T**he four base units**: Planck Length, Planck Time, Planck Mass and Planck Charge need to be studied and analyzed as carefully as possible. Perhaps the most important is the Planck constant because it is involved with the definition of all four.

An earlier calculation of ISO-accepted Planck Time: 5.391 16(13)×10^{-44} seconds

**Background**: In 2012 we began asking about Planck Time, “Has anybody done a base-2 extension of Planck Time to the Age of the Universe?” I had assumed that somebody somewhere had done it. It would be nice if somebody else had done all that simple-but-tedious math. Though slowly getting to know Max Planck and the Planck Length, we were a long way from knowing how to interpret our very first little chart.

It would take another two years before I said, “**Nobody has done it. Just do it. Stop being lazy**.”

Gerard ‘t Hooft and Stefan Vandoren did a base-10 version as the underlying architecture for their book, *Time in Powers of Ten: Natural Phenomena and Their Timescales.* Although Newton’s absolute time may well lurk within their commonsense view of time, they are well aware of the other possibilities, perhaps best summarized within the editorial work of David Gross to encapsulate the proceedings of the 23rd Solvay conference on the quantum structure of space and time.

Look up into a clear-night, moonless sky. The stars seem endless. Inevitably someone says, “It goes on forever.” And so we say, “*Thank you, Sir Isaac*.” But, does it? The answer seems to be, “No, it goes just as far as the current expansion of the universe.”

Eventually we will analyze every element in the equation above. For now, this comparison and these resources are being used to learn more about the Planck Time:

- Though our first expert on the Planck units had been John Baez, he was much too important for us. We then found Wikipedia to be a terrific introductory resource. It was difficult to insert anything there. We quickly learned that it was only for encyclopedic work that had been vetted by mainstream publications. Our first attempt to open a discussion about the age-old concepts as a Wikipedia article, was deleted as
*original research*, an activity led by Stephen Johnson, an MIT mathematics professor and a Wikipedia editor. - Base-10 models of the universe were ubiquitous. We needed to see a chart with base-2 and base 10 side by side so we created it.
- Frank Wilczek: Scaling Mt. Planck I, II & III encouraged us to continue exploring the definitions for the Planck Natural Units, base units, and fundamental units.
- Wikipedia continued to give the Scale of the universe, i.e. orders of magnitude, plenty of space.
- “Quantum foam” New Scientist. Retrieved 29 June 2008, would become another domain for us for new research.

Much more to come….

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About this page:

Initiated: February 2, 2018 Last update: 15 January 2023

References from the following pages: https://81018.com/all-time-is-now/#Planck