Loll, Renate

Renate Loll

Renate_Loll

Radboud University High Energy Physics
Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics
Nijmegen, Netherlands

Articles: What is space?
Arxiv:   Renormalization   CDT and Cosmology
Homepage
Video: Emergence of quantum spacetime from causal dynamical triangulations
Wikipedia: CDT

Most recent email: Tuesday, 18 June 2019

Yes, you are back up on our homepage today: http://81018.com Tomorrow or soon thereafter: https://81018.com/believed/

Essentially, inspired by Murray Gell-Mann, I thought you would want to know.

In light of the Ellis Physics on Edge harangue, virtually touching everyone who has been a leading thinker in the past 20 years, right to the final paragraph with Dawid-Rovelli, I repeat the John Wheeler 1986 statement within his article, “How Come the Quantum?” where he says, “Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, that when we grasp it — in a decade, a century, or a millennium — we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise?”

The simple numbers bear him out: https://81018.com/chart/ Simple processes, like Euler’s equations and base-2 notation give us an entire range of unexplored numbers from the second notation to at least the 64th notation. That’s a science unto itself. Pure math, the string theorists could finally claim a home.

It is easy to write off simplicity, yet someday these numbers will be explored by the likes of somebody as informed as you are. Thank you.

Most sincerely,

Bruce

Second email: Sunday, 27 January 2019

Perhaps the earlier email (below) was buried. Perhaps this base-2 model is just too absurd to acknowledge. I am just a simple guy following simple logic.

On one of our homepages I suggest that these are our primary assumptions:

1. The Planck base units of length, time, mass and charge describe a real reality.

2. The conceptual door to this infinitesimal universe is where all four Planck base units concresce (grow together, yet individuate) to create a stream of infinitesimal spheres. Though physical, length-time are well below thresholds of measurement, the progression of mass-charge units can be studied. These four units are, in some manner of speaking, the Janus-face of each other and of light.

3.Conceptually, sphere stacking becomes cubic-closest packing; tetrahedrons and octahedrons emergeDoublings beginOur universe emergesTheir numbers eventually begin to define things within our current scientific realities.  This is a natural inflationAnd, it’s not dark.

Since December 2011, I have been carrying on in this light, slowly, intentionally, but naively. I wish somebody of your stature and command of all the academic fields involved would take a moment and put a stop to this effort if it is sheer poppycock.  Thank you ever so much.
Sincerely,

Bruce

First email  21 October 2018

Dear Prof. Dr. Renate Loll:

Thank you for all your work linked (just above), particularly your efforts to discern “…a consistent theory of quantum gravity which describes the dynamical behaviour of spacetime geometry on all scales.”

Our focus has been on the Planck scale. We believe there it has more to contribute than meets the eye.

Between the Planck scale and “CERN-scale of measurements,” there are 67 doublings (or notations or causal sets) of the Planck base units. Perhaps it might be better to start at the first doubling and to observe the logical possibilities. Essentially we’d be building a unified theory of mathematics, yet this one would be based more on John Wheeler’s sense of simplicity (I love his introduction of this article, How Come the Quantum?) than on Robert Langland’s programs. Langland’s needs the plancksphere that both Max Planck and Wheeler anticipated. Might other factors like Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT), Regge calculus, fractal structure, 2-D spacetime, and the flavors of the simplex be included in an appropriate build-out and within an appropriate doubling? I think that the emergence at the Planck base units, the simplest plancksphere may well account for what we know as dark matter and dark energy. I believe it’s a relatively simple calculation.

Among all the people to whom I write, I suspect you can debunk this concept most quickly; or, you may be surprised at its simplicity and possibility. Of course, the derivative, discrete nature of space-time is necessary and I think we would do well to redefine the infinite with mathematical terminology and anticipate a finite-infinite transformation possibly further defining the renormalization process..

To say the least, I would enjoy hearing from you.

Most sincerely,
Bruce

PS. I first became aware of your work through the Perimeter Institute’s 2016 conference, Time in Cosmology I write letters to focus my thoughts in conjunction with the thoughts and work of a person who appears to be vibrant, open, in love with life, and filled with questions.


Follow-up (from CDT and Cosmology):
•  Non-renormalizability of perturbative quantum gravity
•  FLRW paradigm:  Physics Beyond the Standard Models of Particles, Cosmology and Astrophysics

•   Imposing homogeneity and isotropy on spatial slices of constant time t.
•   So-called “backreaction” effect of inhomogeneities on smaller scales on the dynamics of the universe on larger scales
•   “…an explicit realization of a non-perturbative, Planckian quantum dynamics…”


More Work to do (further research):
•  Path integrals and Gaussian fixed point. See Assaf Shomer’s on page 7: “The derivation of the path integral formula in quantum mechanics of a massive particle involves chopping up the quantum evolution into very short time intervals and inserting complete sets of states between them.”
•  Doplicher S, Fredenhagen K, Roberts JE (1995) The quantum structure of spacetime at the planck scale and quantum fields. Communications in Mathematical Physics 172(1):187–220
•  Doboszewski, Juliusz ( jdoboszewski(at)gmail.com ) and Niels Linnemann ( niels.linnemann(at)unige.ch ), 2017, How not to establish the non-renormalizability of gravity
•  Scale invariance and conformal symmetries


This homepage is called a “how-to” page…

CENTER FOR PERFECTION STUDIES: CONTINUITY  • SYMMETRY  • HARMONY   • USA • GOALS • 2018
HOMEPAGESJUST PRIOR|1|2|3 |4|5|6|PI|8|9|10|11|12|13|14|15|16|17|187|19|20|21|22|23|24|25|ORIGINAL
72 OF 202: GRID of EVERYTHING, EVERYWHERE FOR ALL TIME, NOT A THEORY OR VISION, JUST MATH.

Sphere to tetrahedron-octahedron couplet
Planckspheres, cubic-close packing, emergence†

The Emergence of the Universe

By Bruce Camber_  _*Inspiration for this page_ _And, Another Version of this homepage

This website is a study of a model of the universe based on an application of base-2 exponentiation (multiplying by 2 or doublings) that eventually encapsulates-and-relates everything, everywhere, for all time in just 202 notations. This model of the universe starts with Planck Length and Planck Time, the smallest possible measurements, and goes to the largest. It starts with the very first moment in time and goes to this very moment in time.

There has never been a mathematical model of the universe quite like it.

To get an intuitive sense of this model is difficult. Four sacred cows of science need to be reexamined; these are best summarized as continuity, symmetry, harmony and the finite-infinite relation. Continuity applies to the nature of time. Symmetries apply to the structure of space, focusing here particularly on the very small-scale. Harmony is a focus on the dynamics of perfection and imperfection whereby chaos, indeterminacy, creativity, free will and fluctuations all emerge. And, all three are the face of the finite-infinite relation. [1]

The dynamic image at the top of this article opens this analysis. The first sphere is the first instant of space and time with a very specific mass and charge. These numbers were all calculated by Max Planck in 1899 and have been studied in earnest since 2001 when Frank Wilczek wrote a three-part series, “Scaling Mt. Planck” for Physics Today. [2]  When he received his Nobel prize in 2004, these three articles took on the patina of authority.

The next step for scholarship was obvious, but everybody seems to be ignoring it.

The first moment of time is derivative, finite and discrete. Newton’s absolute space and time are sidelined to introduce a new scale of the universe that begins with Planck Length and Planck Time. The focus of that image, including the ellipsis (36 displayed), is the first emergence.” [3]

Seemingly out of nothing – no space, no time – it all starts with just one sphere, defined by the Planck base units and many dimensionless constants, that is followed by another sphere, then another and another…. For now, we’ll call these spheres, planckspheres. If these spheres could be observed — obviously much-much-too-fast-and-too-small to measure — perhaps this process might be described as a line or a string coming out of nowhere, literally defining space and time as it emerges. This is the beginning of time, and this first moment is still emerging, today, at this moment…. It is still creating space/time and the dynamics that are mass/energy (or charge). It is assumed that all four Planck units are inextricably interwoven throughout the 202 doublings [4] (or notations) that bring us to this very moment within this day.

In that light, our first principle is that our Universe begins and is sustained by the dynamics that are defined within Planck Length/Planck Time and Planck Mass/PlanckCharge. Given these are inextricably interwoven, one of our challenges is to loosen, then disentangle all the knots.

Be assured, this is not your daddy’s or your mommy’s sense of time. Here it is a rate of encoding and imprinting on a universe that has no past. It has no future. It is only right now. This instant. Everywhere, everything shares this same moment and this same infrastructure. [5] This first notation is always the same, yet it is always unique just like pi. Impenetrable, there is nothing smaller; and these spheres penetrate and sustain all things.

So, another principle is that time is not a measurement of duration but of processing speed.

Here is the operational nexus between the finite and the infinite. Here is the beginning of an integrated, mathematical model of the universe and a quiet expansion with a most-natural inflation. Here is our little universe displaying its deep-seated order; yet very quickly, it begins to reveal how disorder, chaos, uniqueness, and creativity emerge. [6] Those geometries are well-known and the dynamics within each manifestation are now being explored and will be discussed in subsequent homepages.

Doublings. In the second notation the most basic projective geometry begins to emerge and structure begins building on basic structures [7] that creates a logical continuum from the infinitesimally small scale structures right up to the 67th doubling where now things can, in some sense of the word, be measured by accelerators like CERN in Geneva, Switzerland.

One of the key purposes of this site is to chart a map that takes us right down into these assumed infinitesimal structures.

Academics and scholars have not adopted this model. Questions should be asked  first, about the jump or “quantum leap” from the CERN-scale to the Planck scale. 
To date, there appears to be no other attempt to define this exquisitely small space using a simple application of base-2 notation and a profound respect for the Planck base units. In this study Planck temperature is derivative of mass/charge; so to approach the Planck temperature value, it has been reverse ordered. Just for convenience, it is now started just one notation above the 202nd notation. The logic supporting such a positioning is still being formulated.

Can the deep nature of that “quantum leap” be calculated today using just the four Planck base units and doublings? Could the first doubling from Notation 1 to Notation 2 be the foundation for all doublings?  There are many different types and applications of doublings that have already been well-researched and defined. To learn a little about each, on one page within this site, these key types of doubling will be studied and further researched in light of the continuity equations from the first doubling to the 202nd doubling. [8] Hopefully period-doubling bifurcation, cellular division, double field theory and gauge-symmetry for T-duality-and-doubled geometry, and multiscale modeling and simulations will inform us.

What other kinds of doublings should be considered? The 64 doublings from the Planck scale to just under the CERN-scale (at the 67th doubling) have been well-enumerated through the study of geometric expansions, especially as outlined by the Wheat & Chessboard story. It begs the question, “Is there a logical progression by which numbers and geometries progress?” Does every kind of mathematics, geometry and logic build upon each other? [9]

Given recent scholarship within the studies of prime numbers, the question should also be asked, “What is the role of prime numbers in this expansion?” There are 45 prime numbers between notation 1 and 202; there are 19 primes from 1 and 67. Could each notation that is a prime open a path for more complex mathematics? That question is being pursued within the development of the following pages: https://81018.com/1-202 https://81018.com/a0 https://81018.com/a1 https://81018.com/a2

So, even as we study these possibilities, a simple stacking renders our first doubling and an infrastructure for all subsequent doublings. Our centerfold image at the top captures the dynamics of doublings. Cubic-close packing, both face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed  (hcp), has a rich history beginning in-and-around the 1570s starting with the problem of stacking cannonballs on the deck of a ship. Today there are purely mathematical packing challenges as well as applications of atomic and crystallographic stacking and packing. By starting with planckspheres, this most-simple doubling application becomes discernible as the second,  third, and fourth doublings are assumed. Further, subsequent doublings are assumed right on up to 202nd doubling and the current time.  Yet, something unusual is captured within the 67th doubling, we begin to measure it. That length opens the possibilities of particle physics revealing the potential science of the first 64 steps. It begs the question; is this a logical continuum from the infinitesimally small scale structures up to those being measured by accelerators like CERN?

These planckspheres, a key element of the finite-infinite bridge, are defined by pi, the Planck base units, dimensionless constants and simple logic. Every finite-infinite discussion-and-debate should be re-examined. Though tedious,  it must be re-engaged.  There are too many fine scholars who are being torn up and their logic being shredded to not engage every idea that has been posited throughout human history. All of that is within the 202nd notation. The 197th notation takes us up to 343+ million years. Our first 196 notations open a deep study of the earliest cosmological epochs.

Could this model be in line with Neil Turok’s conclusions that the universe is in a perpetual state of starting? So, yes, I believe planckspheres and every form of emergence up to the 67th notation are keys.  https://81018.com/1-202

Many people have asked, Why now?

Of course, the question must also be asked, “Is this model overly simplistic and naive?”  Yet, even if so, could this model of the early universe be closer to the truth than the big bang theory? I believe it is. Thank you. -BEC 

###

_________________________________________

Endnotes and Footnotes:

(in process today, 29 June 2018)

[†]   This dynamic image was first introduced within this website on January 4, 2016 in an article about numbers, “Constructing the Universe from Scratch.” It has now become the center point within this analysis. In that initial article, the question was asked, “Which numbers come first and why? Which numbers are the most important to know and understand?” The image was also used within the following articles: Fabric of the Universe (November 20, 2017, just below point #4), Consider how symmetries within the first 67 notations actually create space (Sept. 17, 2017) and Symmetry: Circles-to-Spheres-to-Triangles-to-Tetrahedrons-to-Octahedrons (September 13, 2017.

[1]  The three faces of the finite-infinite relation extend our earlier discussions about David Hilbert’s understanding of infinity and Max Tegmark’s disdain for the word. Continuity-symmetry-harmony are the mathematical-scientific faces of infinity and each face is captured by the dynamics of pi and the emergence of lattice, tetrahedrons and octahedrons, and eventually complex structure.

[2]  Frank Wilczek wrote his three-part series, “Scaling Mt. Planck” for Physics Today, yet has not acknowledged that Planck base units are the best conceptual orientation to start constructing this universe. As a result of this analysis, we will ask him, “Why not?” To our knowledge, the writings within this website are the first to lift up Max Planck’s base units as the starting point for the universe. We are anxious to discover and understand any articles that analyze their place, power and conceptual richness.

[3]  “The first emergence” is a steady stream of planckspheres being uniquely created just like they were in the very first moment. Every notation has a unique function and every notation is evolving at the same time it continues to do what it has done. Here, perhaps are Neil Turok’s perpetual starts of the universe. Here everything, everywhere is built up and emergent from this fabric of the universe, called an aether and/or dark matter and dark energy, that gives this universe its isotropy and homogeneity.

[4]  The Planck base units and dimensionless constants are inextricably interwoven throughout the 202 doublings (or notations) are based on the “Plancksphere” and that analysis is just beginning. I googled the word, for example, on June 25, 2018 with those quotes and there are just nine results. Using two words, “Planck sphere” with the quotes, there are 320 results. And without the quotes there are just over four million combinations that come close. Such results suggest that this is a new or emergent science.

Within our dynamic image about sphere stacking, the tetrahedral-octahedral architecture begins to emerge. Here, the possibilities for getting things inextricably woven together become staggering. By the tenth doubling there are 134,217,728 scaling vertices with which to work. By the 20th notation it catapults to 1.4411519×1017 — there are no limits to the entanglement of strings and knots and yet-to-be-fathomed geometries to create. By the 64th notation those scaling vertices have jumped up to 6.2771017×1057  and the first particle has yet to emerge!

Unless this simple logic is mistaken, there is altogether too much potential to ignore these possibilities and this orientation any longer.

Also, it should be pointed out that Max Planck’s formula for light — you can see it on line 10 of the horizontally-scorlled chart of 202 notations is a special calculation that needs further study.  The fact that these doublings is a form of base-2 exponentiation suggests that our universe is not linear and just might best be defined by Euler’s identity, considered by many mathematicians and physicists to be the most beautiful of all equations.

[5]   Everywhere, everything for all time shares this same moment and this same infrastructure. There are many books and articles about the nature of time. Within this study, most have fallen short. Einstein and Planck opened the door to re-analyze Newton’s earlier conceptual frame of absolute space and time, yet nothing more compelling emerged. Newton continues to define our commonsense logic, but should it? If it is established that period-doubling bifurcation, cellular division, double field theory and doubled geometry, and multiscale modeling all share the same common denominator that starts at the Planck base units, absolute space and time can be placed on the historical shelf as a footnote within the imprinting on the sentience of this universe. More work needed…

[6]  Consider disorder, chaos, uniqueness, creativity and fluctuations. The scholarly community is increasingly confused with the terms, infinite, space and time.  David Hilbert’s simple analysis leaves much to be desired. The infinite can be understood as a logical construct where it is the foundation for continuity, symmetry and harmony. These three perfections should all be understood to be a scientific assertion about the nature of order, relations, and dynamics. The various manifestations of fluctuations can be experienced as disorder, chaos, uniqueness, creativity and human will. The geometry for fluctuations begins with the simple pentastar, a clustering of five tetrahedrons. The next base structure, the icosahedron, is a clustering of 20 tetrahedrons. The dynamics of each will be introduced within future homepages.

[7]  Structures begin building on basic structure.   There are two areas where our analysis is focused. The first is on a notation-by-notation analysis but progress is slow because there is so much mathematical logic to be learned. The other is basic geometries, quantum geometries and dynamic geometries.  Here, too, there is so much to learn and, of course, more to come

[8]  There can be strains of continuity within discontinuity. There can be strains of discontinuity within continuity.  The continuity equations from the first doubling to the 202nd doubling come from within a continuity that envelopes our physical universe, so here, too, there is more to come

[9]  There appears to be a rigorous academic study of the logical construction of concepts, geometries, and equations. Mathematics and geometries do build upon each other! These studies will become our studies and as quickly as possible, each will be integrated within our map of the universe. Yes, there is more to come


“In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts,” meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have. These properties come about because of interactions among the parts.” -Wikipedia


This page was started on June 21, 2018 in South San Francisco while on our tour of America. On many occasions Hattie and I been challenged to look at the world and ourselves in new ways. Along our route, we’ve spent time engaging with people:

  • At John Hendrick’s retreat, Gateway Canyon Ranch, an hour south of Grand Junction, Colorado, we discovered his CuriosityStream retreat center. That got me thinking.
  • We were in the highly-overpriced Yellowstone Hotel in Wyoming where the National Park Service is attempting to create a Disney-like experience, highly-controlled-and-organized wilderness. That compressed conflict got me thinking.
  • On our drive to Bend, Oregon, I discovered the Simplot Don plant near Pocatello, Idaho and learned about fertilizers and growth and even that challenged my thinking.
  • In Bend, while visiting with friends, I was challenged again to understand why there is such disparity, both political and economic, within our world.
  • On to Portland, the land of inclusivity, two different sets of friends challenged me to see the world through their eyes. There is so much to process and process it we will until each becomes a homepage.

This homepage was simply to clarify the last three homepages:

Thanks again.

-BEC


The next homepage builds from this page and from those past homes pages linked just above, and from a page written on July 23, 2016 entitled, Chaos-Order, Indeterminant-Determinant.

Somers, James

James Somers
New York, NY

Articles
Blog
Homepage
Inventor

Second email:  3 June 2018

Hi James –

There are just 202 notations from those Planck base units to the current time. https://81018.com/chart has the simple math. https://81018.com/home has a simple history. And the homepage — http://81018.com — is the most current reflection.

As you might imagine, the first second is between notations 142 and 143. It is a natural inflation (aka Euler’s identity) and, to date, nobody has provided a rational reason to stop studying this progression. I am most fascinated with the potentials within the first 60+ notations. I do not believe these have ever been carefully examined by mathematicians.

I sent an introductory note to you on 8 April 2018!
Thanks.

Warmly,
Bruce

First email: 8 April 2018

RE: What a gracious and open person you are…*
YOUR ARTICLE: Your article in Atlantic Monthly, 5 April 2018 

Good work! Nice thoughtful reflections. And,
jsomers.net is nicely done. You’re a mensch!**

I sent this note through Twitter, but whoever sees a tweet?
So, just for the record:
vertical bar green@jsomers @TheAtlantic
Excellent. At first I thought it was going
to be a Wolfram promo piece,
but that quickly changed!
Thanks for the introduction to Jupyter.
Thanks for the thoughtful reflections.
What ArXiv entry has the most signatures?
http://81018.com – An integrated universe view: visuals?

I am one of those idiosyncratic fellows who has been
chasing the EPR paradox since 1971. Actually met JS Bell
at CERN through MIT’s Vicki Weisskopf… so many stories.
In 2011 helping a nephew, I finally found a mathematical container
for the universe: https://81018.com/home It’s been six plus
years attempting to exegete that initial work.
Here’s a chart/map of the universe that is
laughable for its simplicity and grandiosity!
https://81018.com/chart
Thanks again!

Most sincerely,
Bruce
****************
Bruce Camber
http://81018.com

*I hope you do not mind that I have created a reference page to your work and have included you within our Rogue’s Gallery.

**For me, a person who causes one to think a new thought
and or see the universe in a new way.

Richardson, Louise Mary

Louise Mary Richardson
Vice Chancellor
Oxford University

Twitter
Wikipedia
YouTube

First email: Tue, Oct 31, 2017 at 3:49 PM

Reference:  Forward for Oxford University Press

Dear Prof. Dr. Vice Chancellor Louise Mary Richardson:

Sometimes even Tacitus is wrong. [1] Some age-old “truths” actually hold us back. Two powerful obfuscations came out of the other great British university, particularly from two of their Lucasian Professors [2]: Newton with his absolute space-and-time and Hawking with his big bang. [3]

Now, I have been reading What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Enemy. And, yes, we have been too slow to create counter narratives to the ideologues of terrorism. I would add that we have also been too slow to challenge conventional paradigms, especially when we find ourselves within circular arguments.

Now, we share a few common experiences. As a kid we would visit Aunt Nellie who worked in the Radcliffe Admissions office. My dad had been a sheet metal worker in the Harvard HVAC group and helped to keep the Mark I and II cooled down in the basement of the Cruft Lab on Oxford Street. While in high school I joined the SDS at Harvard before it was thrown off campus in 1964. By 1969 I was organizing national amendments to end the war in Vietnam with full-page ads in the New York Times and Wall Street Journal, and congressional conferences in Washington, D.C. on global priorities. There wasn’t anything we wouldn’t do.

But something fundamentally was missing.  My driving force was to understand scientific breakthroughs, creativity, and innovation. By 1971 I was onto the EPR paradox [4] and quickly found John Bell [5] at CERN labs. It became obvious that there was something very wrong with our notion of space and time, but we couldn’t break through Newton’s commonsense logic. Hawking was so hooked, the big bang seemed like the only logical choice among cosmological models. It wasn’t. [6] Then, after 100 years of being in an academic closet, the Planck units were re-discovered (2001). Then, in 2011, the first mathematically-integrated chart of the universe was made using the Planck units. Using base-2 from the first moment of physical time to the current time, there were only 202 notations.

That changes everything. Space-and-time are contained. And, now something more fundamental must emerge. Oxford should be on the forefront of understanding what that is. If I were able to assemble an Oxford team, among them would be Julian BarbourHarvey BrownArd LouisAlister McGrath, Jirina StoneRichard Swinburne, Roger Trigg, Keith Ward, I.A. Walmsley… and you.

May I follow-up this introduction?

Thank you.

Most sincerely,

Bruce
****************
Bruce Camber
http://81018.com
Austin, Texas

[1]  We seem to settle in with concepts that actually become age-old truths, but these concepts are ultimately flawed. Of course, by and large Tacitus is right:  ‘Truth is confirmed by inspection and delay; falsehood by haste and uncertainty.’ You use the quote within the section, “Challenges” within the  Vice-Chancellor’s Oration 2017
[2] There are comments about the debate between Leibniz and Clarke (Sir Isaac Newton)  throughout the website, http://81010.com.  For now, you might particularly engage the second point of this page: https://81018.com/pursuit
[3] There are pages and copies of emails to Stephen Hawking about his Big Bang theory. Ostensibly the argument focuses on the texture of the first fraction of a second of the universe and whether there is “…an infinitely small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense point…”
[4] EPR Paradox, also known as the Einstein-Podolosky-Rosen thought experiment of 1935 opens the question about non-locality and quantum entanglement.
[5] Bell’s Inequality opens the discussion to the widest community within physics and these discussions lead to the conclusions of Nima Arkani-Hamed and Max Tegmark to stop using the concepts of space-time and infinity.
[6] All cosmological models are being called into question.

______________________
Read More »

The Finite and the Infinite

Most recent update: Sunday, 8 October 2017   Prior homepage  Next homepage   On Time

Stephen Hawking and Max Tegmark
Stephen Hawking – Max Tegmark

The relation between the Finite and the Infinite is rather hotly debated, mostly between people who equate the infinite with God and those who have no place for any kind of god. Yet, the infinite also creates conundrums within science. In 2014, MIT physicist, Max Tegmark advocated, “I’m betting that we also need to let go of it.” He wants to retire what he and others call an incorrect assumption – infinity. His friend, Stephen Hawking, opened that door with his 1983 No Boundary Proposal that holds that the universe has no beginning or end.1

“Not so fast y’all” as it is said along the banks of the Mississippi River in New Orleans. With these two thought leaders, Hawking and Tegmark, it should be acknowledged that both are being speculative and that their concepts are brilliantly incomplete.

In the Big Board-little universe model using base-2 notation from the Planck Time to the Age of the universe, the entire physical universe is contained within just over 200 notations that are highly-integrated and totally-predictive. Notations are also known as clusters, doublings, groups, sets or steps. Within the first second of the universe, there is more than enough “natural inflation” from the Planck Charge to get “things” going. As a result of studying and working with this model since December 2011, there are many-many facets to explore, however one of the most important is that this model logically suggests that time is derivative and that the finite and the infinite are perhaps best understood in terms of continuity, symmetry and harmony.

Continuity. Though an unusual way to define infinity, even with quantum indeterminacy, continuity throughout the universe is the bedrock of science, logic, and rational thought. Numbers clarify this continuity. If we were to carry our measurements out a billion places, the universe and its systems around us would still replicate day after day with utmost precision.

Within this model, continuity is more fundamental than time; it begets time. It is the initial condition of order.  More…

molecule

The complexity of a single molecule

 

Symmetry. The second face of the infinite is symmetry. Though so much of life is asymmetrical, the deepest examination of any physical thing begins to reveal deeper symmetries. Numbered relations define those symmetries, relations are created, and the universe appears to be tiled and tessellated deeply within every notation throughout the model. Here symmetry is more fundamental than space; it begets space.  More…

Harmony. Speculating, it is hypostatized that two symmetries begin interacting within a notation and then across notations, dynamics are created, and though not quite perfect, the interaction of the symmetries perfects the moment for the observer or for the notations involved. Therefore, we have moments of perfection within our experiences of the universe. More…

Our studies. At this point in our studies, there is not much more we can say about how the infinite defines the model and what the model says about the very nature of the infinite. These three insights, although reflective of the model, in part come out of a study of a moment of perfection in 1972,3 then from studies of the book, Finite and Infinite: A Philosophical Essay (Austin Farrer, Oxford, Dacre Press, Westminster, 1943), and from an application to a business model.4    More…

These three qualities became the bedrock for our model of the universe and for discussions about the shared nature of the finite and infinite.

What difference does it make? First, it is a clear contrast to the nihilism of big bang cosmology. Building in strength and popularity over the past 30 years, that nihilism has had a lot to do the fraying of our little world. So much is out of control and spinning apart. Money is not the issue. What we believe and how we believe is. Hope is. Charity is. Integrity is.

Ratio
What is 5000 to 13.8 billion years?

The finite and infinite relation has been the focus of humanity for as long as we have been recording our ever-so-short history. In light of 13.8+ billion years, five thousand years of records is, of course, quite short. We’ve just begun to make sense of it all.

Today in history. The finite is usually associated with physical, limited things. The infinite is often capitalized and associated with godly things, the eternal and everlasting. To our knowledge, Max Tegmark is the first theoretical physicist who has suggested that the concept of the infinite be abandoned. His rationale is that it gets in the way. He cannot make it work for the science he wants to create. Within these many articles, we hope to convince him, Hawking, Guth and so many others to re-engage our simple definition of the infinite. It does not require a religion or religious beliefs. Notwithstanding, it also does not necessarily fly in the face of those who believe in a much more robustly-defined Infinite.

We can all begin to tolerate each other.

This is our simple introduction to a very large topic and we will return to this page often to expand its range and its depth.

1 A general introduction: See the prior homepage. Also, this Wikipedia article about the 1983 Hartle-Hawking State (wave function) provides even more information.
2 This construct was introduced within these pages at the end of the year, December 2015.
3 This construct goes back to work in 1972 at both Synectics Education Systems in Cambridge, Massachusetts and the Harvard Philomorphs with Arthur Loeb and Buckminster Fuller.
4 The original construct was used as the foundation of a business model for a weekly television series, Small Business School, that Bruce Camber and Hattie Bryant started in 1994. It aired on PBS-TV stations throughout the USA and on the Voice of America around the world for over 50 seasons (2012).

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Key references: Communications