Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics,

School of Physics and Astronomy

University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK

**Articles**: The Conversation, *Nature*, by Wolchover, *What Shape Is the Universe?* (2019) **ArXiv** (119): **Listening to the BOSS** – the galaxy power spectrum take on spatial curvature and cosmic concordance, October 2020

— **Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results**: Constraints on Extended Cosmological Models from Galaxy Clustering and Weak Lensing (Nov. 2019)

— Nature: Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology (2019)**Google Scholar****Homepage** (ResearchGate)**inSPIRE**^{HEP}

Nature: Crack in the cosmological paradigm (in ArXiv), 2017**PhD**: Constraining Fundamental Physics with Current Cosmological Data, Sapienza, 2014**Twitter**: Jodrell Bank [2]**YouTube**: Cosmology in Tension, Nov 18, 2019

Second email: 18 October 2020

Dear Prof. Dr. Eleonora di Valentino:

Congratulations on your breadth and depth of work! I have quoted you and your colleagues within today’s top-level posting (homepage).

I have begun to develop a page of references about you and your work here:

https://81018.com/divalentino/

I recently worked through your Symmetry magazine article,

*Exploring the Tension between Current Cosmic Microwave Background and Cosmic Shear Data* (November 2018). It’ll remain on my reading list until I begin to grasp it more fully.

Thanks again.

Warmly,

Bruce

First email: November 8, 2019 (Updated: October 2020)

Dear Prof. Dr. Alessandro Melchiorri, Prof. Dr. Eleonora Di Valentino and Prof. Dr. Joseph Silk:

*There should be no crisis for cosmology*!

We all want to live within the best possible understanding of our actual reality. Could a closed-universe model be created by starting with Planck Time, Planck Length, Planck Mass and Planck charge, and by applying base-2, encapsulating the universe within 202 exponential notations that start at the very first moment of space and time and goes to the current age-and-size of the Universe?

That is **NOT** a simple closed universe **BUT**, it is totally idiosyncratic; it should open many new doors to explore and that could be quite exciting. Please Note: Highlighted words added in 2020.

First, we find the 202 notations: https://81018.com/chart/

That link opens to all the numbers horizontally scrolled.

Then we should explore the first 64 notations; these are virtually unexplored.

This work comes out of a high school so I apologize if there are silly errors. Also, we did a comparison of that progression of numbers with the definition of the Big Bang epochs within the standard model: https://81018.com/calculations/ It seems to compare well.

So we just might have our cake and eat it, too. Of course, we’ll need to jump on the Rovelli bandwagon (along with Richard Muller of Berkeley and others) and finally grasp a new understanding of our illusion of time’s arrow.

Thank you for all your work. Congratulations. Brilliant!

Warmly,

Bruce

**Parametrised modiﬁed gravity and the CMB Bispectrum**, ArXiv 2012, “Cosmic acceleration is one of the major challenges faced by modern cosmology and understanding the very nature of what is sourcing it is the main focus of up-coming and future cosmological experiments.”

### [**PDF]** **Interacting Dark Energy in a closed universe**

E Di Valentino, A Melchiorri, O Mena, S Pan, W Yang – arXiv, 2020 Recent measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Anisotropies power spectra measured by the Planck satellite show a preference for a closed universe at more than $99\% $ Confidence Level.

### [PDF] **A (brave) combined analysis of the $ H_0 $ late time direct measurements and the impact on the Dark Energy secto**r

E Di Valentino – arXiv:2011.00246, 2020 We combine 16 Hubble constant measurements based on Cepheids-SN Ia, TRGB-SN Ia, Miras-SN Ia, Masers, Tully Fisher, Surface Brightness Fluctuations, SN II and Time-delay Lensing, obtaining our best {\it optimistic} $ H_0 $ estimate.