

**From New Orleans to Cambridge, England**: There is a simple alternative to the big bang cosmology and although it is being proposed by high school people, there is enough confidence in the basic concepts to ask two of its strongest advocates, Prof. Dr. Stephen Hawking (Cambridge) and Alan Guth (MIT) to take a look.

There is a very compelling simplicity within the numbers that make up their chart of the universe. Using base-2 notation from the Planck scale, just multiplying by 2, the entire universe is contained within a little over 200 doublings. This horizontally-scrolled chart (new window) of all the numbers is believed to be the first time that the universe has been defined so simply and completely. ^{1}

The study of this simple model began in December 2011 when the teachers and students used just the Planck Length. The project was first considered to be a STEM tool; Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics from the Planck scale required logically containing everything in the universe in an ordered set. When Planck Time was added in 2014, they would now say, “Everything, everywhere *for all time*!”

In February 2015, the other Planck base units were added. “Nothing was easy. Planck temperature was humongous. It was at this point we began to fully realize the many problems facing the big bang theorists;” commented Bruce Camber, the project’s coordinator and advocate, “What do you do with those Planck numbers? What would happen if they were all working together?”

To that end, Camber made several key decisions. Because Planck temperature is as large as the Planck length-and-time is small, he asked, “Why not reverse order it? Everything starts small, so why not put Planck Temperature at the top of the chart until someone logically tells us why we should do otherwise.”

If one were to start with just the Planck temperature, it would be a big bang. Camber asks somewhat rhetorically, “But, then why should the other units be ignored?” ^{2}

Planck Charge and Planck Mass, although small, are not infinitesimally small. Planck Charge as initially calculated is over eleven times larger than the elementary charge carried by an electron (1.6021×10^{−19} coulombs). Yet, results using the more common Lorentz–Heaviside units results in the smaller 5.291×10^{−19 }coulombs). When multiplied by 2, that number is very close to Planck’s initial calculation. Camber asks, “What’s that all about? “then comments, “There are so many fine relations, dimensions, and numbers to be studied here, we have barely scratched the surface.”

Planck Mass introduces dimensional analysis and alternative normalization and all the years of research since 1975 when the big bang theory began its trek to become dominant within scientific circles. That history has occupied the work of hundreds of thousands of scholars and scientists over their lifetime.

Camber comments, “Literally, we are neophytes, pipsqueaks in a land of giants. We know this chart is idiosyncratic, yet we also know that it is unprecedented and it has never been critically reviewed by the experts. We have asked many, many scholars who know these things inside and out. When they see the chart, even if it has naively egregious mistakes, they fall silent. That’s when I began to think that there is more truth than fiction within these numbers.”

He adds, “We all need to reconsider the necessity of a big bang.”

There have been many studies that have focused on the inherent nihilism within big bang cosmology. Some claim that it is destroying cultures and that is endemic to humanity’s existential angst that have us all feeling that our world is spinning apart.

**Two of the prime movers of the big bang cosmology are Stephen Hawking and Alan Guth**.

They have been called on to at least acknowledge this more simple theory with its actual numbers that define the first three minutes of creation then goes on out to this current moment in just over 200 notations, or doublings, or steps. Hawking was sent an email on October 7, 2016 to request that review. Guth was sent a copy of the Hawking note and then his own very similar email on October 10.

The big bang and its inflation of Stephen Hawking and Alan Guth have no numbers. Neither is a strong predictive model. Base-2 notation is the antithesis; it is all numbers and profoundly predictive. The charge in these emails to the two distinguished scientists begins, “Big Bang cosmology is not necessary; the needed inflation is defined within the base-2 expansion from the Planck scale to the Age of the Universe.” ^{3}

Although all the numbers can be readily tracked across all 200+ columns within the *34-page chart *, interpreting those numbers is still very early-stage work and to get help with that analysis, this group has gone right to the top of the big bang industry and to many of the big bang’s strongest advocates and true believers.

**Camber concludes,** “Base-2 expansion has more than enough inflation of length, mass, and charge to engulf the imagined effects of a big bang. Though it all happens so quickly, I see how it could be easily confused with a bang. It’s more like a quiet expansion. Unfortunately our two prime movers and the industry have too much invested in a big bang cosmology. It is not a “good” theory. Stephen Hawking and Alan Guth (MIT), should look at the base-2 model with an open mind and be prepared to abandon *big bang* cosmology and the inherent nihilism within it. The base-2 model appears to be a more-comprehensive alternative. And, more than anybody else, they know their big bang theory and its inflationary model are incomplete.”

^{1} **The Planck Scale** had been largely ignored by the academic community for over 100 years. In 2001 Frank Wilczek (MIT) wrote a series of three articles for *Physics Today*, “*Scaling Mt. Planck*.” It would be the first time that Max Planck’s work from 1899 would be textured in a way that the scientific community could build on Planck’s original insights. Yet, the big bang cosmology was already so firmly established and formidable, Planck time was ignored. The question could have been asked, “Could Planck Time be considered the beginning of time?” Notwithstanding, most any challenge to the big bang cosmology was rather quickly dismissed because there was no good alternative theory.

In 2011 the first outline for a possible alternative was unwittingly mounted within a geometry class in a New Orleans high school using base-2 notation. The first 67 notations were so small, several scientists told the group that the numbers were meaningless. Undaunted, it appeared that the work of many scholars could be applied. There was the work of Robert Langlands, scalar field theory, point-free geometry, bifurcation theory (Mitchel Feigenbaum), cellular automaton, cubic close packing, and more. Their work progressed.

Those first 67 notations have taken on special meaning and possibility. Camber suggests that those notations are shared by everything in the universe and account for isotropy and homogeneity. Even more speculatively, he adds, “Within those first 67 notations we may even find relations that define the dimensionless constants as well as the structure of dark matter and dark energy.”

^{2} The big bang cosmology starts with Planck Temperature and totally ignores the other Planck base units. There is no progression and no ordering system, just a superluminal event with no analogue to anything else within science or history.

^{3} Inflation is built into the very fabric of the universe. In other domains of study, that energy is also known as thrust. David Bohm in his book, *Causality & Chance in Modern Physics*, 1957, pages 163-164, said: “Thus, in the last century only mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical, luminous, and gravitational energy were known. Now, we know of nuclear energy, which constitute a much larger reservoir. But the infinite substructure of matter very probably contains energies that are as far beyond nuclear energies as nuclear energies are beyond chemical energies. Indeed, there is already some evidence in favor of this idea. Thus, if one computes the “zero point” energy due to quantum-mechanical fluctuations on even one cubic centimetre of space, one comes out with something of the order of 10^{38} ergs, which is equal to that which would be liberated by fission of about 10^{10} tons of uranium.”

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**Next up**:

**Finite-Infinite relation and nature of continuity, symmetry and harmony**.- Dark Energy And Dark Matter are defined mathematically (and geometrically) within the first 65 to 66 notations and then extended throughout the universe.
- Renormalization and regularization, isotropy and homogenity, dimensionless constants, and dimensional analysis.