###### by Bruce Camber **Initiated**: Tuesday, July 2016 **Updates**: October 2017, November 2019

**A Dynamic Process Versus A Static Epoch**

Throughout every one of the 202 notations, inflation is ongoing. Inflation, expansion, thrust, energy… it gives this universe (and us) life.

**This website**: Within this website, the Inflationary Epoch is the first doubling of the Planck units. It is always the first doubling and it is never-ending within all 202 notations. It is the shortest duration of all durations.

**History**: A cornerstone of the big bang theory is inflation; called the Inflationary Epoch, it is defined as the #1 exponential expansion of the universe in just 10^{-16} seconds. It is a challenge to one’s imagination! The universe expanded at super humongous speeds; so fast, it left the *speed of light* in a vast trail of pixie dust. The race was so short, it wasn’t caught by anyone or anything. It was the penultimate *flash in the pan*. This “epoch” was way less than a trillionth of a flash!

Such a claim should awaken every person’s basic sensibilities. Uniqueness? Logic? Homogeneity? Obvious, to understand such a concept, we must go to its source, Alan Guth of MIT (our emails to him in July and October 2016). He is credited with coming up with the concept in 1978 and 1979. And, his book about it, *The Inflationary Universe* (Basic Books, 1997), is widely acclaimed.

In 1979 the **big bang theory ( bbt)** was on its ascendancy. Guth’s book captures the sweeping energies of those earlier days. Most everybody started to buy into it because the alternatives had even more unresolved questions. All the open questions within the

*bbt*challenged our best minds and Guth quickly got started on the the most gnarly question, “How did it begin?” His first article was about inflation. It is a profoundly fascinating read. Equally fascinating is to see how brilliant people started to accommodate this theory that, even today, is still very much a theory. Andrei Linde (Stanford) provides an excellent review,

*Inflationary Cosmology after Planck*, 2013 (ArXiv).

The Quiet Expansion model, a base-2 chart that began with the Planck base units and went to the Age of the Universe, was unknown. There were no known studies that began with the Planck charge, taking it at its face value to follow its logical expansion within a base-2 model. Though such a study is now underway, the big bang theory ignores the Planck charge entirely. It wasn’t until 2001 with the first publication of a series on the Planck units by Frank Wilczek (MIT) did the physics community begin to think about this forgotten part of Max Planck’s work. Many considered it little more than numerology. The units were impossibly small, beyond all measurement and surely beyond all known elementary particles.

So, we can be rather sure that at no time between 1979 and 1997 did Guth see a base-2 chart of the universe within 201+ notations. Our charts only began to emerge in December 2011. The first vertical chart with all five Planck base units was done in February 2015, but it was not until April 2016 when the vertical chart was made into a horizontal chart of all five base units so each Planck unit could be easily followed across the 202 notations.

Though there are known-and-unknown problems with all these charts, the basic logic and simple numbers are easily followed.

The concept of thrust. Well understood within aerospace engineering, a/k/a rocket science, as a concept independent of rocket science, there is only one known institution that is focusing on it. Thrust is the foundational study of the Center for Science of Information, a consortium located at Purdue University and includes schools like MIT, Stanford, and University of California Berkeley. It is supported by the National Science Foundation. But unfortunately, there is no study of thrust in light of the Inflationary Epoch within cosmology.

Okay, so what does one do?

What does one do when you know that you’re an intellectual lightweight compared to folks like Guth, and his colleagues, Hawking, Lightman, Linde, Tegmark, Weinberg, Wilczek, and their colleagues, a most luminous population within the scientific community! My simple answer, “I write letters and ask a lot of questions.” Although the Quiet Expansion seems logical and simple and possibly comprehensive, I certainly do not have the background to context it in light of the past 40 years of developments in this arena. I am just learning the details of the *bbt* this year!

On Tuesday, October 18, 2016, the term, “natural inflation” was used for the first time within this website as a more technical definition for “Quiet Expansion.” It would be an update to the October 16 homepage. To see if it had been used by others, it was entered into Google search. It came back with over 18,000 hits and the first 20 references were all related to astrophysics. It seemed like we just may have discovered a new and possibly receptive community. We’ll see.

Also, hopefully, Prof. Dr. Alan Guth (goes to an email where we ask him for help) will be able to tell us why the Planck Charge and each notational doubling could not be the beginning of the thrust of the universe and the result of continuity and symmetry relations between the finite and infinite. Perhaps, we’ll get some help. If so, of course, these pages will be updated! Thank you.

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**Natural inflation**.^{ } The first second of creation within the base-2 model occurs between the 143^{rd} notation (.60116 seconds) and 144^{nd} notation (1.2023 seconds). Using a whole number multiple of Planck Time, consider the other three Planck numbers at Notation 144. Planck Length is now 360,424.632 km or 223,957.48 miles. To have a comparative sense of that number, the average distance between the earth and the moon is 238,900 miles. Planck Mass at Notation 144 is now a daunting 2.4268×10^{34} kilograms. As a comparison, the weight of the earth is 5.972×10^{24} kilograms and the weight of the sun is 1.989×10^{30} kilograms (sun’s radius, 432,288 miles). The smallest and densest stars known to exist are neutron stars. Wikipedia says, “With a radius on the order of 10 km, they can, however, have a mass of about twice that of the Sun,” so the mass of the universe at 1.2023 seconds is within the known ranges of current science.

The coulomb progression from Planck Charge is line 6 within the chart. Within Notation 144 it is 2.0913×10^{25} Coulombs. Given a coulomb is the amount of electricity carried in one second of time by one ampere of current, it converts to 2.0913×10^{25} joule/volts. That compares well to the total energy output of the Sun each second (3.8×10^{26} joules).

**Sectional summary**: Our earliest universe at just over one second has naturally inflated at a size, mass and energy that are within ranges known to our sciences. But more importantly, the progression of base-2 numbers appears to create a natural inflation and a rather good simulation of the epochs of big bang cosmology^{ }BUT *without the bang*.

Thanks. -BEC

For further study: Pure Natural Inflation, Yasunori Nomura, Taizan Watari, and Masahito Yamazaki,

Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, 2017