Duration

First posted: March 2015
Last Update: March 2015

A press release for scientific publications

By using Planck Length-and-Time and the simplest mathematics (multiplication by 2),  the speed of light can be confirmed. That is a peculiar outcome from data that has been questioned since its introduction by Max Planck in 1899.

The place of the Planck Units did not become a focus of the scientific community until Frank Wilczek (MIT, Nobel laureate, 2004) wrote a series of articles, Scaling Mt. Planck, for Physics Today back in 2001 and 2002 . Yet, even today, these numbers are still questioned by many. Notwithstanding, in a New Orleans high school geometry class, they study the Planck Units in light of the concepts of the continuum, continuity and tilings and tessellations.

Recently this group found a correspondence between data derived from experimentation and data derived purely by mathematics within the Planck Units, particularly Planck Length and Planck Time.

Even though that statement seemed self-evident, it still begged the question, “Is this a first?  Has the speed of light ever been confirmed using simple mathematics and the Planck Length and Planck Time?”

The initial observations were made while developing an entire Planck Chart based on doublings of the five basic Planck Units . Here, however, the focus on the Planck Length-and-Time have been going on since 2011. As a result, this team is trying to find other ways the Planck Units can be used  to confirm experimental data as well as open basic questions about the nature of measurement, number theory, and the power of simple mathematics.
There are three facts of mathematics that have been particularly noted in the process of developing this base-2 chart of the basic Planck Units from their given value by Max Planck in 1899 to their largest known values, particularly the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe.

Fact 1: The universe can be contained within 201+ doublings of the Planck Length and the Planck Time .  An initial fact of applied Planck mathematics is that the entire known universe can be ordered in 201+ necessarily-related groups by using base-2 exponential notation. The chart is simple to calculate; it was a project that started in a high school geometry class. Unlike Kees Boeke’s base-10 work in 1957 (also in a high school), this chart begins with the Planck Units and gets its order through the Planck Units (although it initially started with simple embedded geometries that adds another dimension of order ).

Fact 2: Between notations notation 142 and 143 is a light second.  Experimentally defined over the years , here it is defined and confirmed by simple Planck-based mathematics. Discrepancies begin to arise quickly at a light minute between notations 148 and 149 and a Light Year, found between notations 167 and 168 . In Google a light year is reported to be 9.4605284×1015 meters. In Wikipedia it is reported to be 9,460,730,472,580,800 metres exactly. Using simple mathematics the result is 9.4605362+×1015 meters. Using just the figures within the Planck Time-and- Length progression, it is 9.45994265715×1015meters.  Each of these discrepancies will require more thoughtful analysis.

Fact 3:  Either the Known Universe may not be as old as it has been calculated to be, or it is not as large as reported, and/or one (or more) of the initial Planck calculations is off,  and/or there is more to learn about the nature of light.

References:
 http://ctpweb.lns.mit.edu/…/SMPIII.pdf from PHYSICS TODAY, 2001 & 2002

 http://ctpweb.lns.mit.edu/…/Alden-Repsonse323.pdf  From American Institute of Physics, New York, NY, PHYSICS TODAY, S-0031-9228-0111-220-2, 2001 p15