Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître

**1. As a result of his work, everyone began thinking about the origins of the universe.**

In 1927 Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître observed the expansion of the universe and wrote his landmark article about the origin of the universe, “*Un Univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extragalactiques*” or “A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius, accounting for the radial velocity of extragalactic nebulae.” Applying a simple logic, he assumed at one time the universe had a single originating point. At that time, when he first introduced his ideas, he thought the universe started cold. Also, for many of his early readers that concept of an *initial singularity *was as much an expression of his priesthood, Jesuit education, and the story of Genesis.

**2. The finite-infinite bridge is not to be ignored.**

You will find within this website an appreciation for a wide latitude of singularities, however, it would seem that the concept and term do not apply to an “initial” singularity understood by many to the foundations of the hot big bang. Here the finite-infinite bridge is real and dimensionless constants are an inherent part of every transformation. Instead of singularities, a better conceptual term might be *a nexus of transformation*.

**3. The expansion of the universe is a key clue.**

Very few question that there is a well-ordered expansion underway. Most likely the concept of an expanding universe originated with Alexander Friedmann in 1922 in Russia. In the heinous aftermath of the 1917 revolution, it would be a difficult place to build on theory and logic alone; nevertheless, using Einstein’s formula, Friedmann proposed the idea that the universe is expanding. Between 2001 and 2010 the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) precisely measured the expansion and definitively confirmed Friedmann and Lemaître’s intuitions and observations.

**4. Homogeneous and isotropic are keys to understanding our universe.**

Most often, people attribute the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) to a *massive explosion* and not to a geometric and exponentially-expanding universe in a highly-ordered, progressively-organized state. Yet, our explosive people will readily tout the fact that our universe is homogeneous and isotropic. More… the cosmological principle

**5. The circle, sphere, and the dynamics of spheres is not appreciated enough.**

The 1948 Lemaître essay about quaternions and elliptical space does not engage the much earlier work of Fourier and his analysis of the sine-and-cosine functions within and around the sphere. That will be picked up here: https://81018.com/fourier/

*Much more to come*…

- https://81018.com/lemaitre-references/
- https://81018.com/lemaitre-today/
- https://81018.com/planckscale/
- https://81018.com/couplet/

# References

^{Wikipedia on Lemaître}

William Kingdon Clifford

elliptic space

versors

Erlangen program

H. S. M. Coxeter^{[54]}*Mathematical Reviews*

# Cold Big Bang

atoms

expansion of the universe

Very low temperature

cohesion

acoustic peaks in the cosmic microwave background radiation

^{Wikipedia}

WMAP observations