# From Particles to Galaxies And Beyond

**By Bruce Camber **

**Background**. In 1961 Sheldon Glashow, with his work on the electroweak interactions between particles, may well have laid the foundations for what would eventually become known as the **Standard Model for Particle Physics**. In 1964 Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson measured the *cosmic microwave background radiation* (CMBR) which appears to have laid the foundation for a **Standard Model of Cosmology**, more often referred to as the Lambda Cold Dark Matter model (ΛCDM).

**Creative Zeitgeist**. The two models emerged and grew through a rather amorphous, creative zeitgeist with many different contributors from within each of the disciplines that it touches. Here we have a demonstration of our seemingly universal hope to bring order to the chaos of an ever-expanding, wide-diversity of information. Though the information focuses on the two ends of the spectrum, the small-scale universe, on one hand, and the large-scale universe on the other, logic tells us that these two must share key facets and facts. And, indeed, there are such facets and facts, yet they have only been informally shared. I am still looking for an analysis of how these facets were shared.

1. What are electroweak interactions between particles? **What is the Electroweak Epoch**?

2. What is a quark? …squark? …top quark? **What is the Quark-Gluon Epoch**?

3. What is a hadron? **What is the Hadron Epoch**?

4. What is a lepton? **What is the Lepton Epoch**?

These are four pivotal, overlapping, studies; the breakdown occurs with the Inflationary Epoch and the Grand Unification Epoch. Here we assume that the Planck Epoch, laughably short within the big bang theory, is in fact a process that is on-going today. Attempting to be consistent with Neil Turok’s findings, the guess is that it is constantly creating planckspheres, which we guess is the heart of dark energy and dark matter.

So, in much the same way base-2 exponentiation was applied to the Planck base units, it is being applied to both standard models to attempt to integrate that data as a whole.

This discussion was first opened from a page about algorithms and the Standard Models.

**Notes:**

Wolfgang Pauli in 1924 was the first to propose a doubling of electron states due to a two-valued non-classical “hidden rotation”.^{[6]}

The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions

Antonio Pich (2 Jan 2012)

Gauge invariance is a powerful tool to determine the dynamical forces among the fundamental constituents of matter. The particle content, structure and symmetries of the Standard Model Lagrangian are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the many phenomenological tests which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of the electroweak interactions: electroweak precision tests, Higgs searches, quark mixing, neutrino oscillations.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1201.0537