From today’s Age of The Universe down to the first moment of time, Planck Time, alongside the Size of the Universe down to the Planck Length
by Bruce Camber, December 2014 The most current work is on the homepage: https://81018.com
An Introduction to Planck Time: Yes, early in December 2014 we started this page to follow-up earlier work on the Planck Length. We began that effort three years earlier (December 2011) in our local high school’s geometry classes. Because we will continue to find obvious errors (from simple mathematics to our interpretation) of the chart below, this page will be subject to updates.
About the Numbers: The above result, 5.391247(60)×10^{-44} seconds, is the value used by International System of Units (SI unit first reached in 2014). The prior working value was t_{P} ≈ 5.39106(32)×10^{-44} seconds. At the time this chart (below) and the horizontally-scrolled chart were done, it was the accepted SI value. The new SI base units, confirmed in 2019, is to 5.391 247(60) x 10^{–}^{44} seconds.
Background: We had been asking around the scholarly community, “Has anyone done a progression of the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe using base-2 exponential notation (a fancy way of saying, multiplying by 2)?” We did it from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe and had wanted to compare that progression to Planck Time.
Going from the smallest to the largest is a simple ordering logic. Using Max Planck’s smallest possible measurements to go to the known limits seems like an exercise high school students should do.
Here we introduce the simple math from the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe.
In July 2014, Prof. Dr. Gerard ‘t Hooft and Stefan Vandoren published a very helpful book, Time in Powers of Ten, a base-10 chart. We were looking for a base-2 chart which would be 3.333+ times more granular. We could not find it anywhere so this page is our working draft, our starting point.
Perhaps it goes without saying… as you read this note, I appeal to you to ask questions and make comments and suggestions. Thank you. –Bruce Camber
Planck Time as the smallest possible unit of measurement of time. The ratios of all 202 multiples of the Planck Time to its respective multiple of Planck Length is consistent across the chart. The original calculations were done by Max Planck in and around 1899. This chart of 202 notations was done in December 2014. Numbers smaller than the Planck Time, just numbers, cannot be meaningfully applied to anything.
Planck got his Nobel Prize in 1918/9 for the conceptual richness (discovery) of an “energy quanta.” He was also a mentor and friend of Einstein (Nobel laureate, 1921).
The Planck Length and Planck Time are actual values that can be multiplied by 2.
Of course, if one were to multiply each by 2, and the result each time by 2, over and over again, you can assume that you would reach their outer limits. That process looks a bit tedious. After all, the Age of the Universe is somewhere around 13.8+ billion years and the Observable Universe is millions of light years from common sense. Yet, rather surprisingly, to complete that effort doesn’t require thousands of doublings. It is done in just 202 doublings.
That is so surprising the doublings for both are charted below.
These doublings do kind-of, sort-of end up in sync. Where there is a problem, we assume it is within our simple math. Considering the duration and the length, and the nature of very large measurements, for all intents and purposes, they are synced mathematically. We’ve got a bit of work to do to sync them up intellectually!
Though these charts will be tweaked substantially, the best place to start is at the notations (or doublings) that define a second, day, a week and a year (in Planck Time units) to see how each corresponds with the distance light travels in Planck Length units, i.e. a second, “light day”, “light week,” and a light year, These are our first baby steps of analysis. How many hundreds of steps are there to go to discern all the faces of its meaning? Who knows? From here, we will continue to look to see what meaning and relation evolves at a particular notation where one column appears to impart value to the other. Just on the surface, this chart seems to suggest that there are other possible views of the nature of space and time where numbers, order (sequence), continuity, symmetries, and relations seem to play a more fundamental role.
Science and our common sense worldview assume the primordial nature of space and time. As a result of our work with the Planck Units, we hold that conclusion up for further inspection. How do things appear as one begins to approach a synchronized Planck Length and Planck Time?
Planck Units: As we add more Planck Units to this chart, what else might we see? What might we learn? So, we will add mass, electric charge, and temperature to these listings. And then, we’ll add the derived Planck Units (12) and then ask, “Is there anything more we can do to establish a range from the smallest to the largest? What might a comparative analysis at each doubling reveal to us?”
We don’t know, however, we are on a path to explore! We’ll report in right here.
At this point, we are attempting to learn enough to make a few somewhat educated guesses about the nature of things within these scales of the universe. So, as a result of where we are today, I think it is okay to ask the question, “What would the universe look like if space and time were derivative of order-continuity and relation-symmetry, and of ratios where the subject-object are constantly in tension?”
(This stream of consciousness continues at the very bottom of this chart.)
Using Planck Units:the distance light travels in one minute is 17,987,547.48 which is about 1000 kilometers off
Planck Time Doublings:(Seconds) |
Planck Length Doublings:(Meters) | |
The Age of the Universe: It appears that we currently live in the earliest part of 202 doubling. | Observable Universe: 8.8×10^{26} m Planck Multiple: 8.31×10^{26} m 4.155×10^{26} m Future Universe | |
203 | 6.9309178×10^{17} seconds (21.9777+ billion years) | 2.077×10^{26} m Future Universe |
202 | 346,545,888,147,200,000 seconds (10.9888+ billion years) | 1.03885326×10^{26} m Observable Universe |
201 | 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds (5.49444+ billion years) 10^{17} | 5.19426632×10^{25} m |
In this model: Time is discrete so to know how many years are to be aggregated (to see how close we are to the Age of the Universe), each notation is added together. | By the 201th notation, we would be one Planck Time unit shy of 10.9888 billion years. | One possible conclusion could therefore be that today we are living within the early part of the 202nd notation. |
200 | 86,636,472,036,800,000 seconds (2.747+ billion years) | 2.59713316×10^{25} m |
199 | 43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds (1.3736+ billion years) | 1.29856658×10^{25} m |
198 | 21,659,118,009,200,000 seconds (686.806+ million years) | 6.49283305×10^{24} m |
197 | 10,829,559,004,600,000 seconds (342.4+ million years) (10^{16}) | 3.24641644×10^{24} m |
196 | 5,414,779,502,320,000 seconds (171.2+ million years) | 1.62320822×10^{24} m |
195 | 2,707,389,751,160,000 seconds (85.6+ million years) | 8.11604112×10^{23} m |
194 | 1,353,694,875,580,000 seconds (42.8+ million years) (10^{15}) | 4.05802056×10^{23} m |
193 | 676,847,437,792,000 seconds (21.4+ million years) | 2.02901033×10^{23} m |
192 | 338,423,718,896,000 seconds (10.724+ million years) | 1.01450514×10^{23} m |
191 | 169,211,859,448,000 seconds (5.3+ million years) (10^{14}) | 5.07252568×10^{22} m |
190 | 84,605,929,724,000 seconds (2.6+ million years) | 2.5362629×10^{22} m |
189 | 42,302,964,862,000 seconds (1.3+ million years) | 1.26813145×10^{22} m |
188 | 21,151,482,431,000 seconds (640+ thousand years) | 6.34065727×10^{21} m |
187 | 10,575,741,215,500 seconds (320+ thousand years) (10^{13}) | 3.17032864×10^{21} m or 3 Zettameters or 310,000 ly |
186 | 5,287,870,607,760 seconds (160+ thousand years) | 1.58516432×10^{21} m or about 150,000 ly (1.5z) |
185 | 2,643,935,303,880 seconds (83.7+ thousand years) | 7.92582136×10^{20} m |
184 | 1,321,967,651,940 seconds (41.8+ thousand years) (10^{12}) | 3.96291068×10^{20} m |
183 | 660,983,825,972 seconds (20.9+ thousand years) | 1.981455338×10^{20} m |
182 | 330,491,912,986 seconds (or about 10,472.9 years) | 9.90727664×10^{19} meters |
181 | 165,245,956,493 seconds (10^{11}) | 4.95363832×10^{19} m |
180 | 82,622,978,246.4 seconds | 2.47681916×10^{19} m |
179 | 41,311,489,123.2 seconds | 1.23840958×10^{19} m |
178 | 20,655,744,561.6 seconds | 6.19204792×10^{18} m |
177 | 10,327,872,280.8 seconds (10^{10}) | 3.09602396×10^{18} m |
176 | 5,163,936,140.4 seconds | 1.54801198×10^{18} m |
175 | 2,581,968,070.2 seconds | 7.74005992×10^{17} m |
174 | 1,290,984,035.1 seconds (10^{9}) | 3.87002996×10^{17} m |
173 | 645,492,017.552 seconds | 1.93501504×10^{17} m |
172 | 322,746,008.776 seconds | 9.67507488×10^{16} m |
171 | 161,373,004.388 seconds (10^{8}) | 4.83753744×10^{16} m |
170 | 80,686,502.194 seconds | 2.41876872×10^{16} m |
169 | 40,343,251.097 sec (466 days)(Note: 31,536,000 s/year) | 1.20938436×10^{16} m |
Comments: A light year is about 9.4605284×10^{15} meters (Google) or 9,460,730,472,580,800 metres “exactly” (Wikipedia). Use the Gregorian calendar (circa 1582) where a year is | 365.2425 and the speed of light is given as 299,792,458 metres/second, the calculation is 365.2425 times 86400 seconds/day (or 31556952 seconds/year) times 299,792,458 meters/second | or 9.4605362^{+}×10^{15} meters. Discrepancies would become quite large at the size of the Observable Universe and the Age of the Known Universe. |
— | One Light Year | 9.45994265715×10^{15}m |
168 | 20,171,625.5485 seconds (233.468 days) | 6.0469218×10^{15} m [one light year (ly) is 9.4×10^{15} m] |
167 | 10,085,812.7742 seconds (116.73 days) (10^{7}) | 3.0234609×10^{15} m |
166 | 5,042,906.38712 seconds (58.36+) | 1.5117305×10^{15} m |
165 | 2,521,453.19356 s (29.1835 days) | 7.55865224×10^{14} m |
164 | 1,260,726.59678 s (14.59+ days) (10^{6}) | 3.77932612×10^{14} m |
163 | 630,363.29839 s (7.29+ days) | 1.88966306×10^{14} m (about 7-day light travel) |
162 | 315,181.649195 seconds (3.64794 days) | 9.44831528×10^{13} m |
161 | 157,590.824 s (1.82 days) (10^{5}) | 4.72415764×10^{13} m |
160 | 78,795.4122988 s (.911984 days) | 2.36207882×10^{13} m (or close to 24-hour light travel) |
159 | 39,397.7061494 seconds | 1.18103945×10^{13} m |
158 | 19,698.8530747 seconds (10^{4}) | 5.90519726×10^{12} m |
157 | 9849.42653735 seconds | 2.95259863×10^{12} m () |
156 | 4924.71326867 seconds(3600 s in hour) | 1.47629931×10^{12} m |
155 | 2462.35663434 seconds | 738,149,657 kilometers 10^{11} |
154 | 1231.17831717 seconds (10^{3}) | 369,074,829 kilometers 10^{11} |
153 | 615.589158584 seconds (10.259+ minutes) | 184,537,414 kilometers 10^{11} |
152 | 307.794579292 seconds | 92,268,707.1 kilometers (range of earth-to-sun)10^{10}m |
151 | 153.897289646 seconds (10^{2}) | 46,134,353.6 kilometers 10^{10} |
150 | 76.948644823 s (16+ sec over 1 min) | 23,067,176.8 kilometers 10^{10} |
149 | 38.4743224115 s (21.53 sec to 1 min) | 11,533,588.4 kilometers 10^{10} |
148 | 19.2371612058 seconds (10^{1}) | 5,766,794.2 kilometers 10^{9} |
Comments: A light minute is, of course, sixty times 299,792.458 km/second. | Using simple mathematics: 17,986,420.0329 km/second. | This difference will be further analyzed. |
147 | 9.61858060288 seconds | 2,883,397.1 kilometers 10^{9} |
146 | 4.80929030144 seconds | 1,441,698.55 kilometers 10^{9} m |
145 | 2.40464515072 seconds | 720,849.264 kilometers 10^{8} |
144 | 1.20232257536 s (1s ≠ perfect t_{p} multiple) One Second: | 360,424.632 kilometers 10^{8} meters Speed of light equals 299,792,458 m/s |
Comments: Science knows experimentally that light travels 299,792.458 km/second (a light second). A Planck Time multiple, | either 1.202 seconds or .6011 seconds, could be used as a standard unit of time that is based on a theoretical constant. We will explore further the | calculations for a day, week, month and year based on such a system. We’ll also explore it in light of recent work to define the theoretical chronon. |
— | A Light Second | 299,792.458 km |
143 | 6.0116128768×10^{−1} seconds | 180,212.316 kilometers (111,979+ miles) 10^{8} m |
142 | 3.0058064384×10^{−1} seconds | 90,106.158 kilometers 10^{7} m |
141 | 1.5029032192×10^{−1} seconds | 45,053.079 kilometers 10^{7} |
140 | 7.514516096×10^{−2} seconds | 22,526.5398 kilometers 10^{7} |
139 | 3.757258048 × 10^{−2} seconds | 11,263.2699 kilometers or about 7000 miles |
138 | 1.878629024 × 10^{−2} seconds | 5631.63496 kilometers 10^{6} |
137 | 9.39314512 × 10^{−3} seconds | 2815.81748 kilometers 10^{6} |
The transition from the Human-Scale to the Large-Scale Universe | ||
136 | 4.69657256 × 10^{−3} seconds | 1407.90874 kilometers (about 874 miles) 10^{6} m |
135 | 2.34828628 × 10^{−3} seconds | 703.954368 kilometers 10^{5} |
134 | 1.174143145978 × 10^{−3} seconds | 351.977184 kilometers (218.7 miles) 10^{5} |
133 | 5.8707157335 × 10^{−4} seconds | 175.988592 kilometers (109.35 miles) 10^{5} |
132 | 2.93535786675 × 10^{−4} seconds | 87.994296 kilometers 10^{4} |
131 | 1.46767893338 × 10^{−4} seconds | 43.997148 kilometers 10^{4} |
130 | 7.33839466688 × 10^{−5} seconds | 21.998574 kilometers10^{4} |
129 | 3.66919733344 × 10^{−5} seconds | 10.999287 kilometers or within 6.83464 miles 10^{4} |
128 | 1.83459866672× 10^{−5} seconds | 5.49964348 kilometers 10^{3} |
127 | 9.1729933336 × 10^{−6} seconds | 2.74982174 kilometers 10^{3} |
126 | 4.5864966668 × 10^{−6} seconds | 1.37491087 kilometers 10^{3} |
125 | 2.2932483334 × 10^{−6} seconds | 687.455439 meters 10^{2} |
124 | 1.1466241667 × 10^{−6} seconds | 343.72772 meters or about 1128 feet 10^{2} |
123 | 5.73312083348 × 10^{−7} seconds | 171.86386 meters or about 563 feet 10^{2} |
122 | 2.86656041674 × 10^{−7} seconds | 85.9319296 meters 10^{1} |
121 | 1.43328020837 × 10^{−7} s | 42.9659648 meters 10^{1} |
120 | 7.16640104186 × 10^{−8} sec | 21.4829824 meters 10^{1} |
119 | 3.58320052093 × 10^{−8} sec | 10.7414912 meters or 35.24 feet or 1.074×10^{1} m 10^{1} |
118 | 1.79160026046 × 10^{−8} seconds | 5.3707456 meters 10^{0} |
117 | 8.95800130232 × 10^{−9} seconds | 2.6853728 meters or 105.723 inches 10^{0} |
116 | 4.47900065116 × 10^{−9} seconds | 1.3426864 meters or 52.86 inches 10^{0} |
115 | 2.23950032558 × 10^{−9} seconds | 67.1343176 cm (19.68+ inches or 6.71×10^{-1} |
114 | 1.11975016279 × 10^{−9} seconds | 33.5671588 centimeters or 3.356×10^{-1} m) |
113 | 5.59875081396 × 10^{−10} seconds | 16.7835794 centimeters or 1.6783×10^{-1} |
112 | 2.79937540698 × 10^{−10} seconds | 8.39178968 cm (3.3+ inches or 8.39×10^{-2} m) |
111 | 1.39968770349 × 10^{−10} seconds | 4.19589484 centimeters 4.19589484×10^{-2} m |
110 | 6.99843851744 × 10^{−11} seconds | 2.09794742 centimeters or 2.0979×10^{-2} m |
109 | 3.49921925872 × 10^{−11} seconds | 1.04897 centimeters or 1.04897375×10^{-2} m |
108 | 1.74960962936 × 10^{−11} seconds | 5.24486856 mm (about 1/4 inch) or 5.24×10^{-3} m |
107 | 8.7480481468 × 10^{−12} seconds | 2.62243428 millimeters or 2.62243428×10^{-3} m |
106 | 4.3740240734 × 10^{−12} seconds | 1.31121714 millimeters 1.31121714×10^{-3} m |
105 | 2.1870120367 ×10^{−12} seconds | .655608568 millimeters or 6.55608568×10^{-4} m |
104 | 1.09350601835 ×10^{−12} seconds | .327804284 millimeter or 3.27804284 x10^{-4} m |
103 | 5.46753009176 ×10^{−13} seconds | .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10^{-4} m |
102 | 2.73376504588 × 10^{−13} seconds | 81.9510712 microns or 81.9510712 x10^{-5} m |
101 | 1.36688252294 × 10^{−13} seconds | 40.9755356 microns or 4.09755356 x10^{-5} m |
100 | 6.83441261472 × 10^{−14} seconds | 20.4877678 microns or 2.04877678×10^{-5} m |
99 | 3.41720630736 × 10^{−14} seconds | 10.2438839 microns or 1.02438839×10^{-5} m |
98 | 1.70860315368 × 10^{−14} seconds | 5.12194196 microns (.0002+ inches or 5.12×10^{-6} m) |
97 | 8.5430157684 × 10^{−15} seconds | 2.56097098 microns or 2.56097098×10^{-6} m |
96 | 4.2715078842 × 10^{−15} seconds | 1.28048549 microns or 1.2804854×10^{-6} m |
95 | 2.1357539421 × 10^{−15} seconds | 640.242744 nanometers 6.40242744×10^{-7}m |
94 | 1.06787697105 × 10^{−15} seconds | 320.121372 nanometers 3.20121372×10^{-7} m |
93 | 5.33938485524 × 10^{−16} seconds | 160.060686 nanometers or 1.6×10^{-7} m |
92 | 2.66969242762 × 10^{−16} seconds | 80.0303432 nanometers or 8.0×10^{-8} m |
91 | 1.33484621381 × 10^{−16} seconds | 40.0151716 nanometers or 4.0×10^{-8} m |
90 | 6.67423106904 × 10^{−17} seconds | 20.0075858 nanometers or 2.0×10^{-8} m |
89 | 3.33711553452 × 10^{−17} seconds | 1.00037929×10^{-8} meters or 10 nanometers |
88 | 1.66855776 × 10^{−17} seconds (smallest measurement – 2010) | 5.00189644×10^{-9} meters |
87 | 8.34278883632 × 10^{−18} seconds | 2.50094822 nanometers or 2.50094822×10^{-9} m |
86 | 4.17139441816 × 10^{−18} seconds | 1.25474112 nanometers or 1.25×10^{-9} m |
85 | 2.08569720908 × 10^{−18} seconds | .625237056 nanometers or 6.25237056×10^{-10} m |
84 | 1.04284860454 × 10^{−18} seconds | .312618528 nanometers or 3.12×10^{-10} m |
83 | 5.21424302272 × 10^{−19} seconds | .156309264 nanometers or 1.563×10^{-10} m |
82 | 2.60712151136 × 10^{−19} seconds | 7.81546348×10^{-11} m |
81 | 1.30356075568 × 10^{−19} seconds | 3.90773174×10^{-11} m |
80 | 6.5178037784 × 10^{−20} seconds | 1.95386587×10^{-11} m |
79 | 3.2589018892 × 10^{−20} seconds | 9.76932936×10^{-12} m |
78 | 1.6294509446 × 10^{−20} seconds | 4.88466468×10^{-12} m |
77 | 8.147254723 × 10^{−21} seconds | 2.44233234×10^{-12} m |
76 | 4.0736273615 × 10^{−21} seconds | 1.22116617×10^{-12} m |
75 | 2.03681368075 × 10^{−21} seconds | 6.10583084×10^{-13} m |
74 | 1.01840684038 × 10^{−21} seconds | 3.05291542×10^{-13} m |
73 | 5.09203420188 × 10^{−22} seconds | 1.52645771×10^{-13} m |
72 | 2.54601710094 × 10^{−22} seconds | 7.63228856×10^{-14} m |
71 | 1.27300855047 × 10^{−22} seconds | 3.81614428×10^{-14} m |
70 | 6.36504275236 × 10^{−23} seconds | 1.90807214×10^{-14} m |
69 | 3.18252137618 × 10^{−23} seconds | 9.54036072×10^{-15} m |
68 | 1.59126068809 × 10^{−23} seconds | 4.77018036×10^{-15} m |
Transition from the Small-Scale Universe to the Human-Scale Universe | ||
67 | 7.95630344044 × 10^{−24} seconds | 2.38509018×10^{-15} m |
66 | 3.97815172022 × 10^{−24} seconds | 1.19254509×10^{-15} m |
65 | 1.98907586011 × 10^{−24} seconds | 5.96272544×10^{-16} m |
64 | 9.94537930056 × 10^{−25} seconds | 2.98136272×10^{-16} m |
63 | 4.97268965028 × 10^{−25} seconds | 1.49068136×10^{-16} m |
62 | 2.48634482514 × 10^{−25} seconds | 7.45340678×10^{-17} m |
61 | 1.24317241257 × 10^{−25} seconds | 3.72670339×10^{-17} m |
60 | 6.21586206284 × 10^{−26} seconds | 1.86335169×10^{-17} m |
59 | 3.10793103142 × 10^{−26} seconds | 9.31675848×10^{-18} m |
58 | 1.55396551571 × 10^{−26} seconds | 4.65837924×10^{-18} m |
57 | 7.76982757856 × 10^{−27} seconds | 2.32918962×10^{-18} m |
56 | 3.88491378928 × 10^{−27} seconds | 1.16459481×10^{-18} m |
55 | 1.94245689464 × 10^{−27} seconds | 5.82297404×10^{-19} m |
54 | 9.7122844732 × 10^{−28} seconds | 2.91148702×10^{-19} m |
53 | 4.8561422366 × 10^{−28} seconds | 1.45574351×10^{-19} m |
52 | 2.4280711183 × 10^{−28} seconds | 7.27871756×10^{-20} m |
51 | 1.21403555915 × 10^{−28} seconds | 3.63935878×10^{-20} m |
50 | 6.07017779576 × 10^{−29} seconds | 1.81967939×10^{-20} m |
49 | 3.03508889788 × 10^{−29} seconds | 9.09839696×10^{-21} m |
48 | 1.51754444894 × 10^{−29} seconds | 4.54919848×10^{-21} m |
47 | 7.58772224468 × 10^{−30} seconds | 2.27459924×10^{-21} m |
46 | 3.79386112234 × 10^{−30} seconds | 1.13729962×10^{-21} m |
45 | 1.89693056117 × 10^{−30} seconds | 5.68649812×10^{-22} m |
44 | 9.48465280584 × 10^{−31} seconds | 2.84324906×10^{-22} m |
43 | 4.74232640292 × 10^{−31} seconds | 1.42162453×10^{-22} m |
42 | 2.37116320146 × 10^{−31} seconds | 7.10812264×10^{-23} m |
41 | 1.18558160073 × 10^{−31} seconds | 3.55406132×10^{-23} m |
40 | 5.92790800364 × 10^{−32} seconds | 1.7770306×10^{-23}m |
39 | 2.96395400182 × 10^{−32} seconds | 8.88515328×10^{-24}m |
38 | 1.48197700091 × 10^{−32} seconds | 4.44257664×10^{-24} m |
37 | 7.40988500456 × 10^{−33} seconds | 2.22128832×10^{-24}m |
36 | 3.70494250228 × 10^{−33} seconds | 1.11064416×10^{-24}m |
35 | 1.85247125114 × 10^{−33} seconds | 5.5532208×10^{-25}m |
34 | 9.26235625568 × 10^{−34} seconds | 2.7766104×10^{-25}m |
33 | 4.63117812784× 10^{−34} seconds | 1.3883052×10^{-25}m |
32 | 2.315589×10^{-34} seconds | 6.94152599×10^{-26} meters |
31 | 1.15779453196× 10^{−34} seconds | 3.47076299×10^{-26}m |
30 | 5.78897265978 × 10^{−35} seconds | 1.735381494×10^{-26} m |
29 | 2.89448632989 × 10^{−35} seconds | 8.67690749×10^{-27} m |
28 | 1.44724316494 × 10^{−35} seconds | 4.3384537×10^{-27} m |
27 | 7.23621582472 × 10^{-36} seconds | 2.16922687×10^{-27} m |
26 | 3.61810791236 × 10^{−36} seconds | 1.0846134×10^{-27} m |
25 | 1.80905395618 × 10^{−36} seconds | 5.42306718×10^{-28} m |
24 | 9.045269781089 × 10^{−37} seconds | 2.711533591×10^{-28} m |
23 | 4.522263489044 × 10^{−37} seconds | 1.35576679×10^{-28} m |
22 | 2.26131744522 × 10^{−37} seconds | 6.77883397×10^{-29} m |
21 | 1.13065872261 × 10^{−37} seconds | 3.38941698×10^{-29} meters |
20 | 5.65329361306 × 10^{−38} seconds | 1.69470849×10^{-29} meters |
19 | 2.82646806528 ×10^{−38} seconds | 8.47354247×10^{-30} meters |
18 | 1.41323403264 ×10^{−38} seconds | 4.2367712×10^{-30} m |
17 | 7.0661701632 × 10^{−39} seconds | 2.11838561×10^{-30} m |
16 | 3.530850816 × 10^{−39} seconds | 1.0591928×10^{-30} m |
15 | 1.7665425408 × 10^{−39} seconds | 5.29596404×10^{-31} m |
14 | 8.832712704 × 10^{−40}seconds | 2.64798202×10^{-31} m |
13 | 4.416356352 × 10^{−40} seconds | 1.32399101×10^{-31} m |
12 | 2.208178176 ^{× 10}−40 seconds | 6.619955ƒx10^{-32} m |
11 | 1.104089088 × 10^{−40} seconds | 3.30997752×10^{-32} m |
10 | 5.52044544 × 10^{−41} seconds | 1.65498876×10^{-32} m |
9 | 2.76022272 × 10^{−41} seconds | 8.27494384×10^{-33} m |
8 | 1.38011136 × 10^{−41} seconds | 4.1374719232×10^{-33} m |
7 | 6.9005568 × 10^{−42} seconds | 2.0687359616×10^{-33} m |
6 | 3.4502784 × 10^{−42} seconds | 1.03436798×10^{-33} m |
5 | 1.7251392 × 10^{−42} seconds | 5.1718399×10^{-34} m |
4 | 8.625696 × 10^{−43} seconds | 2.58591995×10^{-34} m |
3 | 4.312848 × 10^{−43} seconds | 1.29295997×10^{-34} m |
2 | 2.156424 × 10^{−43} s The second doubling | 6.46479988×10^{-35} meters |
1 | 1.078212 × 10^{−43} s The first doubling | 3.23239994×10^{-35} m The first doubling, step, or layer. |
5.39106(32)×10^{−44} seconds | 1.616199(97)x10^{-35} meters | |
The Planck Time |
The Planck Length |
Endnotes:
1. We will be refining this chart for a long, long time. This chart with Planck Time began in 2014.
2. Our very first calculation with the Planck Length column (December 2011), resulted in 209 doublings! We found several errors. Then, with help of a NASA astrophysicist, Joe Kolecki (now retired), we updated our postings with his calculation of 202.34. Then, the French Observatory astrophysicist, Jean-Pierre Luminet, calculated 205.1 doublings. We are very open to all ideas and efforts!
We are studying the foundations of foundations. One might call it a hypostatic science based on the simplest mathematics, simple geometries and observations about the way the universe coheres.
One might say, “The Finite is finite, the Infinite is the Infinite, and the constants and universals describe the boundary conditions and transformations between each. One manifests a panoply of perfections; the other has only momentary instants of perfection.”
By the 64th notation^{7}, time at 9.945379×10^{-25} seconds is still well below the thresholds of measurement. It will not be until the 84th notation that an actual measurement of a unit of time is achieved. Within attoseconds (10^{-18} seconds), that measurement was done by a team led by Prof. Dr. Ferenc Krausz, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany. Dr. Vladislav S. Yakovlev advised us.
What happens just before the Planck time at 10^{-44} seconds? Theorists say that all of the four fundamental forces are presumed to have been unified into one force. All matter, energy, space and time “explode” from the original singularity.
3. Our online “Google” calculator often rounds up the last digit. It is usually beyond the eleventh position to the right of the decimal point.
4. For more about this place and time, go to Hyperphysics (Georgia State):
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/planck.html
5. A copy of this chart has also been published in the following locations: