Georgi, Howard

GeorgiHoward Georgi

Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics
Harvard University
Leverett House, 28 DeWolfe St.
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Articles: Why Unify? (Nature, v.288, pages 649–651, 1980)
ArXiv (51): Unparticle Physics (May 2007)
Books: Lie Algebras In Particle Physics (Westview, 1999) (CRC Taylor & Francis, 2018) (PDF)
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Homepage
inSpire-HEP
LinkedIn
Twitter
Wikipedia: Unparticle Physics
YouTubeGUT

Most recent email: Tuesday, March 17, 2020 (Rewritten: 19 May 2016)

Dear Prof. Dr. Howard Georgi:

Your work on Unparticle Physics has finally come to my attention. so my studies of it are still young. I apologize in advance for my lack depth.

In and around 1979 John Wheeler sent me a copy of his booklet, The Frontiers of Time (PDF). Unfortunately, soon thereafter, I went back into a business that I had started nine years earlier.

I recently revisited Wheeler’s writings about quantum foam and simplicity. I would ask him today, “What about the Planck base units?” Might we consider Planck Time the first unit of time? Might we consider today, the Now, to be to be an endpoint that gives us the current estimated age of the universe between 13.799-to-14.1 billion years?

If we apply base-2 notation to that continuum, there are just 202 notations that encapsulate the universe. At one second (between Notation 143 and Notation 144) the Planck Length is within .001% of the distance light travels in a vacuum.

Throughout those 202 notations, there are many places to check the validity of the numbers, including the Planck Charge and Planck Mass doublings. There is a deep logic to it all. The first 64 notations are too small to be measured. The first doubling of the Planck Length that can be measured is within Notation-67. The first measurement of a unit of time that can be measured is the attosecond; it is within Notation-84.

Here is a domain for unparticle physics, including Langlands programs, string theory, and loop quantum theory. It is real. It has dimensionality and physicality that cannot be measured directly. But indirectly, it just may become part of the definition of dark energy and dark matter.

When we considered the look and feel of these unparticles, an infinitesimal sphere at the Planck level is currently being defined by the Fourier transform, Poincaré spheres, and cubic close packing of equal spheres. We are limited by our limitations within mathematics and physics.

All notations appear to be active, so time is surely redefined. There is symmetry across all but the current notation.

I hope you will comment.  Thank you.

Most sincerely,

Bruce

PS. Another recent attempt to describe all this ideation was for FQXi (Aguirre and Tegmark group):  https://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/3428




Long, long ago….Harvard SDS ’64 (local high school student – recruited from all-night teach-in at Memorial Hall), Harvard Philomorphs with Arthur Loeb and Bucky Fuller, 1970-1973, and Harvard (1977) with Arthur McGill on Austin Farrer’s Finite and Infinite.

 

Francis, Matthew R.

Matthew R. Francis

Key Articles:
• The Origins of Dark Matter (Symmetry, November 2018)
• The quest to test quantum entanglement (Symmetry, November 2018)
• Already beyond the Standard Model (Symmetry, October 2018)
• Five mysteries the Standard Model can’t explain (Symmetry, October 2018
• Will We Recognize Alien Life When We See It? (Mosaic / digg, October 2015)
• Quantum and Consciousness Often Mean Nonsense (Slate, May 2014)
CV
LinkedIn: http://linkedin.com/in/matthewrfrancis
Twitter:  @DrMRFrancis
Websites: http://bowlerhatscience.org/  (Personal Website)
http://bowlerhatscience.org/writing-portfolio/
http://GalileosPendulum.org   (Blog)

First email: 15 November 2018

Dear Prof. Dr. Matthew R. Francis,

Is simplicity good?

We took the Planck base units of Length, Time, Mass and Charge and
applied base-2 exponentiation. In 202 doublings, the chart is out to the
Age of the Universe. It seems straight forward, however, the results are
rather startling.

First, it is a simple, logical, mathematical map of the universe.
I am not sure… are there any others?

By studying the numbers associated with each doubling, we see
that most of the 202 doublings are about the early universe.
Notation 143 contains the first second.
Notation 197 contains the beginning of large structure-formation.
All the numbers are here: https://81018.com/chart/

Though entirely idiosyncratic, I think there is something here.

1. Of course, the Planck Length doubling at one second, divided
by the Planck Time doubling at one second is very close to the value
of the speed of light in a vacuum. It is consistent with Planck’s initial
equation for Planck Time. Yet, it is naturally also consistent within
each of the other 202 notations.

Thus, space-and-time appear to be derivative, quantized, and discrete.

2. There is a natural inflation that mimics the ΛCDM model.

3. All notations appear to be forever active and necessarily
interdependent and appears to define the Now for Richard Muller
and Carlo Rovelli.

We started this project in a high school geometry class in 2011
( https://81018.com/home/ ) with just the Planck Length. We
did not introduce Planck Time until 2014 and Planck Mass and
Planck Charge until 2015. So, really we have just begun to study
and attempt to understand these numbers in light of current theories
within cosmology and physics. It is entirely provocative!

Even though it is idiosyncratic, is there any hope for it?
The current homepage is my latest attempt to spotlight key ideas
and problems. Thank you.

Most sincerely,
Bruce

Barish, Barry C.

Barry Clark Barish
Linde Professor of Physics Emeritus

California Institute of Technology,  Pasadena, California
UC Riverside
Director of the Global Design Effort, International Linear Collider

ArXiv: Search for gravitational waves from a long-lived remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 (October 2018)
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Homepage
Nobel Prize 2017
Twitter (Nobel Prize)
Wikipedia
YouTube

From 2physics.com: “5 Needed Breakthroughs”

  1. Understanding what is the dark energy in the universe? (We don’t even have a good idea here.)
  2. What is the dark matter? (This is the other big unknown, but at least we have some handles. We know it is non-baryonic and evidence points to either supersymmetric particles, or maybe axions. Perhaps it is neither.)
  3. What causes mass? (We have a very successful theory of particle physics, but the particles are massless. We need to understand the source of mass. The leading idea is that it is the Higgs mechanism, and we need to see if there is a Higgs particle or variant to make the next step. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN should answer this question.)
  4. Is the neutrino its own antiparticle? (This is a puzzle going back to Fermi and perhaps the next generation of experiments will resolve it by looking for neutrino-less double beta decay.)
  5. Is there ultimate unification of the forces of nature? (This is a long term intriguing simplification on our understanding of particles and fields, but present data does not support it. However, if there is a new symmetry in nature (supersymmetry) it could bring this unification.)
First email: 19 October 2018

Dear Prof. Dr. Barry C. Barish:

To begin to get a modest understanding of your work, I have started my own page of references, along with a copy of this note: https://81018.com/2018/10/15/barish/

I found your work through a webpage from March 07, 2007 listing your five needed breakthroughs (just above). Although you might re-prioritize that list today, it seems that most respectable scientists would still agree with you just as it is.

We have just begun to address some of those questions. Although we have no pedigree, since December 2011 we have been studying an application of base-2 notation from the Planck base units to the age and size of the universe.

Such a simple concept renders rather surprising results:
• There are just over 202 doublings. Our working numbers: https://81018.com/chart/
• Too small to measure, the first 64 notations: https://81018.com/64-notations/
• We ask: Can this be where the answers to your questions are?
• The notations create a natural inflation: https://81018.com/ni/
• The first second emerges within the 143rd notation.
• The 202nd notation is 10.9816 billion years so we are just 2.8 billion years into it.

I thought you might find it all of interest. I don’t think it’s just poppycock… If it is, it seems we’ll have to re-examine the foundations of logic, mathematics, and integrity, and the concepts of continuity and symmetry?

Thank you.

Sincerely,

Bruce

Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Cosmology and the Large-Scale Universe

November 26, 2015  In process. Your feedback is key.  Last update: September 28, 2018

Yes, today is Thursday, November 26, 2015. Paris is healing. Al-Raqqah is burning. And, without question, we all need a new model of who we are and why we are. There is simply too much darkness within this world and within our views of the universe.

Many people are aware that we have been on a speculative journey 1 that began in 2011 in a high school. Our journey is based on an idiosyncratic way of looking at our universe.2 Everything, everywhere, throughout all time is contained within just over 202 base-2 exponential notations from the Planck Base Units out to their largest possible measurements, the size of the universe at the current expansion and always “this given moment”  or the Now.  Although our charts are simple, logical, and comprehensive,  and all the numbers show us an exquisitely interconnected universe, they challenge our commonsense worldviews.

It is not easy to change one’s conceptual frame of reference.

Often I feel a little slow because it is difficult to put together a new vision of one-plus-one and a new definition of two-times-two. But, we are motivated to break through the bottleneck of questions that have remained unanswered over our lifetime and throughout the centuries. We ask over and over, “What are we missing?” Taunting myself, I say, “Go over this one more time; you really are missing something here.”

Dark Matter and Dark Energy are in that camp. Yet, recently a faint light has come on.

A new book by physicist, Lisa Randall, had become a subject of a discussion over lunch.  The subjects of cosmology have always been way out there for me. Since childhood, especially on the occasion of a dark, clear Maine night, I had a visceral reaction to it all. Spooked, jammed and suffocated by the vastness of the seemingly infinite universe, truly impossible to take it in, I learned to avoid cosmology and astronomy.

Dark Matter 3, 4 (links to Wikipedia in new tabs or windows).  I had begun thinking that Dark Matter was a misnomer. Within the Big Board – little universe model, it is not dark per se, especially if part of the first 64 notations well visible light shows up on this grid. Within our isotropic and homogeneous universe, space-time-charge-mass-have a tightly-woven fabric, tiled and tessellated guided by base-2 exponential notation and the dimensionless constant that define each of the Planck Base Units.

Though associated with analyses of structures on the order of galactic scale, Dark Matter and Dark Energy (link goes to Wikipedia Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter) may best be seen within the context of all 202+ base-2 notations, yet especially the first 64 or so notations.

Everything, everywhere, throughout all time.  That is the simple mathematical model we call the Big Board-little universe.  We can see that space and time are contained.  We can see a very simple beginning  and we see-experience-feel the current time.  We have our seeing-experiencing-feeling moments within the current time which is within the 202nd notation.  We have the physical definition of parts, for now I call these our physical archetypes between the 67th and 116th notations within the Human-Scale Universe. Our most essential being, the archetypes of our archetypes, are within the small-scale universe. Everything-everywhere-throughout-time has some kind of presence with the small-scale, human-scale, and large-scale universe.

There will be many challenges ahead to texture, define and defend such statements especially given that Dark Matter now constitutes as much as 68% of the universe.5   Out of our naïveté, it just may be that our simple model, this Big Board – little universe,  gives Dark Matter and Dark Energy a space and time, mass and charge, and a reason for being, and for being what it is.Gold & Diamonds

I believe our little chart is like a gold and diamond mine because the key figures of the universe are all there just waiting to be examined.  These figures have been given a cursory review.  It is now time for the professionals to go in and take a hard look.  I believe we can find configurations within those first 64 notations that can give rise to the observations and research throughout the entire history of cosmology and astronomy.

Most speculative:  The small-scale universe is the human-scale universe is the large-scale-universe. It is discrete, quantized and derivative of continuities and symmetries and even an overarching harmony of the universe. Within this speculative journey we are defined by every notation. Our particularity and humanity come out within the 101 to 116th notations of the Planck Length but we are fully at the 202+ notation within “the moment” or “the now.”

A special challenge will be to come up with a better name than Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Although the inherent continuity equation for those 202+ notations has classic characteristics generally used to describe God, here we will rely strictly on the simple logic and mathematics, the Planck Base Units, and basic geometries to create the parameters for our naming convention.

Dark Energy. Though this conceptual frame of reference is related to the expansion of the universe, and if in fact dark energy weighs in at 68.3% of the total energy in today’s observable universe, we would postulate that it, too, is related through the Planck Base Units and the systemic expansions within the first 64 steps of the Big Board – little universe model. Planck Time becomes “one second” between notations 143 and 144. So much happens in those 144 notations or doublings!

Projections. In December 2011 we began the discussions about our chart of the Big Board – little universe.  In January 2013 we were encouraged to continue our study of the Planck Base Units by Prof. Dr. Frank Wilczek of MIT (a world-renown physicist and champion of Planck’s work). In December 2014 Planck Time was added to the chart.  Then, in February 2015 the other Planck base units were included.

Obviously, for me, concepts need time to incubate.

First, as uneven as we are, I hope we are getting closer to justifying to the academic communities to come in to take a look at the inherent structures of the first 64 notations. To begin examining how those first 64 notations came to be and why they have been ignored, we have begun to focus on all the research and all the data from cubic-close packing (ccp), face-centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close-packed (hcp), root system (A3) and Lie theory. It seems that all these applications and functions apply to those first 64 notations. And, inside those first 64 steps come all the dimensionless constants and soon thereafter, all the physical constants, and soon thereafter, the fermions and every expression of physicality.

That’s a rough outline within which our research of the first 64 notations will proceed. Now, where’s Lisa Randall 8 this morning and what has she been saying about dinosaurs?

Thank you.

***

Endnotes:
1  Speculative journey, dubbed the Big Board – little universe, began in December 2011 in our high school geometry classes.
2  Idiosyncratic way of looking at our universe is actually based on simplicity itself. In December 2014, Planck Time was added alongside the Planck Length. That was filled with pleasant surprises. Then in February 2015, the Planck Mass, and Planck Charge were added. We made some guesses about Planck Temperature.
3,4,5  Dark Matter is the subject of many scholarly articles.  The Wikipedia entries, however, are straightforward, easy reading:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_matter
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambda-CDM_model
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_%28spacecraft%29#2015_data_release
6,7  Prof. Dr. Frank WilczekThroughout December 2011 and then throughout the following year, I asked literally hundreds of people, “Can you responsibly multiply the Planck Length by 2?” In December 2012, we got a response, an answer from Prof. Dr. Frank Wilczek,  “One can certainly divide (or multiply) by two repeatedly, and generate different numbers or scales, just as one can with powers of ten.”
https://bblu.org/2015/07/24/simple/#CMO
8 Many years ago, back when we were doing our weekly television productions, I called and talked with Lisa Randall about doing a PBS-special about her book, Warped Passages. She had been inundated with such proposals. Subsequently, in 2012, I sent a note to ask about the cogency of our base-2 model. We had been told by an astute-but-young theoretical physicist (who asked to remain anonymous) that our work was idiosyncratic, but he wasn’t quite ready to say that it was not even wrong. We’ve asked some of the finest scientists from around the world and the brave among them in some way said, “Carry on (…but please don’t quote me).”

Lisa’s new book, Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs: The Astounding Interconnectedness of the Universe, reaches the same general conclusion as we do about the connectedness of the universe, yet I am rather confident that she would distance herself from our work and the reasons for our conclusion!  –BEC