Questions, questions, and more questions


Are Planck’s base units the first instant?

Is this the beginning of the universe?

by Bruce Camber  Related Homepages: Base-2 Model, Integrated Structure, Lemaître-to-today, Subjects-Objects, Time


The nature of Planck Time (tP) is the root question. First, tP is directly correlated with length (a Janus-face of the most-basic length) and with light.  It works in much the same way Einstein’s well-known equation, e0=mc2 dynamically relates mass, energy and light.

The four Planck base units are natural units and each is defined by the most fundamental universal constants. Though difficult to envisage, it is hypothesized that each is a Janus-face of the other.

Could these four base units (and light) become the very first moment of time?  Within this model the answer is, “Yes.” Still quite open are answers to questions about how and when the other dimensionless constants come into play, especially those attributed to the essential natural of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Given the values of the four Planck units and light, there can be no singularity. Yet, the dynamics describe a fundamental transformation nexus between what we understand to be finite and that which appears to be infinite (perhaps best understood as continuity, symmetry, and harmony).


Could this universe start cold? It appears to have been Lemaître’s position and de facto it became our position as well. In 1999 the limitations of the hot big bang were acknowledged by its prime movers at a conference at Cambridge University. “Come up with alternatives!”  Now, twenty years later, they’ve tried, but failed to determine the first expression, the first facet, and the fundamentals that define our reality. How does it all come to be? What is the first look-and-feel of that manifestation?

Could it be a sphere? John Archibald Wheeler imagined quantum foam. Others are also suggesting a sphere and these spheres have been called planckspheres. Add light to this concrescence of Planck Time, Planck Length, Planck Mass, and Planck Charge and the rate by which these spheres are created might readily be described as an endless string.

Can cubic close packing of equal spheres (ccp) be applied at this scale? The thrust within our universe, at least within this model, has been going on right from the start. The concept is of a universe filling within infinitesimal spheres that tile-and-tessellate the universe creating multiple grids that may best be described by ccp and the Fourier transform.

Could this stacking amount to a doubling and then a series of doublings? If this simple logic and simple math is on the right path, within 202 doublings (base-2 notations), these Planck base units have become the age of the universe, the size of the universe, the total mass of the universe, and the total energy of the universe, and yes, it is still happening right now. The universe is expanding! Exploring such a simple model has been our effort since December 2011:

Please explore our little, horizontally-scrolled chart of numbers to get a sense of this emergence and natural inflation. The first 64 notations are the key. The URL is: It is too simple, so simple it seems perhaps a bit of silliness. But if you look at the numbers, there is a sweet logic that prevails.

I’d be pleased to hear from you. Yes, challenge us, coach us. We need all the help we can get.



More questions.


  1. How is big bang cosmology (and base-2 natural inflation) consistent with General Relativity?
  2. How does big bang cosmology (and base-2) explain the Hubble expansion of the Universe?
  3. How can big bang cosmology (and base-2 natural inflation) explain the abundances of the light elements?
  4. How does big bang cosmology (and base-2 natural inflation) explain CMBR, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation?
  5. How does big bang cosmology (and base-2 natural inflation) account for what is called the horizon problem whereby photons are roughly the same temperature —  2.725 degrees Kelvin — wherever you look in the universe?
  6. How does big bang cosmology (and base-2 natural inflation) account for what is called Flatness Problem? Almost all the evidence collected by cosmologists indicates that the Universe is flat. Like a sheet of paper on a desk, spacetime shows almost no curvature whatsoever.
  7. What about the magnetic monopole? All magnets have two poles, a north and a south. Even when a magnet is snapped in half the two poles remain. But this particle would effectively be a magnet with only one pole: a magnetic monopole!
  8. Why does the universe have more matter than antimatter?[98]
  9. Why is the triangular lattice universally optimal?  One needs only to look at the simple ccp dynamic gif, the Fourier transform and the first group of foundational notations as understood within a model that begins with Planck’s base units:

Personal history:

In 2011 we actively began to question the big bang and its cosmology.


  • Joseph Silk: “Dark matter is here to stay but what is it? Should we change our theory if we fail to detect dark matter within a decade, or two?”  (PDF, page 9)
  • Eric Lerner: The density predictions made on the basis of the abundance of deuterium, lithium-7 and helium-4 are in contradiction with each other, and these predictions have grown worse with each new observation. The chance that the theory is right is now less than one in one hundred trillion. (1991)
  • Paul Halpern (The Big Bang’s Identity Crisis, PBS-TV, Fri, 30 May 2014): The discovery of the CMB was a victory for the Big Bang theory, yet it also presented a puzzle: The radiation was strikingly uniform across the sky. While later studies identified tiny variations of less than one part in 10,000, the standard Big Bang model couldn’t justify such uniformity. There simply wasn’t enough time in early cosmic history, when the universe was small, for energy to have traveled across space and evened out its temperature.
  • Enter the concept of inflation, proposed in 1981 by Alan Guth, and later modified by Andrei Linde, Paul Steinhardt, Andreas Albrecht, and others. Guth realized that a sudden, ultra-rapid stretching of the universe could take a tiny uniform patch and expand it to a size where it ultimately would grow and become the observable universe. During the fleeting instant of inflation, any irregularities in the primordial cosmos would be propelled beyond detection, offering a kind of blank slate. It is like taking a crinkled tablecloth and stretching it out so quickly that it appears flat on a tabletop and any wrinkles left are off the table and out of view. Only tiny, jiggling quantum fluctuations would disturb the uniformity; these fluctuations would be the seeds of the galaxies and galaxy clusters we see today.Inflation solved critical problems in cosmology, but it also split the Big Bang into distinct phases: In the inflationary portrait, the creation of almost all of the matter and energy in the universe takes place at the close of the inflationary period, through a process called “reheating,” rather than before inflation. Reheating involves a massive release of energy from inflation’s driving engine: an entity called the “inflaton,” thought to be a fluctuating energy field that ignited ultra-rapid cosmic expansion. Theorists think that at the end of inflation, the inflaton field released an enormous reservoir of potential energy into space—which, following Einstein’s famous equivalence between energy and mass, converted into a deluge of particles. Before then, because stretching causes cooling, the universe was actually relatively cold. As the cosmos rapidly expanded, its hot initial temperature dropped by a factor of many thousand (the precise amount depends on the particular model), becoming extraordinarily hot only after reheating. If you feel that an event should be fiery if it’s going to be called the “Big Bang,” then reheating, not the cosmic dawn, was the true “bang.”
  • Max Tegmark has made this case in a recent blog post.
  • Explore SGA7.  In what ways could the Beauville–Laszlo theorem help?



Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.