**Nicolás Bernal**, Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Nariño

Carrera 3 Este #47A-15, Bogotá, Colombia

ArXiv: *The First Three Seconds: a Review of Possible Expansion Histories of the Early Universe* (PDF), June 2020

Homepage(s): Google Scholar, nSpire^{HEP}, LinkedIN

Publications: Self-interacting dark matter without prejudice, 2020

• *The dawn of FIMP Dark Matter: A review of models and constraints* (PDF), Nicolás Bernal, Matti Heikinheimo, Tommi Tenkanen, Kimmo Tuominen and Ville Vaskonen, International Journal of Modern Physics A, Vol. 32, No. 27, 1730023, 2017

Fourth email: 31 January 2022 @ 1:50 PM

Dear Prof. Dr. Nicolás Bernal:

Your article, Self-interacting dark matter without prejudice, API, 2020, has come to my attention. If the starting point of basic structure begins at the Planck scale and the first particle is defined by the base units, such particles are well-below the thresholds of measurement. Is it a possible scenario that you have logically explored?

Of course, the dynamics must be inferred. Yet, Langlands programs and string/M theory may have a place, however, I am more inclined to initially consider simple sphere stacking and packing. Do you know anybody who has ever considered it?

Thank you.

Most sincerely,

Bruce

Third email: Monday, September 21, 2020, 7:33 PM

Dear Prof. Dr. Nicolás Bernal:

We are not scholars, just high school people.

Back in 2011 we followed Zeno to the Planck Wall and we’ve been asking questions ever since.

Did you receive our first note back on August 2? At that time, we were developing some ideas for an article about the first three seconds of the universe based on your article: https://arxiv.org/abs/2006.16182 Later that day, a first-draft was posted and then on

August 17, I sent you a second note referring to the current edition.

It was developed all throughout August: https://81018.com/open-envelope/

It appears to us that there is less than a nanosecond’s difference between

our mathematical model and the big bang: https://81018.com/calculations/

Have you ever considered a cold start of the universe?Thank you.

Most sincerely,Bruce

Second email: August 17, 2020 @ 9:25 AM

Dear Prof. Dr. Nicolás Bernal:

I have posted an Open Letter to the co-authors of “*The First Three Seconds: A Review of Possible Expansion Histories of the Early Universe*.” There are two references you may want to check out

where you are listed and linked within that group of 27:

If you would like me to add or delete anything, I am happy to do so. Back a few years ago I was dismayed to read that Max Planck said, “A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather… *science advances one funeral at a time*.” My hope is within the young. I’m 73. *But*, I don’t think Max’s pessimism is well-placed. I think all of us can always be learning something new and even profound.

Coming up on nine years since I started thinking about a cold start to the universe, learning about the deep-seated biases about the very nature of time, the place of geometries, exponentiation, and Tegmarks’ infinity… we all have a ways to go before we rest.

Thank you for your scholarship! I wish you well. We all wish your country well.

Most sincerely,

Bruce

PS. I continue to struggle with these issues on every new top-level post a/k/a homepage, which remains for just a month, a week or even just a day:

https://81018.com/just-a-second/

First email: Sunday, August 2, 2020 @ 12:22 PM

ArXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2006.16182

https://inspirehep.net/authors/1054142

Dear Prof. Dr. Nicolás Bernal:

I have three very simple questions about your work to follow up the first three minutes:

1. Is there a continuum from the Planck base units to the current time and size of the universe? https://81018.com/chart/. We defined ours by applying base-2 or doublings to the Planck units to emerge with this chart of 202 notations.

2. Is sphere stacking a fundamental action of the universe starting with the Planck base units? https://81018.com/stacking/. When we engage all the work around sphere stacking since Kepler, it becomes obvious, the answer is “Yes.”

3. Is cubic-close packing of equal spheres a fundamental action for the expansion of the universe? https://81018.com/ccp/. Studying how it opens up the Fourier transform and Euclidean geometries was our first step toward answering, “Yes.”

In a high school geometry class, we chased the interiority of the tetrahedron (with it four smaller tetrahedrons in each corner and the octahedron in the middle), and then the octahedron (with its six smaller octahedrons in each corner and eight tetrahedrons, one in each face, with four hexagonal plates all sharing the common centerpoint also with square plates to tile and tessellate the universe). We went all the way down to the Planck Length in just 112 steps; and then when we multiplied by 2 the next day, we were out to the size of the universe in approximately 90 steps. That was in the year, 2011. There are a total of 202 notations.

It took me three years to begin to believe that there wasn’t another Kees Boeke (base-10 in 1957) somewhere who did a base-2 expansion. So, we’ve been at it for a while believing that such a scholar exists somewhere — https://81018.com/alphabetical/. Perhaps you know of such a scholar. Perhaps you are that scholar. If not, perhaps you can explain these numbers in a more compelling way than we have.

Thank you.

Warmly,

Bruce

PS. You might find some of my correspondence to scholars over the years to be of some interest. Here is a link to my report on the first three minutes: https://81018.com/three/ -BEC

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