This homepage is called a “how-to” page…

CENTER FOR PERFECTION STUDIES: CONTINUITY  • SYMMETRY  • HARMONY   • USA • GOALS • 2018
HOMEPAGESJUST PRIOR|1|2|3 |4|5|6|PI|8|9|10|11|12|13|14|15|16|17|187|19|20|21|22|23|24|25|ORIGINAL
72 OF 202: GRID of EVERYTHING, EVERYWHERE FOR ALL TIME, NOT A THEORY OR VISION, JUST MATH.

Sphere to tetrahedron-octahedron couplet
Planckspheres, cubic-close packing, emergence†

The Emergence of the Universe

By Bruce Camber_  _*Inspiration for this page_ _And, Another Version of this homepage

This website is a study of a model of the universe based on an application of base-2 exponentiation (multiplying by 2 or doublings) that eventually encapsulates-and-relates everything, everywhere, for all time in just 202 notations. This model of the universe starts with Planck Length and Planck Time, the smallest possible measurements, and goes to the largest. It starts with the very first moment in time and goes to this very moment in time.

There has never been a mathematical model of the universe quite like it.

To get an intuitive sense of this model is difficult. Four sacred cows of science need to be reexamined; these are best summarized as continuity, symmetry, harmony and the finite-infinite relation. Continuity applies to the nature of time. Symmetries apply to the structure of space, focusing here particularly on the very small-scale. Harmony is a focus on the dynamics of perfection and imperfection whereby chaos, indeterminacy, creativity, free will and fluctuations all emerge. And, all three are the face of the finite-infinite relation. [1]

The dynamic image at the top of this article opens this analysis. The first sphere is the first instant of space and time with a very specific mass and charge. These numbers were all calculated by Max Planck in 1899 and have been studied in earnest since 2001 when Frank Wilczek wrote a three-part series, “Scaling Mt. Planck” for Physics Today. [2]  When he received his Nobel prize in 2004, these three articles took on the patina of authority.

The next step for scholarship was obvious, but everybody seems to be ignoring it.

The first moment of time is derivative, finite and discrete. Newton’s absolute space and time are sidelined to introduce a new scale of the universe that begins with Planck Length and Planck Time. The focus of that image, including the ellipsis (36 displayed), is the first emergence.” [3]

Seemingly out of nothing – no space, no time – it all starts with just one sphere, defined by the Planck base units and many dimensionless constants, that is followed by another sphere, then another and another…. For now, we’ll call these spheres, planckspheres. If these spheres could be observed — obviously much-much-too-fast-and-too-small to measure — perhaps this process might be described as a line or a string coming out of nowhere, literally defining space and time as it emerges. This is the beginning of time, and this first moment is still emerging, today, at this moment…. It is still creating space/time and the dynamics that are mass/energy (or charge). It is assumed that all four Planck units are inextricably interwoven throughout the 202 doublings [4] (or notations) that bring us to this very moment within this day.

In that light, our first principle is that our Universe begins and is sustained by the dynamics that are defined within Planck Length/Planck Time and Planck Mass/PlanckCharge. Given these are inextricably interwoven, one of our challenges is to loosen, then disentangle all the knots.

Be assured, this is not your daddy’s or your mommy’s sense of time. Here it is a rate of encoding and imprinting on a universe that has no past. It has no future. It is only right now. This instant. Everywhere, everything shares this same moment and this same infrastructure. [5] This first notation is always the same, yet it is always unique just like pi. Impenetrable, there is nothing smaller; and these spheres penetrate and sustain all things.

So, another principle is that time is not a measurement of duration but of processing speed.

Here is the operational nexus between the finite and the infinite. Here is the beginning of an integrated, mathematical model of the universe and a quiet expansion with a most-natural inflation. Here is our little universe displaying its deep-seated order; yet very quickly, it begins to reveal how disorder, chaos, uniqueness, and creativity emerge. [6] Those geometries are well-known and the dynamics within each manifestation are now being explored and will be discussed in subsequent homepages.

Doublings. In the second notation the most basic projective geometry begins to emerge and structure begins building on basic structures [7] that creates a logical continuum from the infinitesimally small scale structures right up to the 67th doubling where now things can, in some sense of the word, be measured by accelerators like CERN in Geneva, Switzerland.

One of the key purposes of this site is to chart a map that takes us right down into these assumed infinitesimal structures.

Academics and scholars have not adopted this model. Questions should be asked  first, about the jump or “quantum leap” from the CERN-scale to the Planck scale. 
To date, there appears to be no other attempt to define this exquisitely small space using a simple application of base-2 notation and a profound respect for the Planck base units. In this study Planck temperature is derivative of mass/charge; so to approach the Planck temperature value, it has been reverse ordered. Just for convenience, it is now started just one notation above the 202nd notation. The logic supporting such a positioning is still being formulated.

Can the deep nature of that “quantum leap” be calculated today using just the four Planck base units and doublings? Could the first doubling from Notation 1 to Notation 2 be the foundation for all doublings?  There are many different types and applications of doublings that have already been well-researched and defined. To learn a little about each, on one page within this site, these key types of doubling will be studied and further researched in light of the continuity equations from the first doubling to the 202nd doubling. [8] Hopefully period-doubling bifurcation, cellular division, double field theory and gauge-symmetry for T-duality-and-doubled geometry, and multiscale modeling and simulations will inform us.

What other kinds of doublings should be considered? The 64 doublings from the Planck scale to just under the CERN-scale (at the 67th doubling) have been well-enumerated through the study of geometric expansions, especially as outlined by the Wheat & Chessboard story. It begs the question, “Is there a logical progression by which numbers and geometries progress?” Does every kind of mathematics, geometry and logic build upon each other? [9]

Given recent scholarship within the studies of prime numbers, the question should also be asked, “What is the role of prime numbers in this expansion?” There are 45 prime numbers between notation 1 and 202; there are 19 primes from 1 and 67. Could each notation that is a prime open a path for more complex mathematics? That question is being pursued within the development of the following pages: https://81018.com/1-202 https://81018.com/a0 https://81018.com/a1 https://81018.com/a2

So, even as we study these possibilities, a simple stacking renders our first doubling and an infrastructure for all subsequent doublings. Our centerfold image at the top captures the dynamics of doublings. Cubic-close packing, both face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed  (hcp), has a rich history beginning in-and-around the 1570s starting with the problem of stacking cannonballs on the deck of a ship. Today there are purely mathematical packing challenges as well as applications of atomic and crystallographic stacking and packing. By starting with planckspheres, this most-simple doubling application becomes discernible as the second,  third, and fourth doublings are assumed. Further, subsequent doublings are assumed right on up to 202nd doubling and the current time.  Yet, something unusual is captured within the 67th doubling, we begin to measure it. That length opens the possibilities of particle physics revealing the potential science of the first 64 steps. It begs the question; is this a logical continuum from the infinitesimally small scale structures up to those being measured by accelerators like CERN?

These planckspheres, a key element of the finite-infinite bridge, are defined by pi, the Planck base units, dimensionless constants and simple logic. Every finite-infinite discussion-and-debate should be re-examined. Though tedious,  it must be re-engaged.  There are too many fine scholars who are being torn up and their logic being shredded to not engage every idea that has been posited throughout human history. All of that is within the 202nd notation. The 197th notation takes us up to 343+ million years. Our first 196 notations open a deep study of the earliest cosmological epochs.

Could this model be in line with Neil Turok’s conclusions that the universe is in a perpetual state of starting? So, yes, I believe planckspheres and every form of emergence up to the 67th notation are keys.  https://81018.com/1-202

Many people have asked, Why now?

Of course, the question must also be asked, “Is this model overly simplistic and naive?”  Yet, even if so, could this model of the early universe be closer to the truth than the big bang theory? I believe it is. Thank you. -BEC 

###

_________________________________________

Endnotes and Footnotes:

(in process today, 29 June 2018)

[†]   This dynamic image was first introduced within this website on January 4, 2016 in an article about numbers, “Constructing the Universe from Scratch.” It has now become the center point within this analysis. In that initial article, the question was asked, “Which numbers come first and why? Which numbers are the most important to know and understand?” The image was also used within the following articles: Fabric of the Universe (November 20, 2017, just below point #4), Consider how symmetries within the first 67 notations actually create space (Sept. 17, 2017) and Symmetry: Circles-to-Spheres-to-Triangles-to-Tetrahedrons-to-Octahedrons (September 13, 2017.

[1]  The three faces of the finite-infinite relation extend our earlier discussions about David Hilbert’s understanding of infinity and Max Tegmark’s disdain for the word. Continuity-symmetry-harmony are the mathematical-scientific faces of infinity and each face is captured by the dynamics of pi and the emergence of lattice, tetrahedrons and octahedrons, and eventually complex structure.

[2]  Frank Wilczek wrote his three-part series, “Scaling Mt. Planck” for Physics Today, yet has not acknowledged that Planck base units are the best conceptual orientation to start constructing this universe. As a result of this analysis, we will ask him, “Why not?” To our knowledge, the writings within this website are the first to lift up Max Planck’s base units as the starting point for the universe. We are anxious to discover and understand any articles that analyze their place, power and conceptual richness.

[3]  “The first emergence” is a steady stream of planckspheres being uniquely created just like they were in the very first moment. Every notation has a unique function and every notation is evolving at the same time it continues to do what it has done. Here, perhaps are Neil Turok’s perpetual starts of the universe. Here everything, everywhere is built up and emergent from this fabric of the universe, called an aether and/or dark matter and dark energy, that gives this universe its isotropy and homogeneity.

[4]  The Planck base units and dimensionless constants are inextricably interwoven throughout the 202 doublings (or notations) are based on the “Plancksphere” and that analysis is just beginning. I googled the word, for example, on June 25, 2018 with those quotes and there are just nine results. Using two words, “Planck sphere” with the quotes, there are 320 results. And without the quotes there are just over four million combinations that come close. Such results suggest that this is a new or emergent science.

Within our dynamic image about sphere stacking, the tetrahedral-octahedral architecture begins to emerge. Here, the possibilities for getting things inextricably woven together become staggering. By the tenth doubling there are 134,217,728 scaling vertices with which to work. By the 20th notation it catapults to 1.4411519×1017 — there are no limits to the entanglement of strings and knots and yet-to-be-fathomed geometries to create. By the 64th notation those scaling vertices have jumped up to 6.2771017×1057  and the first particle has yet to emerge!

Unless this simple logic is mistaken, there is altogether too much potential to ignore these possibilities and this orientation any longer.

Also, it should be pointed out that Max Planck’s formula for light — you can see it on line 10 of the horizontally-scorlled chart of 202 notations is a special calculation that needs further study.  The fact that these doublings is a form of base-2 exponentiation suggests that our universe is not linear and just might best be defined by Euler’s identity, considered by many mathematicians and physicists to be the most beautiful of all equations.

[5]   Everywhere, everything for all time shares this same moment and this same infrastructure. There are many books and articles about the nature of time. Within this study, most have fallen short. Einstein and Planck opened the door to re-analyze Newton’s earlier conceptual frame of absolute space and time, yet nothing more compelling emerged. Newton continues to define our commonsense logic, but should it? If it is established that period-doubling bifurcation, cellular division, double field theory and doubled geometry, and multiscale modeling all share the same common denominator that starts at the Planck base units, absolute space and time can be placed on the historical shelf as a footnote within the imprinting on the sentience of this universe. More work needed…

[6]  Consider disorder, chaos, uniqueness, creativity and fluctuations. The scholarly community is increasingly confused with the terms, infinite, space and time.  David Hilbert’s simple analysis leaves much to be desired. The infinite can be understood as a logical construct where it is the foundation for continuity, symmetry and harmony. These three perfections should all be understood to be a scientific assertion about the nature of order, relations, and dynamics. The various manifestations of fluctuations can be experienced as disorder, chaos, uniqueness, creativity and human will. The geometry for fluctuations begins with the simple pentastar, a clustering of five tetrahedrons. The next base structure, the icosahedron, is a clustering of 20 tetrahedrons. The dynamics of each will be introduced within future homepages.

[7]  Structures begin building on basic structure.   There are two areas where our analysis is focused. The first is on a notation-by-notation analysis but progress is slow because there is so much mathematical logic to be learned. The other is basic geometries, quantum geometries and dynamic geometries.  Here, too, there is so much to learn and, of course, more to come

[8]  There can be strains of continuity within discontinuity. There can be strains of discontinuity within continuity.  The continuity equations from the first doubling to the 202nd doubling come from within a continuity that envelopes our physical universe, so here, too, there is more to come

[9]  There appears to be a rigorous academic study of the logical construction of concepts, geometries, and equations. Mathematics and geometries do build upon each other! These studies will become our studies and as quickly as possible, each will be integrated within our map of the universe. Yes, there is more to come


“In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts,” meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have. These properties come about because of interactions among the parts.” -Wikipedia


This page was started on June 21, 2018 in South San Francisco while on our tour of America. On many occasions Hattie and I been challenged to look at the world and ourselves in new ways. Along our route, we’ve spent time engaging with people:

  • At John Hendrick’s retreat, Gateway Canyon Ranch, an hour south of Grand Junction, Colorado, we discovered his CuriosityStream retreat center. That got me thinking.
  • We were in the highly-overpriced Yellowstone Hotel in Wyoming where the National Park Service is attempting to create a Disney-like experience, highly-controlled-and-organized wilderness. That compressed conflict got me thinking.
  • On our drive to Bend, Oregon, I discovered the Simplot Don plant near Pocatello, Idaho and learned about fertilizers and growth and even that challenged my thinking.
  • In Bend, while visiting with friends, I was challenged again to understand why there is such disparity, both political and economic, within our world.
  • On to Portland, the land of inclusivity, two different sets of friends challenged me to see the world through their eyes. There is so much to process and process it we will until each becomes a homepage.

This homepage was simply to clarify the last three homepages:

Thanks again.

-BEC


The next homepage builds from this page and from those past homes pages linked just above, and from a page written on July 23, 2016 entitled, Chaos-Order, Indeterminant-Determinant.

Your Small Group To Discuss The Nature of the Finite-Infinite Relation

Initiated: December 11, 2017  Updated: April 12, 2018   A work-in-progress
PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS An Introduction to A NINE-WEEK STUDY GROUP. For LINKS TO THE ALL Sessions, SEE BELOW.

Convener-Presenter:  This could be you.

Purpose of this group. To develop a special graciousness and openness about life and beliefs, this group is for the people who want to get along with believers and non-believers. Can we find a deeper truth that holds up some new insights that will embrace both sides of an equation by focusing on the nature of the relation. We’ll engage the edges of scientific research and its implications for our current theories about the universe and its origins, and about who we are and the meaning and value of life.

Overview: One of the best sources for a study of the relation between the finite and infinite are the sacred texts within our religious traditions.  Many of us who grew up in the Christian tradition and like typical college students, we tend to reject the old to begin to self-actualize.  Then we begin studying at the limits and boundaries of our knowledge and the challenges can become so daunting, they get left in those undergraduate and graduate classrooms. Personally I went out as far as I could on the edges of physics, working with Bob Cohen, the chairman of Boston University’s physics department, and then with physicists from around the world. I began discovering there are conceptual overlaps between all the departments within the university. The most extreme appeared to be those who were religious and those who demonized all religions.

What can be more different that the texts within The Bible, both Old Testament and the New Testament, and most texts within the scientific community, that is between Genesis 1 and John 1 and Stephen Hawking’s big bang theory.  These sessions are designed to examine concepts within the sciences, philosophy, ethics, and mathematics to see how and where these overlap with concepts about eternity, infinity, light, and love. We start with an integrated view of the universe, and that begins to inform our understanding of the infinite and infinity.

Structure: This small group will have just nine gatherings, no longer than 90 minutes each. A goal for these sessions is to chart a way to empower people to create such a small group study.
• The first two sessions. We will re-examine cosmological models of the universe (2 weeks).
• The 3rd and 4th sessions:  We will explore various ways of approaching an understanding of the finite-infinite relation.
• The 5th and 6th sessions: We will explore a rather different understanding of light, a light that permeates and defines every notation and all of space and time.
• The 7th and 8th sessions.  We will explore the challenges to our understanding of basic concepts like space and time.  Both become finite and transaction oriented.
• The final session: Beyond the summaries, we will be searching for answers to the question, “What do we do now?”

Simple and small goals:  The first goal is to open the door to a very simple orientation to science and faith that (1) works with science and mathematics and (2) allows for, and possibly informs, religious beliefs. The next goal is to explore the entry points between the finite and infinite. Another goal is to explore the physics, philosophy, and psychology of light. If we have even limited success, we’ll all begin to shrink space and time and open up an intimacy with the universe.

Resources to start your own Study Group:

Promo sample to paste on bulletin boards: Please Update the dates, locations and people.
Update: PDF to be printed back-to-back after updating. It creates four 4.25×5.5 inch handouts.
Introduction/Overview
Session 1Models of the Universe   Worksheet #1   S1a   S1b   S1c
Session 2: Models of the Universe
Session 3: Finite-Infinite: Continuity-Symmetry-Harmony
Session 4: Finite-Infinite: Order-Relations-Dynamics
Session 5: Light as defined by the Planck Length and Planck Time
Session 6: Light and time. Ten ways to reconsider the nature of time.
Session 7: Eight Key Ideas
Session 8: Planck Explains Einstein and Redefines Space-Time and Pi.
Session 9: “It’s a wrap.”
1. Always check the homepage of 81018.com
2. Check for any prior homepages you may have missed.
3. Add to the dialogue: Comment, like, Tweet, Link

UPDATES ON TIME & LOCATIONS


A Quiet Expansion of the Universe

____________________________________________________________

Most recent update: February 2018

A working draft for the scientific – academic communities. Or a shorter version for the general public.

***************************************

Stephen Hawking rhetorically asked, “Where did the universe come from?” He continued, “The answer, as most people can tell you, is the big bang. Everything in existence, expanding exponentially in every direction, from an infinitely small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense point, creating a cosmos filled with energy and matter. But what does that really mean and where did it all begin?” Ref. [1] May 2016 PBS-TV series, Genius

As confident as Hawking appeared, the big bang is still just a theory. And, of course, there are other possibilities.

Within this post, we focus on a very simple model and nascent theory that has only been explored by a relatively small group of high school people and others within our extended community. We ask, “Is it possible that the universe began with an infinitesimally small length and time, and a relatively small charge and mass? Yes, we use those numbers defined by Max Planck in 1899, the Planck base units, to begin. In this model the universe is most simple and the opposite of  infinitely hot and infinitely dense.  Also, this structure becomes part of the ongoing structure of the universe. It supports the claim of Neil Turok and his colleagues that this universe is in a state of perpetually starting.

Our simple journey started in December 2011. In 2012 we began asking more-pointed questions about the first 67 of 202 notations. In 2013 we began our rather informal studies of the big bang theory. In 2014 we began to question it. Today, we are hoping the experts can tell us why using the powers of 2, doublings from the Planck scale to the Age of the Universe is not a proper outline for a model and theory. Having learned how idiosyncratic it is, we have many questions.

Universe View
Each epoch of the Big Bang has a corresponding set of notations. We question the first four epochs:
The Planck Epoch, the Grand Unification Epoch, and the Inflationary and Electroweak Epochs.
0-67-84-110
What is time? What is space?
What is finite? What is infinite?
Who was more correct, Newton or Leibniz?
0-55
The first four epochs of the big bang theory represent an infinitesimal amount of time within the QE model, surely not enough for the proposed events of those epochs.

Wilczek Wiki
In 2001 Frank Wilczek wrote a series of articles for Physics Today (link embedded here) about the Planck base units. Up until that point, this part of Planck’s work had been virtually ignored by the academic-and-scientific community (for over 100 years).

Might the mechanism for the doubling of a cell be a rather limited metaphor for the expansion of the universe? Could our universe be functionally based on the simplest mathematics, doubling both in size and in number up to this current notation and each step of the way? Is our universe, in fact, exponential (as in Euler’s equation), highly-ordered, and totally relational?

First principles. We postulate that the Planck scale is the unification of the four forces of nature with the unification of the Planck base units with those constants that define each unit, and that this unification, all defined as working ratios, is uniquely differentiated within each doubling throughout the entire 200+ steps from the first moment of creation to this moment, the current time and present day. It appears that all 202± steps are dynamic, actively participating in the current time and this definition of our universe. This postulation provides a working environment by which we hope to build a diversity of bridges from the Planck scale to all existing physical theories whereby each notation creates a very unique environment for predictive values.

We call this model the Quiet Expansion of the Universe, hereinafter, abbreviated QE.

We begin this study with the Planck Epoch, then attempt to justify reinterpreting the Grand Unification and Inflationary Epochs. The Electroweak Epoch begins the crossover which continues through the Quark Epoch and into the Hadron, Lepton and Electron Epochs. Thereafter, the QE will have so many bridges up from the Planck Epoch, it should become an expressway to the remaining epochs and all the useful definitions developed over the years within the big bang theory (hereinafter, abbreviated bbt).

The Planck base units. Further defined by the speed of light (or special relativity), the gravitational constant (or general relativity), the reduced Planck constant (or ħ or quantum mechanics), the Coulomb constant (or ε0 or electric charge or electromagnetism), and the Boltzmann constant (or kB or of temperature), all are bound within this Planck scale; and, herein it is proposed to be the foundations for a highly-ordered, totally-relational universe. The key to our model is multiplication by 2, starting with the Planck base units. A nexus of transformation between the finite and the infinite is defined by the crossing lines at “0” within the images on the right (just above Frank Wilczek).

We still have many questions. We have hopes and dreams. If the QE numbers can withstand the scrutiny of the academic and scientific communities, and we can begin to grasp the finite nature of space and time, and we can open a larger discussion about the nature of the finite-infinite relation, just maybe the bbt will recede and take a new role as an important chapter in academic as well as human history.

Our hope is that this posting will be able to stand the test of time; however, we full acknowledge that it is a “very rough first draft.”  Given the depth and breadth of the foundations upon which the big bang theory (bbt) currently rests, your comments while this posting is being refined, are most welcomed. If this embedded link does not open your email browser, my address is camber (at) 81018 (dot) com (or click on Contact (always within the navigation bar at the top).

Those pivotal Planck calculations were done between 1899 and 1905 by Max Planck. In December 2011 we were just beginning to learn about Planck and his calculations. We sought out experts and quickly found the work of Prof. Dr. Frank Wilczek (MIT).

Frank Wilczek. With very few exceptions, it was not until Wilczek began writing a series of articles in 2001, Scaling Mt. Planck, (Physics Today), did anybody think those Planck numbers amounted to anything more than numerology. It would take another ten years before we would come along, naively doing our thing with our geometries and simple doublings.

Though most academics are familiar with Kees Boeke’s 1957 work (Cosmic View) using base-10, we were not. Most all our academic contacts made quick reference to it, yet they were still surprised to see our chart from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe. Some asked, “Why haven’t we’ve seen this before now?” The others just thought it was more quantum mysticism  and numerology akin to Paul Dirac’s work with large numbers (link goes to a YouTube audio where Dirac explains it in his own words).

We are confident that the proponents of the big bang have never considered the first 67 notations defined within this Quiet Expansion model.

This simple work of multiplying the Planck units by 2, and then each result by 2, over and over and over again is a bit tedious. If you were to do it, in just over 200 steps you would emerge at the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe. You can follow the progression in any one of several charts. A simple doubling is what cells do. Other processes like chemical bonding and bifurcation theory have analogous dynamics.

These 200+ doublings have at various points been called: (1) archetypes, (2) clusters, (3) containers, (4) domains, (5) groups, (6) layers, (7) notations, (8) ratios, (9) sets or (10) steps. We believe that each captures a face of the functionality within the notation. We recognize that these Planck base units can be computed in many different ways. Eventually, in order to refine results, the reduced Planck constant may be used. The various values of gravity (G) can be tested. Important at this time is consistency and equivalence of methodologies across all calculations within all 200+ notations. Our initial goal is to create a simple working model that outlines the general working parameters and boundary conditions to give us a platform. Now we begin looking at the key critical ratios throughout the model with a hope that we may discern natural groups and patterns that might help us to judge the veracity of the model itself.

The web page, Big Board-little universe, provides more background of our rather brief history.

Big-bang Theory Drowns Out Discussions

To learn as much as possible as quickly as possible, we’ve used Wikipedia’s summaries. Wikipedia’s goal is to represent the best current thinking of the thought leaders within the relevant scientific communities. The scientists who are most often quoted have lived within this theory throughout their professional careers. It is part of their intellectual being. Notwithstanding, we believe most all of their work can be absorbed within the QE. Questions are primarily raised about the Planck Epoch, the Grand Unification Epoch, the Inflationary Epoch and the Electroweak Epochs. Taken together, the first three “epochs” represent less than a fraction of a fraction of a second within the QE model. And, with just a few tweaks, we believe some of this work and all the work within the subsequent epochs can be readily integrated.

The writers within the Wikipedia community overlap with those within these scientific communities. Wikipedia, constantly in the process of refining their writing, provides several summaries of the History of the Universe. All work based on observations and measurements has a place within the QE model. Our guess is that the interpretation of those observations and measurements will become richer and more informative when the QE parameters and boundary conditions are engaged.

In 1970 there were truly competing theories about the beginning of the universe. By 1990 the bbt had become dominant. In 2011 our little group of high school geometry people began to explore the interior structures of the tetrahedron and octahedron. Then we found within our tilings and tessellations, and then all the simple doublings from the Planck base units to the Age of the Universe and to the Observable Universe. That continuum appeared so simple, we first engaged it as an excellent STEM (Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics) tool. Yet, with further study and thought, it also seemed to challenge some of our basic commonsense assumptions about nature (the back story). As we studied our new little model, the bbt continued to solidify its dominance within the general culture at the same time we started to question it. We began to believe that the actual physics of the first moments of creation might be better defined by the simple mathematics of a quiet expansion, especially those first 67 notations. These 67 have never been recognized as such and certainly have not been discussed within academia. The great minds throughout the ages have been unaware of the 202 doublings, especially those first 67 steps. So mysterious are the 67, we began more actively to think about them and to make some postulations about their place and purpose.

This is our first posting about this quiet expansion. It is a result of our naive, informal, and often idiosyncratic studies of the Planck base units, simple doublings, and an inherent geometry assumed (hypothesized, hypostatized, and/or imputed) to be within every scale (doubling, layer, notation, step, etc) throughout the universe. We have moved slowly. Having backed into the Planck base units from our simple exercises in geometry class, we were not at all sure of ourselves. So, after observing our results for a couple of years, we began asking the question, “Could this be a more-simple, more-inclusive model of the universe than the big bang theory?” Because we only have the beginnings of an outline of a model, we continued our quest and continued to ask more questions:

Who? What? Why?

When? Where? How?

Who: The history of the Big Bang Theory (bbt) is highly documented. It is an intellectual cornerstone within experimental and theoretical physics, cosmology, and astrophysics.

What: To challenge the bbt appears foolhardy at best. Yet, there are many, many reasons to challenge it, but most of all because (1) it is overly complex and confusing, (2) it is not very good philosophy, and (3) it is very poor psychology.

Why: The first three key parts of the bbt, involving substantially less than a trillionth of a second, are based on hunches and a need to shoehorn data to support the model.

Wikipedia says, “Planck scale is beyond current physical theories; it has no predictive value. The Planck epoch is assumed (or theorized) to have been dominated by quantum effects of gravity.”

We say that the Planck scale is the starting point for the initial six notations (de facto defined by the bbt) and that these notations are shared by everything, everywhere in the universe. Painfully aware of the limitations of our vocabulary, these first notations are considered to be archetypal forms, structure and substance. Archetypal is used in the sense of the original pattern or model by which all things of the same type are representations, the prototype, or a perfect example. For more, see all of 67 encapsulating notations (opens in a new window or tab).

Both models have made key assumptions. We believe the QE model is internally more consistent, imaginative, and stimulating.

This “Singularity” Is a Meeting Place of Converging Formulae, perhaps also known as a Modulus-or-Nexus of Transformation

Keys to this Quiet Expansion: More than the big bang theory‘s four forces of nature — gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force, and the weak force — within this Planck scale we assume these four are encapsulated within all four Planck base units and the constants that define them, and some manifestation of this unification is carried throughout all 202 notations. And, as we have noted, the Planck base units are defined by length, time, mass, and charge; and, these are further defined by the speed of light (or special relativity), the gravitational constant (or general relativity), the reduced Planck constant (or ħ or quantum mechanics), the Coulomb constant (or ε0 or electric charge or electromagnetism), and the Boltzmann constant (or kB or of temperature).

The Planck scale is not beyond logic, numbers, and conceptual integrity. Homogeneity, isotropy and simple logic rule. Yet, within the Quiet Expansion (QE) model, we have applied that simple logic somewhat arbitrarily by placing Planck Temperature at the top of the scale, just beyond the 202nd notation and then dividing by 2, it goes down approaching Absolute Zero. We are ready to adjust it at any time when a more integrative logic prevails! Also, we are increasingly finding a simple relational logic between the four original Planck base units. Notwithstanding, this logic will be constantly revisited throughout our ever-so-slow development of QE model.

Within the QE model, the Planck Charge, a Coulombs value, is taken as given. Within the big bang theory (bbt), the Planck Charge is ignored. The bbt value is as large as possible. Their measurement is given in GeV units, one billion electron volts. Add 1016 zeroes and you have quite a charge.

To begin to understand all these numbers and their correlations, questions are asked, “Are these all non-repeating, never-ending numbers like Pi? Are all numbers that are non-repeating and never-ending somehow part of the infinite yet also the beginning of quantum mechanics?” The suggestion has been made that we carry out each of the Planck numbers at least 10 decimal places, and if need be, 100 decimal places, and possibly even 1000 decimal places, to see if patterns can be discerned. We recognize that relative to other units of measurement, such as the SI base quantities, the values of the Planck units are approximations mostly due to uncertainty in the value of the gravitational constant (G).

The QE model holds that things are simple before complex and everything is related to everything. Imputed, hypostatized and/or hypothesized are pointfree vertices and simple geometries as the deep infrastructure that gives rise to the work on combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory (and the Feigenbaum’s constants), Langlands program, mereotopology (point-free geometry), the 80-known binary operations, and scalar field theory. Here are people working on theories and constructions of the simple, yet their concepts are anything but simple.

The exacting nature of the correlations between the multiples of the Planck base units is just being explored for the first time. But, to say the least, within the QE everything everywhere is related through simple mathematics.

Big Bang Theory (bbt)

Planck epoch

Planck time:

<10−43 seconds

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Planck Temperature:

1032 Kelvin

First key bbt error

Planck Energy:

1019 GeV

Second bbt error

Grand Unification

Epoch

<10−36 seconds~
1016 GeV
(gigaelectronvolts)

Third bbt error

Inflationary

Epoch and

Electroweak

Epoch

<10−33 s to <10−32 seconds

1028 K to 1022 Kelvin

Expansion: 1026 meters

Editor: “Science Fiction”

Fourth bbt error~

Quark Epoch

>10−31 to

>10−12 seconds

1012 Kelvin

We sync the QE time to the bbt time. The temperature scale is now beginning to sync as well.

Hadron Epoch

10−6 seconds to

10−1 seconds

1010 Kelvin to

109 Kelvin

Lepton Epoch

1 second to

10 seconds

109 K

Note: QE temp higher

Photon Epoch

(Nucleosynthesis)

10 seconds to

103 seconds to

1013 seconds~

1011 Kelvin to

109 Kelvin to

103 Kelvin

10 MeV to 100 keV
Please note: We are actively seeking an expert in this area.

Matter-dominated

era

47 ka (47,000 years) to

10 Ga (10×109) years~

104 Kelvin to

4 Kelvin

Recombination

380 ka (380,000 years)~

4000 Kelvin

Dark Ages

380 ka to 150 Ma (Mega-annus)

or 150 million years

4000 Kelvin to

60 Kelvin

Stelliferous Era

150 Ma (150 million years)

100 Gab (150 billion years)

60 Kelvin to 0.03 Kelvin

Reionization

~150 Ma to

1 Ga (1 Billion)~

>60 K to 19 K

Galaxy formation

and evolution

1 Ga to 10 Ga

19 Kelvin to 4 Kelvin

Dark-energy

dominated era

>10 Ga

Present time

13.8 Ga

2.7 Kelvin

Quiet.Expansion.(QE)

Notations 0-6

Planck base units

Planck time:

5.39106×10−44 seconds

≈4.4×10-27 (K)

Temperature: Derivative

of the base units?

1.8×10-18 Coulombs

2.176×10-8 kilograms

1.61×10-35 meters

Notation 7 to 34

7: 6.901×10−42 (s)

31: 1.157×10−34 (s)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
4.02×10-9 Coulombs

A simple natural inflation

Notation 35 – 40

35: 6.44×10-8 Coulombs

40: 2.06×10-6 (C)

35: 1.852×10-33 (s)

40: 5.927×10−32 (s)

Note: QE syncs to bbt time

2.42×10-17 (K)

35: 5.55×10-25 meters

40: 1.77×10-23 (m)

Notation 41-104

41: 1.18×10−31 seconds

104: 1.09×10−12 (s)

41: 4.84×10-17 Kelvin

104: 4.47×102 (K)

(Please note: 310K is equal to 98.33°F, 36.85° C. That’s special.

Notation 105142

105: 2.18×10−12 (s)

142: 3.0×10−1 (s)

105: 8.94×102 Kelvin

142: 6.14×1013 (K)

Notation 143147

143: 6.01×10−1 (s)

147: 9.61 (s)

143: 2.45×1014 Kelvin

147: 3.93×1015 (K)

Notation 147-154187

147: 9.6185 seconds
154: 1231.1 (s)
187: 1.05×1013 (s) or
or 320± thousand years
147: 3.932×1015 Kelvin
154: 5.03×1017 (K)
187: 4.32×1027 (K)
147: 3.346×1026 (C)
154: 4.28×1028 (C)
187: 3.67×1038 (C)

Notation 184– 201

Cosmology emerges!

184: 1,321,967,651,940 (s)

or 41,919.31 years

201: 10 billion years

184: 5.4×1026 Kelvin

201: 7.0×1031 (K)

Notation 187

10,575,741,215,500 (s)

320± thousand years

3.6×1038 (C)

4.3×1027 Kelvin

Notation 187-196

196: 171.2± million years

5,414,779,502,320,000 sec

2.2×1030 (K)

Approaching Planck Temperature

Notation 196-199

196: 171.2± million years

199: 1.27 billion years

Notation 196-199

196: 171.2± million years

199: 1.27 billion years

Note:

.Notation 199-202

199: 1.27 billion years

203+: Way-Distant future

7.08×1031 Kelvin

Notations 1-202

The dark-energy dominated era is being evaluated in light of the first 64 notations, the derivative natural of time, and homogeneity and isotropy.

Notation 202+

13.8 billion years

Planck Temperature

Read More »