**These are the working references for the article, “Constructing the Universe from Scratch**.” A running commentary is being developed within my LinkedIn blogging area. Besides editing the overall document, the end notes will be using some of these reference materials below.

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**Reference materials**:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bifurcation_diagram

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_Continuity

http://www.academia.edu/748956/The_pythagorean_relationship_between_Pi_Phi_and_e

http://www.maths.surrey.ac.uk/hosted-sites/R.Knott/Fibonacci/propsOfPhi.html

http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/pickover/trans.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_A._Pickover

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mathematical_symbols

Hales: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/9811071v2

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hopf_algebra#Cohomology_of_Lie_groups

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_automaton

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E_%28mathematical_constant%29

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euler’s_formula

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Hierarchy_of_transfinite_cardinals

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euler’s_identity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckingham_%CF%80_theorem

https://www.google.com/search?q=Buckingham+Pi+theorem&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8

https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-Penrose-number

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultrafinitism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_large_numbers

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleph_number

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finitism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wreath_product

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_coordinate_system

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taylor_series

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperreal_number

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallpaper_group

*Divided Spheres: Geodesics and the Orderly Subdivision of the Sphere* by **Edward S. Popko **

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http://keithbriggs.info/documents/Keith_Briggs_PhD.pdf

Isoperimetric Quotient for Fullerenes and Other Polyhedral Cages Tomaž Pisanski ,^{†} Matjaž Kaufman ,*^{†} Drago Bokal ,^{†} Edward C. Kirby ,^{‡} Ante Graovac ^{§ }Inštitut za matematiko, fiziko in mehaniko, Univerza v Ljubljani, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, Resource Use Institute, 14 Lower Oakfield, Pitlochry, Perthshire PH16 5DS, Scotland, UK The Rugjer Bošković Institute, Bijenička c. 54, HR-10001 Zagreb, POB. 1016, Croatia J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 1997, 37 (6), pp 1028–1032 DOI: 10.1021/ci970228e Publication Date (Web): November 24, 1997 b Copyright © 1997 American Chemical Society Abstract: The notion of Isoperimetric Quotient (IQ) of a polyhedron has been already introduced by Polya. It is a measure that tells us how spherical is a given polyhedron. If we are given a polyhedral graph it can be drawn in a variety of ways in 3D space. As the coordinates of vertices belonging to the same face may not be coplanar the usual definition of IQ fails. Therefore, a method based on a proper triangulation (obtained from omni-capping) is developed that enables one to extend the definition of IQ and compute it for any 3D drawing. The IQs of fullerenes and other polyhedral cages are computed and compared for their NiceGraph and standard Laplacian 3D drawings. It is shown that the drawings with the maximal IQ values reproduce well the molecular mechanics geometries in the case of fullerenes and exact geometries for Platonic and Archimedean polyhedra.

In the equations of general relativity, `G` is often multiplied by 8π. Hence writings in particle physics and physical cosmology often normalize 8π`G` to 1. This normalization results in the **reduced Planck energy**, defined as:

2π | E_{P}⋅ℓ_{P} |

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- natural number after zero.
*e*, approximately equal to 2.718281828459045235360287…*i*, the imaginary unit such that*i*^{2}= -1.*(square root of 2)*, the length of the diagonal of a square with unit sides, approximately equal to 1.414213562373095048801688.- Giunti M. and Mazzola C. (2012), “Dynamical systems on monoids: Toward a general theory of deterministic systems and motion“. In Minati G., Abram M., Pessa E. (eds.),
*Methods, models, simulations and approaches towards a general theory of change*, pp. 173-185, Singapore: World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4383-32-5.

- Vladimir Igorevic Arnol’d “
*Ordinary differential equations*“, various editions from MIT Press and from Springer Verlag, chapter 1 “*Fundamental concepts*“. - I. D. Chueshov “
*Introduction to the Theory of Infinite-Dimensional Dissipative Systems*” online version of first edition on the EMIS site [1]. - Roger Temam “
*Infinite-Dimensional Dynamical Systems in Mechanics and Physics*” Springer Verlag 1988, 1997. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring_theory
- http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/symmetry/penrose.htm
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuous_function

THEORY OF *DYNAMICAL* SYSTEMS AND GENERAL *TRANSFORMATION*. GROUPS WITH INVARIANT MEASURE. A. B. Katok, Ya. G. Sinai, and A. M. Stepin.

Printing:

page 1= Printable PDF of this page only

page2 = Printable PDF of this page only

*March 20 George Polya* can rightly be called the father of problem solving in mathematics education. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_P%C3%B3lya

Notes: March 5, 2017

1. Virtual particles: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_particle

2. Pertubation theory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perturbation_theory_(quantum_mechanics)

3. Hamiltonian: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamiltonian_(quantum_mechanics)

4. Also Carlo Rovelli, https://plus.google.com/101505201345791903693

http://www.cpt.univ-mrs.fr/~rovelli/

TIME IS NOT WHAT YOU THINK IT IS

5. Richard Muller https://www.amazon.com/Now-Physics-Time-Richard-Muller/dp/0393285235#reader_0393285235

6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cantor_function

7. http://physics.uoregon.edu/profile/jschombe/

**Notes (2016)**:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_units

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_constant

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/cosmo/lectures/lec20.html

http://www.pnas.org/content/103/28/10612.full.pdf Packing, tiling, and covering with tetrahedra J. H. Conway* and S. Torquato

http://doye.chem.ox.ac.uk/research/cluster_structure.html Jonathan Doyle, Cambridge

https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.00119

On inflation, cosmological constant, and SUSY breaking Andrei Linde

July 2016

finitum

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/cosmo/lectures/lec20.html

Hartle-Hawking proposal

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40844-015-0001-6

On the problem of scale: a general theory of morphogenesis and normative policy signals for economic evolution

1.54 steradians = or ≠ a gap of 7.36∗

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spacetime-iframes/#LinProAbsSpa Robert DiSalle <*rdisalle@uwo.ca*>

space and time: the hole argument

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spacetime-theories/ Absolute and Relational Theories of Space and Motion Nick Huggett <*huggett@uic.edu*> Carl Hoefer <*carl.hoefer@ub.edu*>

Dr. *Claus Kiefer*. Institut für Theoretische Physik Universität zu Köln … 0221 470-4300 (secretary). Fax: 0221 470-2189. E-mail: kiefer@thp.uni-koeln.de