Quote: “We really think that dark matter is a reality, and that dark energy is a reality.”
from The 4 Percent Universe (page 179 of 270, reference 23 of 36) by Richard Panek, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, 2011
Most recent email: 5 December 2020 @ 1:02 PM
Dear Prof. Dr. Edward Kolb:
In the 7 September 2020 ArXiv article, Completely Dark Photons… you say, “…we calculate the number density of particles resulting from gravitational particle production (GPP) during inflation…” we may be better served to look at Planck Time — 5.391 16(13)×10-44 seconds — and other base units and to apply base-2 as the most simple expansion, what would expand? …preons (Jogesh Pati and Abdus Salam in 1974)? …geons (Wheeler, 1955), …strings, automorphic forms, information (ZFC, axiomatic set theory, etc). How about return to Lemaitre’s primordial sphere? If such a sphere manifests, defined by the Planck base units, there would be about 100 tredecillion spheres per second.
Too idiosyncratic to pursue?
First email: Sunday, 5 April 2020 at 11:12 AM
Dear Prof. Dr. Dean Edward (Rocky) Kolb:
I first found your 1998 work through an “Inflation” search —
inflation + CBR fluctuations + Hubble radius See result #4.
I wondered, “Who wrote this page and when?”
By clicking on “Contents” I found you and your 1998 Fermi-work overview:
Then, of course, I explored your more recent pages:
What a progression from the University of New Orleans!
Congratulations. Entirely remarkable and spirited career.
We lived in NOLA for eight years.
Most recently I have quickly paged through your presentation
on dark matter from 2010:
My questions for you:
1. Do you believe in an infinitely hot big bang?
2. Did Lemaitre initially postulate a cold start of the universe?
3. Do you think the Planck units are real?
4. Might Planck time be the real beginning of the universe?
PS: On your personal homepage you have Top Ten countdown questions: My answers
10. What came before the big bang? No big bang, quiet expansion
9. What is outside the Universe? Intellectual multiverses and other such intellectual definitions.
8. Where is the center of the Universe? See homogeneity and isotropy
7. Is there intelligent life elsewhere? In every notation and it is us
6. Is there intelligent life here? spotty
5. Is there a parallel Universe? intellectual
4. Is there a perpendicular Universe? strictly intellectual
3. Can you parallel park in a perpendicular Universe? Not intellectual
2. Will the Cubs win the series before the end of time? See 2016, game 7
1. Are we responsible for this on the final exam? Whatever the Rock decides.
Articles: Why Unify? (Nature, v.288, pages 649–651, 1980)
ArXiv (51): Unparticle Physics (May 2007) Wiki
Books: Lie Algebras In Particle Physics (Westview, 1999) (CRC Taylor & Francis, 2018) (PDF)
Wikipedia: Unparticle Physics
Most recent email: Tuesday, March 17, 2020 (Rewrite: 19 May 2016)
Dear Prof. Dr. Howard Georgi:
Your work on Unparticle Physics has finally come to my attention so my studies of your work are still quite young. I apologize in advance for my lack depth.
In and around 1979 John Wheeler sent me a copy of his booklet, The Frontiers of Time (PDF). Unfortunately, soon thereafter, I went back into a business that I had started nine years earlier.
I recently revisited Wheeler’s writings about quantum foam and simplicity. I would ask him today, “What about the Planck base units?” Might we consider Planck Time the first unit of time? Might we consider today, the Now, to be to be an endpoint that gives us the current estimated age of the universe between 13.81-to-14.1 billion years?
If we apply base-2 notation to that continuum, there are just 202 notations that encapsulate the universe. At one second (between Notation 143 and Notation 144) the Planck Length is within .001% of the distance light travels in a vacuum.
Throughout those 202 notations, there are many places to check the validity of the numbers, including the Planck Charge and Planck Mass doublings. There is a deep logic to it all. The first 64 notations are too small to be measured. The first doubling of the Planck Length that can be measured is within Notation-67. The first measurement of a unit of time that can be measured is the attosecond; it is within Notation-84.
Here is a domain, 1-64, for your unparticle physics, including Langlands programs, string theory, and loop quantum theory. If real, it has dimensionality and physicality that cannot be measured directly. Indirectly, it just may become part of the definition of dark energy and dark matter.
When we considered the look and feel of these unparticles, might an infinitesimal sphere at the Planck level be defined by the Fourier transform, Poincaré spheres, and cubic close packing of equal spheres? What are our limitations within mathematics and physics?
All notations appear to be active, so time is surely redefined. It would appear that there is symmetry across all but the current notation.
I hope you will comment. Thank you.
PS. Another recent attempt to describe all this ideation was for FQXi (Aguirre and Tegmark group): https://81018.com/3u/
Long, long ago… I was a member of Harvard SDS ’64 (local high school student – recruited from an all-night teach-in at Memorial Hall), also a member of the Harvard Philomorphs with Arthur Loeb and Bucky Fuller, 1970-1973, and one of nine (1977) with Arthur McGill (HDS) on Austin Farrer’s Finite and Infinite.
• The Origins of Dark Matter (Symmetry, November 2018)
• The quest to test quantum entanglement (Symmetry, November 2018)
• Already beyond the Standard Model (Symmetry, October 2018)
• Five mysteries the Standard Model can’t explain (Symmetry, October 2018
• Will We Recognize Alien Life When We See It? (Mosaic / digg, October 2015)
• Quantum and Consciousness Often Mean Nonsense (Slate, May 2014)
Websites: http://bowlerhatscience.org/ (Personal Website)
• http://GalileosPendulum.org (Blog)
First email: 15 November 2018
Dear Prof. Dr. Matthew R. Francis,
Is simplicity good?
We took the Planck base units of Length, Time, Mass and Charge and
applied base-2 exponentiation. In 202 doublings, the chart is out to the
Age of the Universe. It seems straight forward, however, the results are
First, it is a simple, logical, mathematical map of the universe.
I am not sure… are there any others?
By studying the numbers associated with each doubling, we see
that most of the 202 doublings are about the early universe.
Notation 143 contains the first second.
Notation 197 contains the beginning of large structure-formation.
All the numbers are here: https://81018.com/chart/
Though entirely idiosyncratic, I think there is something here.
1. Of course, the Planck Length doubling at one second, divided
by the Planck Time doubling at one second is very close to the value
of the speed of light in a vacuum. It is consistent with Planck’s initial
equation for Planck Time. Yet, it is naturally also consistent within
each of the other 202 notations.
We started this project in a high school geometry class in 2011
( https://81018.com/home/ ) with just the Planck Length. We
did not introduce Planck Time until 2014 and Planck Mass and
Planck Charge until 2015. So, really we have just begun to study
and attempt to understand these numbers in light of current theories
within cosmology and physics. It is entirely provocative!
Even though it is idiosyncratic, is there any hope for it?
The current homepage is my latest attempt to spotlight key ideas
and problems. Thank you.
CENTER FOR PERFECTION STUDIES: CONTINUITY • SYMMETRY • HARMONY • USA • GOALS • 2018
HOMEPAGES: JUST PRIOR|1|2|3 |4|5|6|PI|8|9|10|11|12|13|14|15|16|17|187|19|20|21|22|23|24|25|ORIGINAL
72 OF 202: GRID of EVERYTHING, EVERYWHERE FOR ALL TIME, NOT A THEORY OR VISION, JUST MATH.
The Emergence of the Universe
This website is a study of a model of the universe based on an application of base-2 exponentiation (multiplying by 2 or doublings) that eventually encapsulates-and-relates everything, everywhere, for all time in just 202 notations. This model of the universe starts with Planck Length and Planck Time, the smallest possible measurements, and goes to the largest. It starts with the very first moment in time and goes to this very moment in time.
To get an intuitive sense of this model is difficult. Four sacred cows of science need to be reexamined; these are best summarized as continuity, symmetry, harmony and the finite-infinite relation. Continuity applies to the nature of time. Symmetries apply to the structure of space, focusing here particularly on the very small-scale. Harmony is a focus on the dynamics of perfection and imperfection whereby chaos, indeterminacy, creativity, free will and fluctuations all emerge. And, all three are the face of the finite-infinite relation. 
The dynamic image at the top of this article opens this analysis. The first sphere is the first instant of space and time with a very specific mass and charge. These numbers were all calculated by Max Planck in 1899 and have been studied in earnest since 2001 when Frank Wilczek wrote a three-part series, “Scaling Mt. Planck” for Physics Today.  When he received his Nobel prize in 2004, these three articles took on the patina of authority.
The first moment of time is derivative, finite and discrete. Newton’s absolute space and time are sidelined to introduce a new scale of the universe that begins with Planck Length and Planck Time. The focus of that image, including the ellipsis (36 displayed), is “the first emergence.” 
Seemingly out of nothing – no space, no time – it all starts with just one sphere, defined by the Planck base units and many dimensionless constants, that is followed by another sphere, then another and another…. For now, we’ll call these spheres, planckspheres. If these spheres could be observed — obviously much-much-too-fast-and-too-small to measure — perhaps this process might be described as a line or a string coming out of nowhere, literally defining space and time as it emerges. This is the beginning of time, and this first moment is still emerging, today, at this moment…. It is still creating space/time and the dynamics that are mass/energy (or charge). It is assumed that all four Planck units are inextricably interwoven throughout the 202 doublings  (or notations) that bring us to this very moment within this day.
In that light, our first principle is that our Universe begins and is sustained by the dynamics that are defined within Planck Length/Planck Time and Planck Mass/PlanckCharge. Given these are inextricably interwoven, one of our challenges is to loosen, then disentangle all the knots.
Be assured, this is not your daddy’s or your mommy’s sense of time. Here it is a rate of encoding and imprinting on a universe that has no past. It has no future. It is only right now. This instant. Everywhere, everything shares this same moment and this same infrastructure.  This first notation is always the same, yet it is always unique just like pi. Impenetrable, there is nothing smaller; and these spheres penetrate and sustain all things.
Here is the operational nexus between the finite and the infinite. Here is the beginning of an integrated, mathematical model of the universe and a quiet expansion with a most-natural inflation. Here is our little universe displaying its deep-seated order; yet very quickly, it begins to reveal how disorder, chaos, uniqueness, and creativity emerge.  Those geometries are well-known and the dynamics within each manifestation are now being explored and will be discussed in subsequent homepages.
Doublings. In the second notation the most basic projective geometry begins to emerge and structure begins building on basic structures  that creates a logical continuum from the infinitesimally small scale structures right up to the 67th doubling where now things can, in some sense of the word, be measured by accelerators like CERN in Geneva, Switzerland.
One of the key purposes of this site is to chart a map that takes us right down into these assumed infinitesimal structures.
Academics and scholars have not adopted this model. Questions should be asked first, about the jump or “quantum leap” from the CERN-scale to the Planck scale.
To date, there appears to be no other attempt to define this exquisitely small space using a simple application of base-2 notation and a profound respect for the Planck base units. In this study Planck temperature is derivative of mass/charge; so to approach the Planck temperature value, it has been reverse ordered. Just for convenience, it is now started just one notation above the 202nd notation. The logic supporting such a positioning is still being formulated.
Can the deep nature of that “quantum leap” be calculated today using just the four Planck base units and doublings? Could the first doubling from Notation 1 to Notation 2 be the foundation for all doublings? There are many different types and applications of doublings that have already been well-researched and defined. To learn a little about each, on one page within this site, these key types of doubling will be studied and further researched in light of the continuity equations from the first doubling to the 202nd doubling.  Hopefully period-doubling bifurcation, cellular division, double field theory and gauge-symmetry for T-duality-and-doubled geometry, and multiscale modeling and simulations will inform us.
What other kinds of doublings should be considered? The 64 doublings from the Planck scale to just under the CERN-scale (at the 67th doubling) have been well-enumerated through the study of geometric expansions, especially as outlined by the Wheat & Chessboard story. It begs the question, “Is there a logical progression by which numbers and geometries progress?” Does every kind of mathematics, geometry and logic build upon each other? 
Given recent scholarship within the studies of prime numbers, the question should also be asked, “What is the role of prime numbers in this expansion?” There are 45 prime numbers between notation 1 and 202; there are 19 primes from 1 and 67. Could each notation that is a prime open a path for more complex mathematics? That question is being pursued within the development of the following pages: https://81018.com/1-202 https://81018.com/a0 https://81018.com/a1 https://81018.com/a2 …
So, even as we study these possibilities, a simple stacking renders our first doubling and an infrastructure for all subsequent doublings. Our centerfold image at the top captures the dynamics of doublings. Cubic-close packing, both face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp), has a rich history beginning in-and-around the 1570s starting with the problem of stacking cannonballs on the deck of a ship. Today there are purely mathematical packing challenges as well as applications of atomic and crystallographic stacking and packing. By starting with planckspheres, this most-simple doubling application becomes discernible as the second, third, and fourth doublings are assumed. Further, subsequent doublings are assumed right on up to 202nd doubling and the current time. Yet, something unusual is captured within the 67th doubling, we begin to measure it. That length opens the possibilities of particle physics revealing the potential science of the first 64 steps. It begs the question; is this a logical continuum from the infinitesimally small scale structures up to those being measured by accelerators like CERN?
These planckspheres, a key element of the finite-infinite bridge, are defined by pi, the Planck base units, dimensionless constants and simple logic. Every finite-infinite discussion-and-debate should be re-examined. Though tedious, it must be re-engaged. There are too many fine scholars who are being torn up and their logic being shredded to not engage every idea that has been posited throughout human history. All of that is within the 202nd notation. The 197th notation takes us up to 343+ million years. Our first 196 notations open a deep study of the earliest cosmological epochs.
Could this model be in line with Neil Turok’s conclusions that the universe is in a perpetual state of starting? So, yes, I believe planckspheres and every form of emergence up to the 67th notation are keys. https://81018.com/1-202
Many people have asked, Why now?
Of course, the question must also be asked, “Is this model overly simplistic and naive?” Yet, even if so, could this model of the early universe be closer to the truth than the big bang theory? I believe it is. Thank you. -BEC
Endnotes and Footnotes:
(in process today, 29 June 2018)
[†] This dynamic image was first introduced within this website on January 4, 2016 in an article about numbers, “Constructing the Universe from Scratch.” It has now become the center point within this analysis. In that initial article, the question was asked, “Which numbers come first and why? Which numbers are the most important to know and understand?” The image was also used within the following articles: Fabric of the Universe (November 20, 2017, just below point #4), Consider how symmetries within the first 67 notations actually create space (Sept. 17, 2017) and Symmetry: Circles-to-Spheres-to-Triangles-to-Tetrahedrons-to-Octahedrons (September 13, 2017.
 The three faces of the finite-infinite relation extend our earlier discussions about David Hilbert’s understanding of infinity and Max Tegmark’s disdain for the word. Continuity-symmetry-harmony are the mathematical-scientific faces of infinity and each face is captured by the dynamics of pi and the emergence of lattice, tetrahedrons and octahedrons, and eventually complex structure.
 Frank Wilczek wrote his three-part series, “Scaling Mt. Planck” for Physics Today, yet has not acknowledged that Planck base units are the best conceptual orientation to start constructing this universe. As a result of this analysis, we will ask him, “Why not?” To our knowledge, the writings within this website are the first to lift up Max Planck’s base units as the starting point for the universe. We are anxious to discover and understand any articles that analyze their place, power and conceptual richness.
 “The first emergence” is a steady stream of planckspheres being uniquely created just like they were in the very first moment. Every notation has a unique function and every notation is evolving at the same time it continues to do what it has done. Here, perhaps are Neil Turok’s perpetual starts of the universe. Here everything, everywhere is built up and emergent from this fabric of the universe, called an aether and/or dark matter and dark energy, that gives this universe its isotropy and homogeneity.
 The Planck base units and dimensionless constants are inextricably interwoven throughout the 202 doublings (or notations) are based on the “Plancksphere” and that analysis is just beginning. I googled the word, for example, on June 25, 2018 with those quotes and there are just nine results. Using two words, “Planck sphere” with the quotes, there are 320 results. And without the quotes there are just over four million combinations that come close. Such results suggest that this is a new or emergent science.
Within our dynamic image about sphere stacking, the tetrahedral-octahedral architecture begins to emerge. Here, the possibilities for getting things inextricably woven together become staggering. By the tenth doubling there are 134,217,728 scaling vertices with which to work. By the 20th notation it catapults to 1.4411519×1017 — there are no limits to the entanglement of strings and knots and yet-to-be-fathomed geometries to create. By the 64th notation those scaling vertices have jumped up to 6.2771017×1057 and the first particle has yet to emerge!
Unless this simple logic is mistaken, there is altogether too much potential to ignore these possibilities and this orientation any longer.
Also, it should be pointed out that Max Planck’s formula for light — you can see it on line 10 of the horizontally-scorlled chart of 202 notations is a special calculation that needs further study. The fact that these doublings is a form of base-2 exponentiation suggests that our universe is not linear and just might best be defined by Euler’s identity, considered by many mathematicians and physicists to be the most beautiful of all equations.
 Everywhere, everything for all time shares this same moment and this same infrastructure. There are many books and articles about the nature of time. Within this study, most have fallen short. Einstein and Planck opened the door to re-analyze Newton’s earlier conceptual frame of absolute space and time, yet nothing more compelling emerged. Newton continues to define our commonsense logic, but should it? If it is established that period-doubling bifurcation, cellular division, double field theory and doubled geometry, and multiscale modeling all share the same common denominator that starts at the Planck base units, absolute space and time can be placed on the historical shelf as a footnote within the imprinting on the sentience of this universe. More work needed…
 Consider disorder, chaos, uniqueness, creativity and fluctuations. The scholarly community is increasingly confused with the terms, infinite, space and time. David Hilbert’s simple analysis leaves much to be desired. The infinite can be understood as a logical construct where it is the foundation for continuity, symmetry and harmony. These three perfections should all be understood to be a scientific assertion about the nature of order, relations, and dynamics. The various manifestations of fluctuations can be experienced as disorder, chaos, uniqueness, creativity and human will. The geometry for fluctuations begins with the simple pentastar, a clustering of five tetrahedrons. The next base structure, the icosahedron, is a clustering of 20 tetrahedrons. The dynamics of each will be introduced within future homepages.
 Structures begin building on basic structure. There are two areas where our analysis is focused. The first is on a notation-by-notation analysis but progress is slow because there is so much mathematical logic to be learned. The other is basic geometries, quantum geometries and dynamic geometries. Here, too, there is so much to learn and, of course, more to come…
 There can be strains of continuity within discontinuity. There can be strains of discontinuity within continuity. The continuity equations from the first doubling to the 202nd doubling come from within a continuity that envelopes our physical universe, so here, too, there is more to come…
 There appears to be a rigorous academic study of the logical construction of concepts, geometries, and equations. Mathematics and geometries do build upon each other! These studies will become our studies and as quickly as possible, each will be integrated within our map of the universe. Yes, there is more to come…
“In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts,” meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have. These properties come about because of interactions among the parts.” -Wikipedia
* This page was started on June 21, 2018 in South San Francisco while on our tour of America. On many occasions Hattie and I been challenged to look at the world and ourselves in new ways. Along our route, we’ve spent time engaging with people:
- At John Hendrick’s retreat, Gateway Canyon Ranch, an hour south of Grand Junction, Colorado, we discovered his CuriosityStream retreat center. That got me thinking.
- We were in the highly-overpriced Yellowstone Hotel in Wyoming where the National Park Service is attempting to create a Disney-like experience, highly-controlled-and-organized wilderness. That compressed conflict got me thinking.
- On our drive to Bend, Oregon, I discovered the Simplot Don plant near Pocatello, Idaho and learned about fertilizers and growth and even that challenged my thinking.
- In Bend, while visiting with friends, I was challenged again to understand why there is such disparity, both political and economic, within our world.
- On to Portland, the land of inclusivity, two different sets of friends challenged me to see the world through their eyes. There is so much to process and process it we will until each becomes a homepage.
This homepage was simply to clarify the last three homepages:
- April 30: Engaging emergence and growth
- May 18: An alternative to big bang cosmology
- June 5, 2018: On the nature of measurements
CENTER FOR PERFECTION STUDIES: CONTINUITY•SYMMETRY•HARMONY • GOALS • November 2017 Homepages: Langlands I Langlands II|INFINITY|Inflation|KEYS|Original|REVIEW|Transformation
On More Fully Recognizing The Infinite
Précis: Whenever we look up into a clear night sky, often someone will say, “It goes on forever.” As children we learned to accept the infinitude of space and time. It is deeply ingrained within our thought structures. The problem is that this perception, in light of the base-2 exponentiation from the Planck units to the age and size of the universe, is probably not quite right.
History. Alchemist Isaac Newton was an experimenter and he made mistakes. He used trial and error. When he described space and time, I believe he was off the mark. Though a genius, he was overly sure of himself and was often arrogant and condescending. Perhaps his penultimate contribution to our universe of knowledge is his sense of space-time and the infinite. These lasting imprints, however, were only partially right.
Isaac Newton, Lucasian Professor at Cambridge University (1669). Wikipedia says: “He was a devout but unorthodox Christian, who privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity and who, unusual for a member of the Cambridge faculty at that time, refused to take holy orders in the Church of England.” More (Wikipedia)…
Infinity: Newton was confused about the nature of infinity. And, his confusion became our confusion; and, it has become the world’s confusion. Infinity to this day remains a problem for many in the academic community because it is too often interlaced with theological and religious language. The God wars between the arrogant among religious thinkers have caused many intellectuals to avoid religious language. A possible resolution to that conundrum is to use those terms that describe the universals and constants that originate in mathematics and science. Those terms should capture facets, a certain essence, that is part of both the finite and the infinite.
Three Faces of Infinity. Though most of these studies on this website are of the finite, the infinite has a substantial, abiding and fundamental role. The infinite describes a never-ending, never-repeating perfection or completeness or a wholeness that is not fundamentally part of the finite. Within these studies the infinite is defined as continuity, that which creates order, sequences, and the nature of time. The infinite is symmetry, that which creates the foundations of relations, of balance and of the nature of space. And, the infinite is defined as harmony, that which creates dynamics, and creates a space-time moment. The use of religious or theological language and concepts is left to each reader.
These three simple postulations about form-and-function assume a panoply of necessary-and-abiding transformations. When we look into the clear night sky, we “see” only as far as today’s transformations within this expanding universe.
Set within the 202 base-2 notations from the Planck base units to this current moment, the Now, it challenges us to see how the entire universe is bound together within what is initially a most-simple mathematical and geometrical system that profoundly redefines space-and-time and our relation to the universe. In 2011 the first name of the project was “Big Board – little universe.” Those 202 steps, all active, make for a rather intimate place.
Our conclusion: “We live in a highly-integrated, exponential universe.”
The continuity-symmetry-harmony concepts were first written down in 1970-72 to define the three faces of a perfected state in space-and-time. Each seemed to hold plausible answers to deeper questions about life and to such practical things as superconductors, quantum fluctuations, heartbeats, sleep, consciousness, reproduction… but the articulation of those facets of the transformations was too weak and generalized. There was no systemic application or coherence until it was discovered that our entire universe is contained within those 202 base-2 notations. So profoundly and deeply integrated, this chart gave us our first introduction to the first 67 notations that provide the footings to explain the homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Here was the story of the Chessboard and Wheat all over again. There is so much space-and-time, every strain of mathematics will have its place within these first notations. There is enough room for consciousness, ethics, psychology and all other disciplines that have never had a place on a scientific grid.
This project opens new explorations. Certainly it re-awakens the finite-infinite relation, the nature of light, and the very nature of space-and-time. And, it thrusts enormous responsibility on each of us for our every thought, word and deed because it shows us how everything is related to everything and everything that we do impacts this little universe.
Isaac Newton did not have the advantage of Leonhard Euler‘s exponentiation. Base-2, the most simple, still lacks proper respect. Newton did not have Planck’s base units. He was Lucasian Professor #2 and gave us our commonsense worldview: Absolute space and time.
For more, click back through the homepages or click here:
- A few thoughts about science and religion on a day of rest
- Limits to Science & Limited Worldviews
- Measuring An Expanding Universe Using Planck Units
- Chart of the universe in 202 notations
- Why haven’t we seen this model until now?
- Does this model create an inherent foundation for both ethics and values?
- Is the big bang theory ultimately based on chaos? Does it encourage solipsism, then narcissism, nihilism, and ultimately a dystopia?
- A Few Key Concepts, Postulations Or Foundations
- Time is not infinite
- Quiet Expansions versus big bang
( ℓP )
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4. Key Links: 81018.com https://81018.com/bridges