**On Understanding our Exponential Universe**

**Nobel laureates** Walther Nernst (Chemistry, 1920), Albert Einstein (Physics, 1921), Max Planck (Physics, 1918), Robert Millikan (Physics, 1923) and Max von Laue (Physics, 1914) could have easily done the base-2 chart over dinner on 11 November 1931 in Berlin.

What a different world it would be.

Perhaps that formal wear (including Einstein’s white shirt and tie) was buttoned-up too tightly and their egos were to involved with the process of jockeying for position to speak. Though the stock markets had crashed (1929), there was not a sense of urgency about those people seeking political power, i.e. Adolph Hitler.

These Nobel Prize winners certainly had the bandwidth, the depth of knowledge, and creativity to engage a base-2 exponential definition of the universe. It would have opened up the mathematics of the first 64 notations.

They all seemed to have intuitions about it.

**FIRST DRAFT: January 25**. This article is being developed for the second meeting of the study group on the “nature of the finite-infinite relation.”

**Max Planck was the fulcrum**. He had the numbers. Seated in the middle, he held within him a deep sense of the boundary conditions of the universe. He had the calculations for length and time. They were all very decent mathematicians. Two times two (2×2) came easy for each of them, yet 2^64^ did not. Though the *Wheat and Chessboard* story was well-known throughout their life, they chose not to think about continuity equations and symmetry relations from the infinitesimally small to the Observable Universe or the Age of the Universe. In 1931 they would not have had the advantage of the Hubble telescopes, yet they did have estimates of the age and size of the Universe. They could have pointed us in the right direction. (to be continued)

**Walther Nernst was the power man**. He had chain reaction. Back in 1887 he had a thesis that there were electromotive forces produced by magnetism in heated metal plates.

Albert Einstein was the visualizer.

Robert Millikan

Max von Laue