# The first chart: December 2011

###### Called the Big Board-little universe, this chart  is for secondary schools.A more recent update, July 2016, http://81018.com is for continued research and development.
 ______ Start in the center-left column below. All units of measurement are based on the Planck Length.  On the left going down the numbers are divided 101 times by two until the measurement is the Planck Length, considered the smallest unit of a length. In the center-right column, the same measurement is multiplied by two. In 101+ steps we are out to the edges of the observable universe. Assume the simplest three-dimensional form defined by the fewest number of vertices is the tetrahedron. Notice how the the basic Platonic structures nest within each other. Necessarily all structure of every manifestation within the known universe can be interrelated. There are blanks for students to find answers from examples within their studies, especially biology, chemistry, physics, astronomy and astrophysics. Students are also invited to correct mistakes. A general overview… Table of Contents…Basic Questions and Structures, and Form-and-Function: Could all structures be in some way derivative of the five basic solids discussed by Plato and the Greeks (circa 360 BC)? If that concept is taken as a given, then questions about form and function can be re-engaged. Perhaps base-2 exponential notation is a place to start. Though apparent throughout the sciences, these five basic solids have not been used to develop an integrative model for human knowledge. Perhaps this is a step in that direction. Most academics today cannot tell you what is most simply contained within a tetrahedron or octahedron (by dividing the edges in half and connecting the vertices). Pictures below illustrate some answers. It seems that simple mathematical operations can still open new paths and logic to explore. More… ___ GENERAL DISCIPLINES (and Scale) PLANCK NUMBER. EXAMPLES (within ±50%) DECREASING IN SIZE, Get smaller, divide by 2 (Center left column) ___ INCREASING IN SIZE, Get larger, Multiply by 2 (Center right column) PLANCK NUMBER. EXAMPLES (within ±50%) GENERAL DISCIPLINES (and Scale)
 HUMAN SCALE 101. Range: Human Hair 40.9755356 microns ___ Around 40 microns 101. Thicker Hair HUMAN SCALE BIOLOGY 100. Sperm cell diameter 20.4877678 microns 81.9510712 microns 102. Thickness of paper MANUFACTURING Cytology 99. Diameter of average human body cells 10.2438839 microns or 1.02438839×10-5m .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10-4m 103. Egg cell diameter ___ Microbiology 98. Diameter of average human capillary 5.12194196 microns or about .0002 inches .327804284 millimeters 104. This period. Got it? ___ 97. Red blood cells~2.4 µm 2.56097098 microns (µm) .655608568 millimeters 105. Large bacterium Bacteriology Bacteriology 96. Rather small bacteria and red light (1.28 µm) 1.28048549 microns or 1.2804854×10-6 m 1.31121714 millimeters or 1.3112171×10-3m 106. Large grain of sand ___ Nanotechnology 95. Range of visible light ~ 400 to 1000 nm 640.242744 nanometers 2.62243428 millimeters 107. A small ant Myrmecology ___ 94. Nanoparticles ~ 10000 to 100 nm 320.121372 nanometers 5.24486856 millimeters (around a quarter inch) 108. Very small objects that we can still handle PHYSICS ___ 93. Thickness of gold leaf ~125 nm 160.060686 nanometers 1.04897 centimeters or 1.04897375×10-2m 109. Often parts of common small objects CHEMISTRY ___ 92. Nanowires 80.0303432 nanometers 2.09794742 centimeters 110. Rather small things ELECTRONICS ___ 91. Semiconductor chip 40.0151716 nanometers 4.19589484 centimeters 111. A spoonful TECHNOLOGY Virology 90. Virus range 20.0075858 nanometers 8.39178968 centimeters 112. Anything 3.3 inches! BIOLOGY ___ 89. Thickness of a cell wall is around 10 nm 1.00037929×10-8 meters or 10 nanometers 16.7835794 centimeters or 1.67835794×10-1m 113: Small living and manufactured things ZOOLOGY Immunology 88. Insulin molecule 5.00189644×10–9 meters 33.5671588 centimeters 114. Objects we handle BOTANY ___ 87. DNA helix ±2 nm 2.50094822 nanometers 67.1343176 centimeters or 19.68 inches 115. Agricultural and manufactured things ANTHROPOLOGY Chemistry 86. Glucose molecule Fullerenes diameter (Buckyballs) range: ~1.1nm 1.25474112 nanometers 1.3426864 meters or 52.86 inches 116. A child or other smaller animals SLEEP & VISIONS Genetics 85. Distance between base pairs within DNA ±340 pm .625237056 nanometers or 6.25237056×10-10 meters 2.6853728 meters or 105.723 inches 117. A bed, a little stable or place to rest INSIGHTS & IDEAS HUMAN SCALE PN 67 to 134 84. Periodic Table is complete. Diameter of a water molecule ±280 pm .312618528 nanometers or 3.12618528×10-10 meters 5.3707456 meters 118. A small bedroom PSYCHOLOGY Picometres pm 83. Diameter of a carbon atom ±70 pm .156309264 nanometers or 1.56309264×10-10m 10.7414912 meters, 35.2411 feet 119. A home, a small barn or shop SOCIOLOGY ___ 82. Helium atom diameter 7.81546348×10-11 meters . 21.4829824 meters 120. Property FAMILIES ___ 81. Hydrogen atom ±25 pm 3.90773174×10-11 meters 42.9659648 meters 121. Larger properties RETAIL ___ 80. Periodic Table of Elements begins 1.95386587×10-11m 85.9319296 meters 122. Complex systems CONSTRUCTION ___ 79. Use Huang scale 9.76932936×10-12m 171.86386 meters or about 563 feet 123. Big buildings or a little neighborhood GEOLOGY ___ 78. Wavelength of an X-ray 4.88466468×10-12m 343.72772 meters or about 1128 feet 124. A huge complex or a neighborhood ARCHITECTURE ___ 77. 2.44233234×10-12 m 687.455439 meters 125. Farms and large complexes AGRICULTURE ___ 76. Gamma wavelength 1.22116617×10-12m 1.37491087 kilometers 126. Very small towns SMALL POLITICAL SYSTEMS BEGINNINGS OF 75. Use Falstad scale 6.10583084×10-13m 2.74982174 kilometers 127. Smallest states TRANSPORTATION SMALL SCALE 74. ___ 3.05291542×10-13m 5.49964348 kilometers 128. Towns AERONAUTICS 73.___ 1.52645771×10-13m 10.999287 kilometers or within 6.83464 miles 129. Small cities, or large towns JUDICIAL SYSTEMS NUCLEAR PHYSICS 72. Average range of the size of atom’s nucleus 7.63228856×10-14m 21.998574 kilometers 130. Large towns LOCAL POLITICS ___ 71. Gold atomic nucleus 3.81614428×10-14 m 43.997148 kilometers 131. Large cities ___ Human Scale 70. Aluminum atom 1.90807214×10-14m 87.994296 kilometers 132. Small states ___ Beginnings of 69. Electron diameter 9.54036072×10-15m 175.988592 kilometers or 108 miles 133. Very small countries or anything within 100 miles NATIONAL POLITICS Going up 68. Helium atom diameter 4.77018036×10-15 m 351.977184 kilometers or 218 miles 134. Within the orbital range: International Space Station SPACE POLITICS Femtometres (fm) 67. Neutron diameter Hydrogen – 1.75±×10-15m 2.38509018×10-15m 703.954368 kilometers 135. Countries BEGINNINGS OF Going down, beginnings of 66. Diameter of a proton or fermions (femtometre ) 1.19254509×10-15m 1407.90874 kilometers or about 874 miles 136. Larger countries LARGE SCALE small scale 65. 36+ quintillion vertices 5.96272544×10-16 m 2815.81748 kilometers 137. Regions of earth ___ THEORETICAL PHYSICS 64. Neutrinos, quarks 2.98136272×10-16m 5631.63496 kilometers 138. Largest countries ___ Attometers 63. ___ 1.49068136×10-16m 11,263.2699 kilometers or about 7000 miles 139. Diameter of the earth ___ am 62. ___ 7.45340678×10-17m 22,526.5398 kilometers 140. GPS Satellite Altitude ___ 61. ___ 3.72670339×10-17m 45,053.079 kilometers 141. ___ ___ VERY-SMALL 60. 1+ quintillion vertices 1.86335169×10-17m 90,106.158 kilometers 142. ___ ___ SCALE UNIVERSE 59. Quarks 9.31675848×10-18m 180,212.316 kilometers (over 111,979 miles) 143. ___ ___ PN 40-to-60 58. ___ 4.65837924×10-18m 360,424.632 kilometers 144. Distance: Earth to Moon ___ ___ 57. ___ 2.32918962×10-18m 720,849.264 kilometers 145. ___ ___ ___ 56. ___ 1.16459481×10-18m 1,441,698.55 kilometers 146. Diameter of the sun ___ Zeptometers 55. ___ 5.82297404×10–19m 2,883,397.1 kilometers 147. ___ ___ zm 54. ___ 2.91148702×10-19m 5,766,794.2 kilometers 148. ___ ___ ___ 53. ___ 1.45574351×10-19m 11,533,588.4 kilometers 149. ___ ___ ___ 52. ___ 7.27871756×10-20m 23,067,176.8 kilometers 150. ___ ___ ___ 51. ___ 3.63935878×10-20m 46,134,353.6 kilometers 151. ___ ___ ___ 50. 1+ quadrillion vertices 1.81967939×10-20m 92,268,707.1 kilometers 152. ___ PN 134-to-201+ ___ 49. ___ 9.09839696×10-21m 184,537,414 kilometers 153. Range: Earth to Sun ASTRONOMY ___ 48. ___ 4.54919848×10-21m 369,074,829 kilometers 154. To go to Ceres asteroid ___ ___ 47. ___ 2.27459924×10-21m 738,149,657 kilometers 155. Range: Jupiter-to-Sun ___ ___ 46. Pati Preons 1.13729962×10-21m 1.47629931×1012m 156. Range: Saturn-to-Sun ASTROPHYSICS Yoctometers 45. ___ 5.68649812×10–22m 2.95259863×1012m 157.Range: Uranus-to-Sun Terametres (Tm) ym 44. ___ 2.84324906×10-22m 5.90519726×1012m 158. Range: Pluto-to-Sun LARGE SCALE ___ 43. ___ 1.42162453×10-22m 1.18103945×1013m 159. ___ UNIVERSE ___ 42. ___ 7.10812264×10-23m 2.36207882×1013m 160. 24 hour light travel ___ ___ 41. THE CHALLENGE: 3.55406132×10-23m 4.72415764×1013m 161. ___ ___ VERY-VERY, 40. 1+ trillion vertices 1.77703066×10-23m 9.44831528×1013m 162. ___ ___ SMALL-SCALE 39. 549 billion vertices 8.88515328×10-24m 1.88966306×1014m 163. 7-day light travel ___ UNIVERSE 38. 274 billion vertices 4.44257664×10-24m 3.77932612×1014m 164. ___ ___ PN 20-to-40 37. 137 billion vertices 2.22128832×10-24m 7.55865224×1014m 165. ___ ___ 36. 68 billion vertices 1.11064416×10-24m 1.5117305×1015m 166. ___ Petametres (Pm) 35. 34 billion vertices 5.5532208×10-25m 3.0234609×1015m 167. ___ ___ SPECULATIONS: 34. 17,179,869,184 2.7766104×10-25m 6.0469218×1015m 168. ___ Quantum State 33. 8,589,934,592 1.3883052×10-25m 1.20938436×1016m 169. Beyond one light year (ly) (9.4×1015) 1 parsec ~ 31 trillion km or 19 trillion miles Machines (QSM) 32. 4,294,967,296 6.94152599×10-26m 2.41876872×1016m 170. Go to Proxima Centauri (39.9 Pm) 1 parsec (3.26 light years, 30.8 Pm) (QSM) 31. 2,147,483,648 3.47076299×10-26 m 4.83753744×1016m 171. Distance to Alpha Centauri A & B (41 Pm) ___ ___ 30. 1+ billion vertices 1.735381494×10-26 m 9.67507488×1016m 172. Distance to Sirius (81 Pm, 8.6 ly) ___ Modulus for 29. 536,870,912 8.67690749×10-27 m 1.93501504 ×1017m 173. Distance to Tau Ceti (110 Pm) 100 Petametres or 11 light years (ly) transformations (Mt) 28. 268,435,456 b2v 4.3384537×10-27m 3.87002996×1017m 174. Diameter of Orion Nebula (350 Pm) ___ 27. 134,217,728 b2v 2.16922687×10-27m 7.74005992 ×1017m 175. Distance to Regulus star (730 Pm) ___ Mt 26. 67,108,864 b2v 1.0846134×10-27m 1.54801198×1018m 176. Omega Centauri diameter (1.6 Em) Exametre (Em): 110 light years (ly) ___ 25. 33,554,432 b2v 5.42306718×10-28 m 3.09602396×1018m 177. Thickness of our Milky Way (2 Em) Our Galaxy ___ 24. 16,777,216 b-2 vertices 2.711533591×10-28m 6.19204792×1018m 178. Distance to Helix Nebula (6.2 Em) ___ ___ 23. 8,388,608 b-2 vertices 1.35576679×10-28m 1 barn 1.23840958×1019m 179. Distance to the Orion Nebula (13 Em) 12.38 Em QSM 22. 4,194,304 b-2 vertices 6.77883397×10-29m 2.47681916×1019m 180. Horsehead Nebula (15 Em) ___ ___ 21. 2,097,152 b-2 vertices 3.38941698×10-29m 4.95363832×1019m 181. ___ ___ EXTREMELY 20. 1+ quintillion b-8 vertices 1.69470849×10-29m 9.90727664×1019m 182. ___ ___ SMALL-SCALE 19. 524,288 vertices 8.47354247×10-30m 1.981455338×1020m 183. Small Megellanic Cloud diameter in Milky Way (150 Em) 198.1 Exametres UNIVERSE 18. 262,144 b-2 vertices 4.2367712×10-30m 3.96291068×1020m 184. To the center of our galaxy (260 Em) ___ PN 10-to-20 17. 281+ trillion b-8 vertices 2.11838561×10-30m 7.92582136×1020m 185. ___ ___ 16. one square femtometer 1.05919280×10-30m 1.58516432×10921m 186. Go to Large Magellanic Cloud 1.5 Zettametre: 150,000 ly 15. 32,768 base-2 vertices 5.29596404×10-31m 3.17032864×1021m 187. Small Magellanic Cloud (2 Zm) 3 Zettametres: 310,000 ly 14. 4+ trillion base-8 v 2.64798202×10-31m 6.34065727×1021m 188. ___ ___ 13. 8192 vertices 1.32399101×10-31m 1.26813145×1022m 189. ___ ___ Note: Theta-Fushian functions 12. 68+ billion base-8 v 6.6199550×10-32m 2.53626284×1022m 190. Distance to the Andromeda Galaxy 24 Zm See: Models 11. 2048 base-2 vertices 3.30997752×10-32m 5.07252568×1022m 191. ___ ___ SMALLEST-SCALE UNIVERSE 10. 1+ billion base-8 v 1.65498876×10-32m 1.01450514×1023m 192. (Fill in a blank) 101 Zettametres Cubicities 9. 512 base-2 vertices 8.27494384×10-33m 2.02901033×1023m 193. Go to Centaurus A Galaxy (140 Zm) ___ Primary QSM 8. 16+ million base-8 v 4.1374719232×10-33m 4.05802056×1023m 194. (Fill in a blank) ___ Primary Mt 7. 128 base-2 vertices 2.0687359616×10-33m 8.11604112×1023m 195. ___ ___ Nested Geometries 6. 262,144 base-8 v 1.03436798×10-33m 1.62320822×1024m 196. ___ Yottametre (Ym) Primary cubicities 5. 32 base-2 vertices 5.17183990×10-34m 3.24641644×1024m 197. Length of the Great Wall (4.7 Ym) ___ Strings & Knots 4. 4096 base-8 vertices 2.58591995×10-34m 6.49283305×1024m 198. Distance (6.1 Ym) to Shapley Supercluster ___ Primary knots 3. 8 base-2 vertices 1.29295997×10-34m 1.29856658×1025m 199. Length of Sloan Great Wall (13.7 Ym) 12.98 Ym Cubicity or string 2. 64 base-8 vertices (v) 6.46479988×10-35 2.59713316×1025m 200.___ ___ Primary String 1. 2 base-2 vertices (v) 3.23239994×10-35 5.19426632×1025m 201.___ ___ The Planck Length A vertex? 1.616199(97)x10-35m 1.03885326×1026m 202. EOU at 202.34 ___ Synopsis: This Big Board-little universe is to order data in a way to open a discussion about our basic assumptions — the universals and constants — that guide our thinking and work. An initial focus is Max Planck’s calculation in 1900 of the Planck Length. Very Brief History: The work began by attempting to find new starting points for creative thinking, new insights, even breakthroughs, regarding the very nature of space and time. In the 1970s the following first principles were formulated as preconditions for a space-time moment at the zero-point defined by Planck, Stern and Einstein. First principles: Deep within the fabric of life there is an energy, an abiding thrust to make things better, more perfect. That is the cornerstone of business, but much more. Simple logic tells us that there are three forms within functions that define an increasingly perfected state within an experience: 1. The first form that defines our humanity is order and its most basic function, a simple perfection, creates continuity. 2. The second form is a relation and its function creates symmetry. 3. The third form is dynamics and its perfection, a complex function, is harmony. These three — continuity, symmetry and harmony — just might be the precursors of a space-time moment. A Working Project: A Big Board of our little universe This work is copyright by three groups, all of River Ridge, PO Box 10132 New Orleans, LA 70123 USA Illustration 3. Pentakis dodecahedron 32 external vertices or points, 60 external tetrahedra, a layer of 46 asymmetrical tetrahedral and an icosahedron in the center. 1.5° deviationsIllustration 2. Icosahedron 20 tetrahedrons made of 13 points, 1.5° deviations with shared center point The challenge of four simple concepts: 1. A universal scale created by doublings. A simple scale that starts with a point at the Planck Length (PL), assumes Planck’s logic and mathematics are OK and that the PL singularity, an actual measurement, can be doubled. At each step there is a physical measurement. It takes 202.34 doublings to go from the PL to the Edges of Observable Universe (EOU). See all of the above.2. Nested geometries. The first doubling renders two points and the second doubling four points. With four points a tetrahedron could be rendered; it is the simplest three-dimensional form defined by the fewest number of points. The third doubling renders eight points. With just seven of those points, a pentagonal cluster of five tetrahedrons can be inscribed (Illustration 1). With the fourth doubling, now sixteen points, the icosahedron with its thirteen vertices (points) can be created. (Illustration 2). A tetrahedron within the pentagonal cluster (Illus. 1) can inscribe four smaller tetrahedra and an octahedron within itself with just six of those points (and by dividing each edge in half). More… This project was initiated for the geometry classes of Steve Curtis at The Curtis School, in River Ridge, Louisiana.Version 2.0.0.1 Illustration 1. Five Tetrahedrons 7 points, 1.5° deviations 3. Facts and Guesses. Simple math renders simple facts. What can be done with these numbers, images and forms? What functions can be intuited? Perhaps a challenge to students could be to use buckyballs and the basic Platonic solids to build a most primitive kind of machine.  There will be more to come.This quest is a thought experiment that begins at the PL and proceeds with facts and guesses to edge of the observable universe.4. Non-commutative geometry, irrational numbers… Another idiosyncratic application to number theory, non-commutative geometries, irrational numbers, and dimensionful numbers is to see all of these as the results of a modulus of transformation and gaps between faces of less than 1.5° (as seen in the seven-point, five-regular tetrahedra when each shares an edge). Much more to come… © Center for Perfection Studies (Bruce Camber) © My Golden Rules, Inc. (501c3) (Hattie Bryant) © Small Business School http://bblu.org