# Free space, singularities, vacuums… all relative

by Bruce E. Camber, April 2018

**In our model free space and singularities are a place for converging formulae.**

**Keys to this Quiet Expansion**: Within the *big bang theory *(bbt) it is theorized that the four forces of nature — gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force, and the weak force — become a* singularity*. We are not convinced. We *assume* these four are encapsulated within all four Planck base units and the constants that define them, and some manifestation of this unification is carried throughout all 202 notations. Those Planck base units define length, time, mass, and charge; and, these are further defined by the speed of light (or special relativity), the gravitational constant (or general relativity), the reduced Planck constant (or *ħ* or quantum mechanics), the Coulomb constant (or *ε*_{0 }or electric charge or electromagnetism), and the Boltzmann constant (or *k*_{B} or *of temperature)*.

**This Planck scale is not beyond logic, numbers, and conceptual integrity.** Rational, sentient homogeneity, isotropy and simple logic rule. Yet, within the *Quiet Expansion (QE) *model, we have applied that simple logic somewhat arbitrarily by placing Planck Temperature at the top of the scale, just beyond the 202nd notation and then dividing by 2, it goes down approaching Absolute Zero. We are ready to adjust this scale at any time when a more integrative logic prevails! Also, we are increasingly finding a simple relational logic between the four original Planck base units.

Within the *QE* model, the Planck Charge, a Coulombs value, is taken as given. Within the big bang theory (*bbt)*, the Planck Charge is ignored. The *bbt* value is as large as possible. Their measurement is given in GeV units, one billion electron volts. Add 10^{16} zeroes and you have quite a charge.

To begin to understand all these numbers and their correlations, questions are asked, “Are these all non-repeating, never-ending numbers like Pi? Are all numbers that are non-repeating and never-ending somehow part of the infinite yet also the beginning of quantum mechanics?” The suggestion has been made that we carry out each of the Planck numbers at least 10 decimal places, and if need be, 100 decimal places, and possibly even 1000 decimal places, to see if patterns can be discerned. We recognize that relative to other units of measurement, such as the SI base quantities, the values of the Planck units are approximations mostly due to uncertainty in the value of the gravitational constant (G).

The *QE* model holds that things are simple before complex and everything is related to everything. Imputed, hypostatized and/or hypothesized are pointfree vertices and simple geometries as the deep infrastructure that gives rise to the work on combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory (and the Feigenbaum’s constants), Langlands program, mereotopology (point-free geometry), the 80-known binary operations, and scalar field theory. Here are people working on theories and constructions of the simple, yet their concepts are anything but simple.