Time, a most problematic puzzle

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It’s About Time…….
And how it holds values. ……
by Bruce E. Camber

A working-first draft

Abstract: Albert Einstein essentially said that time is an illusion.* Many other smart people have agreed with him. A person with a sense of history might say, “…since time immemorial…” when thinking of something from long ago that still affects us. There are many people who are familiar with the poetry of Ecclesiastes 3:1-8, “To everything there is a season…” where time has specific meanings; it’s all linear or chronos time. Throughout our history, there is also a special use of kairos, for the fullness of time, an intersectional time between the finite and infinite. And in that light, the faces of pi, continuity-symmetry-harmony, define a different time; here are the equations of time, always dynamic, always changing, and also always the same. It is the very definition of the infinite where time is recompiling, integrating, texturing, and making whole. And finally, today there are several major studies like loop quantum gravity and the spectral standard model where their scholarly advocates say, “All time is now.”†

The sanity within this world may well be conditioned by our understanding of the very nature of time. It’s about how this universe starts and we know that answers provided by big bang cosmology are incomplete and not quite satisfactory.

Introduction. Today all of science is de facto set within a conceptual framework that is defined by Big Bang cosmology.[1] Theoretically it is the start of everything yet those in the know readily admit that it has nothing to say about the first minutes of our universe.

The big bang theory began to get a singular hold on cosmology in the early 1980s. There were other theories but none were building consensus like the big bang and none had a de facto spokesperson like Stephen Hawking. Nevertheless, there were many scholars over the years who did not become believers.

Since 2011, we’ve been studying a simple base-2, mathematical progression from the Planck base units, particularly Planck Time until now, the current time. In that period we found ourselves agreeing more often with those who do not affirm a Big Bang theory.

In 2022 two key homepages emerged, Big bang versus Quiet Expansion: A Comparison and Hawking’s big bang theory has reached its limits. Always in process, along with this homepage, these three articles will continue to be worked and reworked until each is accepted within a respected publication. Communications (emails and instant messages) to each publication will be included here. Either this theory is on a better path or it’s not. If not a better path, there will be a fascinating discussion about the very nature of the continuity of numbers and equations that will have to be written. If it is a better path, we’ll try to get doctoral candidates and postdocs to engage all those numbers to tell us what they find.

The focus of this article is the nature of time. It seems that most big bang theorists cast time as linear even though Hawking said the universe is “…expanding exponentially in all directions…” They cannot and do not override their experience of personal-linear time, or chronos, or time measured by a clock. So, the net-net is that our commonsense view of time concludes that there are finite durations which are measured by clocks and, with a nod to Newton, that it goes on forever. There is chronos time and Sir Isaac Newton’s absolute time, “It’s finite and infinite at the same time.” That’s not easy and it doesn’t solve problems.

Our theory, the Quiet Expansion, casts time within an exponential framework. The essence of the Greek word, kairos, and the current leading advocates that all time is now, should become our centerpoint. Working within our larger model, the 202 base-2 notations from Planck Time until this moment, logic seem to be telling us that every notation is active and necessarily part of the ongoing definition of the universe, so in effect, we introduce a new equation within all the old debates about time.

Within this framework chronological time is limited to the waking hours of sentient beings within Notation-202. Time symmetry exists in all other respects and within all other notations; all time is now.[2]

The finite and infinite faces of time

I don’t think there is anybody else currently suggesting that linear time, chronos, is a subset of exponential time and that it is limited to sentient beings during their wake cycles and that unique experience is re-compiled during that sentient being’s sleep cycles. It is a peculiar sense of time. It needs critical review. Hopefully, there will be a lot of pressure put on it. To pre-release some of that pressure, these five prior homepages have looked into issues around big bang cosmology:

But all seven articles are not yet sensitive enough. Each new concept needs to be gone over again and again. There are too many new subtleties to grasp and integrate.

Our hope is that by adopting a radically different concept of time, unsolved problems in both physics and cosmology can be addressed in new ways. For example, concepts like dark energy and dark matter just might be defined by a heretofore unexamined grid — just a bit smaller than particle physics — this part of the overall grid of 202 doublings systemically continues for 64 notations, dividing by 2 each step of the way, down to Planck-scale physics. Particles and quantum fluctuations are observed in the range of Notations 67-to-64. Yet, within that grid, the speculation is that different kinds of hypothetical particles and quantum fluctuations may well be “observed” [3] down to about Notation-50.

A very different, yet-simple, understanding of the cosmological constant may slowly emerge whereby infinitesimal spheres are generated at rates symbolically defined by Planck Time (or Stoney Time or a new ISO Time). If we can assume that one infinitesimal sphere is generated per unit of the most Infinitesimal Time and Infinitesimal Length, that’d be a revolution unto itself! We’ve discussed the concept that it would be anywhere from 539-to-4605 tredecillion spheres per second constantly filling the universe from the very first instant.

Further, we may be able to assume that these 64 notations are the long-sought for bridge between quantum gravity and relativity theory. If so, it’s another obvious revolution.

Also, by recognizing an expanded role for pi, an entire domain of perfected states in space-time opens. These notations should also be the foundations for SUSY. We hypothesize that these new parameters also become the basis for valuations and ethics. There are more than enough domains, or notations, to include Langlands programs, strings, and the most active studies from causal dynamical triangulations (CDT), loop quantum gravity (LQG)causal set theory (CST), field theoriesspectral standard model (SSM), and all the hypothetical particles.

All can be redefined within that base-2 grid of 64 of the 202 notations.

Most importantly: The universe is opened up to an active finite-infinite relation, whereby continuity, symmetry and harmony, the primary functions of pi, have redefined what we can know about infinity.

Base-2 expansion of Planck Time. Taken to be a symbolic first moment of time, Planck Time goes out the 202 doublings to this very moment in time. Time has a mathematical structure of numbers and it has geometric structures of the simplest geometries (shapes) evolving from spheres and then from tetrahedrons and its octahedron, and then every possible geometric extension of them. In the 67 steps from Planck-scale physics to particle physics, the entire universe seems to share these building blocks. From the first moment of time to this very moment in time within a base-2 grid everything, everywhere, for all time is interrelated.

The universe is filled with the infinitesimal spheres defined by natural units such as the Planck base units and are initially best described by the stacking and packing of spheres (beginning with Kepler-Harriot) and then most-recently by scholars like Thomas Hales (Pittsburgh), then the cubic-close packing of equal spheres, and then the emergence of tetrahedrons and octahedrons and all the potential geometries.

That Planck scale physics defines the first moment of time. We can consider how these units are the manifestation of a finite-infinite relation whereby the continuity-symmetry-harmony of the sphere manifests through all space-time and mass-energy.

Time, profoundly personal

Kairos, the fullness of time. The scientific community has had justifiable reservations about engaging the concept of the infinite. Max Tegmark has been outspoken with his recommendation that it be retired completely from intellectual discourse. I have written to Max and to suggest that it would be better to redefine the nature of the infinite, especially in light of those facets of our reality that do not readily fit into what we generally consider to be finite, particularly continuity, symmetry, and harmony.

.That interstitial or intersectional place within Notation-0 is both finite and infinite [4]. It is quantitative and qualitative [5]. It is the basis of the fullness of time. It is the very nature of time defined as karios [6].

It is also opening up part of quantum computing and opening a spotlight on the concept of anyons. What is generated from observations can trick our eyes. What seems to have been generated from first principles, laws, and logic may not be basic enough. And, discerning the difference is not as straightforward as it seems.

So, of course, there will always be much more to come… Thank you. -BEC


Endnotes and Footnotes
Many of these points already have pages within this website.

[*] May 17, 20131:00 PM, National Public radio, Ira Flatow, Host of Science Friday:

To most of us, time is real: I’ve run out of time, I don’t have time, What time is it? But, not to most physicists. Albert Einstein once wrote: ‘People like us who believe in physics know that the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.’ Time, in other words, he said, is an illusion.’ Many physicists since have shared this view, that true reality is timeless.” 

– Flatow quoting from a letter to members of the Michele Besso family, 21 March 1955

[†] “All time is now.” Loop quantum gravity (LQG) expert, Carlo Rovelli, rekindles Einstein spirit when he says, “There is no such thing as past or future” and “Time is an illusion.” Notwithstanding, Rovelli and LQG have a ways to go before redefining time.

[1] A de facto weakness of our scientific method. The scientific method has historically been detached from a cosmological point of view. Afterall, it is a method of hypothesizing, predicting, measuring, testing, confirming, and synthesizing. Yet, in these days, the big bang theory casts a shadow over all of science and even its scientific method. Since becoming dominant in the last decades of the 20th century, it has become an arbiter of truth. It seems as though all of research must comply or, at least, not refute big bang orthodoxy. That is unfortunate.

[2] Time symmetry exists in all other respects and within all other notations. Of the great mysteries of life, consciousness-and-sleep are high on the list. The finite/infinite relation is perhaps at the top. Dark energy-dark matter, quantum fluctuations, blackholes are on most lists. We specially add perfections-in-space-time and a natural inflation-and-expansion to our list. There are so many unsolved mysteries. This definition of time may well open a door to re-address some of them.

[3] Observation, Measurement and the scientific method. To be science, it must be observed or measured. At Notation-67 we are on the edge of experimental observation and at Notation-64 we are on the edge of experimental measurement. The measuring devices begin to interfere with what is being measured. At Notation-50 we are within an ethereal zone where only logic and mathematics and geometries still stand. These first 50 notations are real. We know that because Planck units or Stoney units or ISO units give us the numbers from dimensionless constants and natural units. We can only trust that these calculations render meaningful albeit highly-symbolic numbers. These are our first calculations of space and time and although there may be three slightly different sets of numbers (Planck, Stoney, ISO), we should discover that when base-2 is applied and the whole numbers of our collective experience begin to emerge, say within that first second within Notation-143, the differences between the three sets of numbers are negligible. And, although I just wrote that sentence, I now know that it must be carefully checked out!

[4] Notation-0 is both finite and infinite. It is a Janus face. One side is physically (quantitatively) defined, the other side is qualitatively defined by universals, particularly, dimensionless constants set within continuity, symmetry, and harmony. David Hilbert’s work is being reviewed by scholars like Xijia Wang. The reach of symmetries is being examined by scholars like Yuxi Fu. So many scholars have danced within and throughout these issues. The Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton have studied it as an art form! Eventually their scholars will begin to help us all move beyond Albert Einstein, Kurt Gödel, and David Hilbert.

[5] Quantitative and qualitative. Time has both numbers and values. Numbers objectify space-time. Values, the qualitative, personalize space-time and create memories. Those memories do not exist within the finite but the infinite. Our brains are localized within space-time; our minds are within continuity-symmetry-harmony and define who we are. To the degree that there is continuity-symmetry-harmony is the degree there is value.

[6] Confluence and karios. Always dynamic, the finite-infinite relation is exquisitely refined beyond all our sensibilities and imagination. The confluence of possibilities involves the perfect-imperfect, the hot-cold, the good-the bad, the light-the dark, asleep-awake… all the contrasts attempted to be captured by the writer of Ecclesiastes 3:1-8, and then even more, much more.

(still in process on January 16, 2023…)

More: The concept of anyons and fakeons.


References & Resources
As these issues are studied, key references and resources will be added.

  • Space-time as a causal set, Luca Bombelli, Joohan Lee, David Meyer, and Rafael D. Sorkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 521 , 3 August 1987
  • Neil Turok, appears to reaffirm the bang! Just a few years ago, he said that the universe acts like it is perpetually starting. Now, apparently he is trying to reconcile it with the strong CP problem and big bang cosmology. It’s a bit confusing. We’ll dig into his current work further.


Recent emails. There will be emails to many of our scholars about the key points.

• Thomas Callister Hales, Pittsburgh, December 30, 2022
• Yuxi Fu, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, December 27, 2022
• Benoit Estienne, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, December 17, 2022
• Damiano Anselmi, University of Pisa, December 17, 2022
• Martin Bridson, Oxford; Clay Institute, December 17, 2022
 Levent Alpoge, Harvard, Cambridge, December 16, 2022
• Richard J. Fitzgerald, AIP, December 16, 2022
• Alan Guth, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, December 13, 2022
• Gil Lonzarich, Cavendish Lab, Cambridge University, December 12, 2022
• Sankar Das Sarma, University of Maryland, December 11, 20222
• Ana Caraiani, Hausdorff Chair BonnImperial College London, Thurs, 8 Dec, 8:43 AM
• Orli Dahan, Tel-Hai College, Israel, 7 December 2022 @ 2:42 PM
• Elizabeth Gibney, Nature magazine, Tues, Dec 6, 7:57 PM
• Pascal OeschObservatoire de Genève (Switzerland), December 4, 2022
• Salvatore Torquato, Princeton University, December 1, 2022
• Julia Collins, ECU, Joondalup, Australia, December 1, 2022
• Simon Singh, London, UK, December 1, 2022 (in process)
• Jonathan Doye, Oxford, UK, November 23, 2022 (follow-up)

Intersectional timeBlack Quantum Futurism Collective (Rasheedah Phillips + Camae Ayewa) Note: “I am just now starting to develop a paragraph with links to the BQF regarding their understanding of intersectional time. I am now searching for uses of the concept of intersectionality.” Also, see https://timezoneprotocols.space/archive/library/time-temporality/


There will also be many instant messages to thought leaders about the key points.

7:20 AM · Jan 20, 2023 @PhysicsMagazine @KatRWright @stevenstrogatz @JonathanDoye @Nature @NobelPrize Quasicrystals from a sand dune remind us, “Geometry is basic.” Five tetrahedral-and-octahedral gaps- https://81018.com/15-2/ – tell us, too. It’s continuity-symmetry-harmony: https://81018.com/csh/

10:54 AM · Jan 3, 2023 @zlj517 This is the time to redefine our understanding of time! I’m trying.
Real scholars in China are, too.
 We all need to celebrate the work
of Yuxi FuXijia WangAndrew Chi-Chih Yao, and Chaunming Zong:

2:11 PM · Jan 2, 2023 @geostylegeo Why not build from the simplest math and geometry with natural numbers by Planck, Stoney, and perhaps the ISO? If we apply base-2, there are just 202 notations (doublings) from the most simple to the age and size of the universe. Take a look: https://81018.com/chart/

6:35 PM · Dec 27, 2022 @howie_hua Howie Hua: You might be able to tell us what we’ve been doing wrong! https://81018.com/stem/ We’re out of step with the mainline cosmology geeks. We just used base-2 from the Planck base units to encapsulate the universe in 202 notations. What’s wrong with that?https://81018.com/home/

5:36 PM · Dec 12, 2022 @brianeno You’re in the groove of an all universe, everything, everywhere for all time which is the encapsulation of space and time using base-2 notation from the Planck base units. It’s not a trick. It’s continuity, symmetry and harmony in flow. More: https://81018.com

6:01 PM · Dec 3, 2022 @tedlieu If we are ever to reach some consensus for the future of this country, we need to break free of our little worldviews and adopt a highly-integrated view of the universe. This is a first: https://81018.com/chart/ We need to grasp it all: https://81018.com/stem/

4:46 PM · Dec 3, 2022 @mtaibbi We are all wrapped up within our little worldviews that impairs judgment and logic. A highly integrated view of the universe sounds crazy but… apply base-2 to the Planck units, there are 202 notations from Planck Time to this dayhttps://81018.com It opens logic.


Participate ….. You are always invited.


Keys to this page, all-time-is-now

• This page became the homepage on December 23, 2022.
 It still in process; it’s open for collaborations to improve it.
• The last update was January 21, 2023
• This page was initiated on November 24, 2022.
• The URL for this file: https://81018.com/all-time-is-now/
• Prior homepage: https://81018.com/parameters/
• The first headline for this article: All Time Is Now
• First byline is: Time is not what we think it is