# Virtual Reality Workshop about the Universe: Notations 0-to-202

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|.REFERENCES |. EMAILS.| IM | PARTICIPATE.| Zzzzs

How did the universe begin?
Why? For what purpose?

Introduction. Timeless questions have been asked throughout our common history. Although we generally know that everything starts simply and grows slowly, when it comes to our universe, there are many very different points of view. Let’s explore the major ones and see when-where-and-how each coheres as a virtual reality (VR) program. [1]

Yes, let’s build a dynamic, ever-growing virtual reality or VR platform that encapsulates the universe in a multiplicity of ways based on current theories. This VR platform, of course, would be available to everyone. The storyboards for a VR application are first developed online so our largest audience will be all the people with access to the internet.

Before virtualization, that storyboard phase is driven by decision trees. The VR application enlivens the visuals and facilitates making quick and seamless choices creating overall flow dynamics. User behaviours are constantly recorded. Over a period of time, stats will that tell us something about each theory and those processes that capture the most attention. Through evaluations of the experience, we will determine what factors create buzz and exponentially attract the most users. One of the goals of this project is to encourage evaluations based on intellectual integrity not on the kill-or-be-killed mentalities of the gaming community, apparently still the largest VR population in 2021.

Models. Our base-2 model creates a mathematical container that encapsulates all space and all time, everything, everywhere, from the beginning of time until now. It is entirely granular and each notation builds successively from the prior notations. Although it has several working titles, we shall use a “Mathematically-Integrated View of the Universe” from the first instance of space-time to the current time in just 202 base-2 notations. [2] This model has a natural inflation that engenders homogeneity and isotropy. Its first 64 notations cannot be directly measured. Actual experiments are being proposed that infer characteristics of each notation, yet the visuals for these notations must rely on logic, mathematics, and intuition. [3]

Virtual Reality experienced as a dynamic Visual Reality

Visuals at the start. Life starts starts simply. An egg cell and a sperm cell meet-and-greet and get together and the resulting growth is base-2. Circles and spheres start with two points. And, after many discussions with many scholars, the consensus is that the most simple thing within space-time is the sphere. Others argue that the most fundamental thing is some kind of a singularity. [4] Because there is a lot of confusion about the very nature of a singularity and the proper definition of a point, we project that most models based on singularities and multiverses will have many analogues within our 202 notations and a big bang VR option will be facilitated.

The First Sphere. This VR platform will give users special access to possible answers to most current open questions within particle physics and astrophysics through many of our finest living scholars. The challenge will always be to find visuals that represent these theories in graphically-interesting, yet intellectually-responsible ways.

Our model begins with a simple circle that becomes a sphere and it has just two points. Until somebody among today’s scholars does a recalculation based on current knowledge, we will symbolically use the base units calculated by Max Planck in 1899. [5] We will also refer to those by George Johnstone Stoney from a lecture he gave in Belfast in 1874. [6]

To set everything in motion, we will make several very basic assumptions:

Obviously there are many visual possibilities here. To date no other model has Notations-0 to Notation-67. Within our simple model, we assume most of the main features of every other model for the start and growth of our universe are truncated without those infinitesimal notations. [10]

Finite-Infinite

Mysterious Pi (π). At the same time it is just a simple ratio — the circumference of a circle to its diameter — Pi (π) quickly becomes quite complex. Its never-ending, never-repeating series of numbers may well be our most-historical and best-known mathematical construction. Nevertheless it is always changing yet always the same. This dimensionless constant is not finite, yet its applications are finite. Its qualities appear infinite, yet are too finite to be infinite. A logical conclusion might be that pi is a bridge between the finite and infinite. One might think, because it is so ubiquitous within so many equations, that it is the first bridge between the finite and infinite, a bridge over which come many dimensionless constants. [11]

So, this mission of this business is to study and develop an experience of those key ideas and questions so it becomes a dynamic, ever-growing virtual reality platform that encapsulates the universe in multiple ways.

The Initial Focus. We will begin with our study of how the universe evolves within its scale-invariant pi (π). We’ll attempt to build a business case around pi so we can grasp the essences of pi (π) and how it bridges the finite and the infinite, and thus starts the universe. Then this business case will refocus to develop virtual reality programs to teach the most people, most quickly, about these essences.

Primary working assumption. People want to know about the essential nature of the universe and about the meaning and value of life.

Everybody associated with this emergent business is committed to developing the most compelling tools to engage the most-logical and scientific expressions of the simplicity of pi, and how that simplicity becomes the complexities of this universe. We will start with the smallest, most infinitesimal, and most-simple things and scale to the largest, most-complex things. The key qualities of pi (π) — continuity, symmetry, and harmony — will be part of each step along that scale. There will also be perfections within key qualities of both the finite and the infinite throughout each step of that scale.

Virtual Reality (VR)

Of the most compelling teaching tools today, many are found in virtual reality applications. A basic premise of this project is to simulate the greatest number of realities, most coherently and logically, and most-enjoyably and most-easily. We assume the experience will be compelling as well as educational.

The storyboard for the virtual reality applications will be part of the current website: http://81018.com. Any lecture, any discussion, and any monologue can be virtualized.

The virtual reality applications will be alpha-tested in Nashville. Once validated, it will be released to be used by any and all Virtual Reality commercial locations around the world. Though currently a limited audience, a virtual reality application on the web will also be released.

This test site will be located in one of the busier intersections within the USA, downtown Nashville, on Broadway, at the top of what is known as Honky Tonk highway. The goal is to become the entryway to all the musical venues that line both sides of Broadway down to the Cumberland River. The goal is to be among the destination sites for all tourists, and then for the residents of Nashville, greater Nashville, then of Tennessee, and then of the USA and the world. That location is called Fellowship on Broadway (part of a complex that has been part of downtown Nashville for over 200 years).

Some of the key people on the staff of Fellowship on Broadway will be initial testers of the VR application. Once certified by our testers, a diversity of organizations will be offered to license this VR production. All commercial locations that have licensed this application will also be asked to be associated with educational, cultural and religious organizations to help further interpret the experience.

Market analysis

The first market will be people in the range from teenagers, now called Generation Z, through to the Millennials who are as old as 38. That market is the most active within the virtual reality space. Yet, the experience is being designed so the headset is wireless and the movement is not limited to a particular range. We will especially attempt to incorporate those cutting-edge technologies empowering user interactions and small group experience while within a virtual reality. The goal will be to grasp the essences of the universe, the dynamics of its start, emergence, and growth, and then its many-sided perfections and imperfections.

Some will say that one of the goals within this program is to grasp the dimensionality of the finite-infinite relation.

Currently most VR venues are out of the gaming community with its history within Sony’s Playstation, Microsoft’s Xbox, Nintendo and Sega. Many others have joined the emerging virtual reality market including HP, Facebook, Samsung and Apple. Another rapidly expanding group of VR people are coming through Google. Millions have experienced Google Earth on flat screens. The Google Earth VR is, of course, more immersive and dynamic and its influence is ginormous.

VR applications are everywhere. VR and simulations have been used for industrial training since the 1980s. There are now even VR-venues to retell the stories from scripture. Some are developing VR-experiences during the period of the dinosaurs inspired by Jurassic Park.

Anything on a flat screen can be converted to a VR experience.

Initially, there will be nothing like our application. First, it is a teaching tool. Within our new application there will be 202 venues to explore. Initially, we are projecting that there will be no less than from 1-to-10 decision trees within each notation at Release 1.00, from 10-to-100 by Release 2.00, and 100-to-1000 by Release 3. It will have an open architecture. Any developer, especially among our academic institutions will be able to contribute a decision tree.

The current time is within Notation-202 and will be for about another 8.1 billion years. The duration of the notation is 10.98+ billion years, so only about 2.83 billion years has unfolded. When this notation began, the earth was still in her earlier stages of formation. Unprecedented, this VR project, Release 1.0, will go back in time to the first moments of the physical universe in Notation-1. Notation-0 is on the bridge to the infinite, yet there will be relatively quick access to Notation-0 from within each notation, 1-to-202.

The Scope of Work. In the early phase of development, key scholars (especially their graduate students and postdocs) will be employed to help create detailed storyboards for each notation, including the notations that are higher/lower, larger/smaller, later/earlier. There are no silos of information within this model.

The best VR programmers from around the world will be employed to enliven the storyboards and create scripts. A small group of intern programmers will be part of the Nashville group to learn to virtualize code and to begin developing storylines within a notation. Multiple story lines will be part of each notation. Each storyline represents a choice and a decision tree. Many decision trees will be created with each of the 202 notations.

Background. Bruce Camber backed into this mathematical model and outline of the universe in December 2011 while helping out in a New Orleans high school geometry classes They were exploring the tetrahedron and octahedron and went inside both objects. There were 112 steps within to get into the range of the Planck scale. There were 90 steps or doublings to go out to the age and size of the universe. He has not stopped exploring those geometries. And, he has personally introduced hundreds of key scholars to that model and thousands of scholars have visited through the website. He will now be introducing the model to people with no particular interest in particle physics, astrophysics, or cosmology. They are interested and motivated to know the universe and how it all fits together.

This VR product will also introduce people to infinity and the nature of perfection in a logical, mathematical and scientific way. It is being developed to redefine infinity and to make it more approachable than the work of David Hilbert and much less illusive than the work of religions to date. A quiet goal of this program will be to have religious bodies re-engage their history and to re-context their solipsism in light of continuity-symmetry-harmony, the basic components of a sphere.

Competitive Analysis

This industry has been the domain of the gaming community. We will naturally pick up that community because it is a new VR application that addresses a subject that has never been addressed in the VR market. We will naturally become an extension of the Google Earth VR market. Anticipated is that Google will partner and license Notations 202 down to 134 as an extension of Google Earth to be able to automatically transition to what one might expect that they will name, Google Universe VR. This potential is being actively explored.

There is currently no competition until this model is discovered by other developers. Yet, a goal of this project will be to attract other developers to cooperate and develop unique products of their own based on the 202 notations. Thus, the concept of competition is redefined. There is only adoption or rejection. Because the highest affirmation is continuity-symmetry-harmony, and no particular affirmation of any particular theological narrative, we believe the rejection rate will be low. The more “knock-offs” there are of this product and enterprise, the more successful we will have become.

Intellectual Grounding. John A. Wheeler (1911-2008), an eminent Princeton physicist, wrote in 1986, ““Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, that when we grasp it — in a decade, a century, or a millennium — we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise?” It is a short piece, How Come the Quantum?, and was part of a report, New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 480, Dec. 1986 (p.304–316), DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1986.tb12434.x

This simple model is the simplicity for which John Wheeler yearned in 1986. If the universe revolves around pi (π), let us now build a business around pi. The key qualities of pi (π) — continuity, symmetry, and harmony — are a perfection and the key qualities of both the finite and the infinite.

Funding. This project is seemingly open ended, a bit like Wikipedia, yet here all relations and partnerships will share the values of continuity, symmetry and harmony.

Appendix. This document is a living document; it has no final, finished form. Updates and supporting documents will be added, especially as requested. We will be including resumes, product pictures, letters of reference, licenses, permits, patents, legal documents, and contracts.

Version .00001, Last update: Monday, September 13, 2021

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Endnote & Footnotes

[1] Virtual Reality. In 2021, we are in the earliest possible stages of the use and development of virtual reality tools. Most still associate virtual realities with the gaming community. As this industry evolves, virtual reality will be increasingly used to check our logic flow. It will be an inexpensive way to check where our mathematics and our intuitions get out of synch. Within a virtual reality that has been mathematically-and-geometrically-generated, Aristotle would not have made the mistake of not seeing how the tetrahedron create gaps and cannot tile and tesselate the universe. Within a virtual reality where the sphere’s continuity and symmetry and harmony absorb all space and time on the bridge to infinity, Newton would not have presumed an absolute nature for either/or space-time. If Stephen Hawking had been able to explore such virtual realities, he may have concluded our sciences have a place within this formulation of infinity.

• Virtual Reality (VR): Users enter a fully digital universe. Their visual and audio experience is totally virtual yet fully under their control. They can explore any part of this universe and go back 13.81 billion years. They can also follow a primordial sphere back inside the bridges to the infinite.
• Mixed Reality (MR): Part of the experience will be interacting with others who are within the same virtual environment. Here real-world content (a person) becomes virtual content. Also known as Augmented Reality (AR), in this VR environment, people can help people to understand and grasp the subtleties of this virtual experience.
• The only difference between the quiet expansion and the big bang theory is the first picosecond which defines the first three epochs in the big bang theory. Yes, the Planck Epoch, Grand Unification Epoch, and Inflationary Epoch are exceedingly short. Within our base-2 and Planck scale model, those processes involve as many as forty doublings before the Electroweak processes begin, and as many as another 60 to 100 additional doublings before the Quark-then-Hadron processes begin. And, within this model, we are still within the first second of the unfolding universe. That is a lot of space for pure mathematics and geometries.

[2] 202 base-2 notations. Our first chart follows Planck Length. It is visual, logical, geometrical, mathematical, and simple. We were lucky; the simple logic of cubic-close packing of equal spheres gave us a rich foundation within which to build. Our second chart in 2014 had 202 rows with Planck Time and Planck Length. More charts followed. The current working chart emerged in 2016. Based on the simple results, it was concluded that:

• Euler’s base-2 is a very different and unprecedented model of the universe that describes what just might approximate the actual expansion of the universe.
• 202 notations is enough to encapsulate the universe for another 8.15+ billion years before moving into Notation-203. Notation-202 is 10.98 billion years in duration. It appears that the most-generally accepted estimate for the age of the universe is now 13.81 billion years.

[3] Notations 0-64: Max Planck, Albert Einstein, and David Hilbert never learned there are at least 64 base-2 notations before a particle or sub-particle will ever be discerned. Those notations amount to a not-so-secret universe that has already been accessed through logic, mathematics (Langlands programs, string and M-theory, SUSY, etc.) and intuition. We will be reviewing several scholars who have been proposing experiments to confirm each of these notations. Part of this virtual reality experience may be short statements from scholars about such work.

[4] Singularity. It seems that without engaging the concept of infinity, there can be no proper definition of a singularity. I remember as a child learning about the point in elementary school — no length, no width, no shape and no size; it only has a position. Perhaps if that teacher followed with “that defines a necessary relation,” I might have settled down. More to come…

[5] Max Planck in 1899. Our model begins with a simple circle that becomes a sphere and it has just two points. Until somebody among today’s scholars does a recalculation of the Planck base units based on current knowledge, we will symbolically use Max’s base units. Max was a pessimist; our natural arrogance prevents us from being absurd to ourselves for believing in such fundamental errors for so long. I consider the “Big-3” to be from Aristotle, Newton, and Hawking.

[6] Belfast in 1874. A copy of Stoney’s lecture is online here. Although Planck gets most of the credit for the emergence of natural units, there is much to be learned from George Johnstone Stoney. We’ve only just begun our studies of his 1874 lecture he gave in Belfast. There is so much more to discern.

[7] One primordial sphere per unit of primordial time. The concept seems straightforward and relatively simple on the surface. One can imagine that the old greats, perhaps starting with Archimedes, imagined a primordial sphere. None of them had the natural units of Planck or Stoney. Their calculations may be off a little; their general concept is totally empowering. We have a definition of the smallest unit of time which logically defines the first unit of time. It is infinitesimally small. It is a starting point. And, with the estimate that the universe is 13.81 billion years old, we have a range. What follows is a natural inflation. We will come back to these concepts over and over and over again. Here is a keyway from the universe to our world.

[8] 539 tredecillion infinitesimal spheres per second. It is an entirely visual statement that has never in history been considered. It is a stretch of one’s imaginative capacity. 539 tredecillion! More to come…

[9] Cubic-close packing of equal spheres. Another highly visual process, cubic-close packing as far as we know today, has never been considered at the Planck scale and as a fundamental process for the start and expansion of our universe.

[10] All Cosmological Models. In much the same way an encyclopedia can discuss various models of the universe, there are many tools within virtual reality that can make visual transitions to other models. Many of the scholars with whom we have worked over the years are committed to a different model, yet they gladly share information regarding their perception of our differences. The transitions to those other models must be done without judgment; their scholars will be helping to create the visualizations!

[11] Many dimensionless constants. How many? That’s disputed. Some scholars say 26 are necessary to create the universe, others 31. NIST lists over 300 and Simon Plouffe quite significantly used his computers to generate over three billion. Most would concur that pi and e, Euler’s equation, are the most prominent two, but that core group of 26 to 31 must all become visual. That is a daunting challenge. Can we visualize the most basic processes that generate the first moment of space-time, matter-energy, and electromagnetism-gravity. The equation for e is challenge enough!

Until we try, we will never know what is possible.

More to come…

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References

1. Storyboards and Decision trees. Many segments have already been mapped beyond the chart of 202 notations. This project will cause everyone of the 1000+ pages on this site to be reworked.

2. Virtual Reality Developers and Development tools. Although tools like Unity are primarily for game development, such applications expedite the development of VR solutions and Unity, as an example, has been used in automotive, construction, engineering, manufacturing, media-entertainment, and transportation. There are thousands of developers and hundreds of tools.

3. Primordial Sphere, Pi and Dimensionless Constants. The primordial sphere opens a re-examination of the key qualities of continuity-symmetry-harmony. Though measured quantitatively, the ideal or pure form of all three do not exist in space-time. Along with our dimensionless and dimensionful constants, the finite-infinite relation is re-examined

4. Cubic Close Packing of Equal Spheres (ccp): Highly-visual, ccp is a major study within this model.

5. Base-2 Exponential Notation: Quite visual, base-2 notation is also a major study within this model.

More to come…

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Emails

General email to many scholars: “I invite you to join us to help make a virtual reality out of our 202 base-2 notations (from the Planck base units to the current time). You may be familiar with Google Earth. There is also an application called Google Earth VR. Although just a small slice of Notation-202, it is an excellent educational tool to explore the world virtually. Part of our development will be a seamless transition in and out of Google Earth VR. To get much earlier, back down into Notation-201, we will the use actual images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Yes, even still pictures can be virtualized. All those images can take us back into Notation-197 within large-scale structure formations.

“Getting from Notation-196 back to Notation-1 will require imagination with highly-informed points of view. We will be going through every key phase described by the big bang theory back to her Quark Gluon Plasma phase (estimated to be contained within Notation-134 to 135). Big bang cosmology runs out of phases and we are a long way to Planck scale physics. The challenge is to create a virtualization of a theory that has very few ideas to go deeper. The virtualization becomes uniquely ours as we struggle to define and breathe life into our earlier notations.

“We will turn to you with many questions. It should be an important and enjoyable exercise.

“Ultimately, this application with all its sub-applications and code will be given to all the participating partners and universities and schools. Because the audio guide will initially only be in English, you and the school could readily change the audio to whatever language or dialect you choose.

“Now might I turn to these specific questions….. “

More to come…

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IM

@Tyrielwood VR BG 2021! Which Headset…? Excellent. Thank you. Great history. Priceless footage. How about VR from the first instant of the universe to the current time through 202 base-2 notations? The numbers are here: https://81018.com/chart/

More to come…

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Participate

September 8-11: For four days we welcomed over 300 scholars from around the world including people from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the USA.

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Key Dates for this document, Virtual

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# Could the first 64-notations-out-of-the-202 be our common ground?

by Bruce Camber

A First Draft

Introduction. One of my quiet goals in life has been to understand how concepts somehow transcend our diverse-and-sometimes-opposing points of view. Yet, nothing seems to work for groups of people who have been hating each other for centuries; peace-makers are hard-pressed to come up with a concept that heals such deep divisions.Tensions and divides are everywhere… and yes, these divides also exist within the sciences.

Over the years I have turned to a rather diverse group of scholars1 (going back into the 1960s) who have been wrestling with first principles and our understanding of the foundations of life and of our universe. Some of their concepts just might might help make a difference in the way we understand ourselves, our histories, our sciences and even our religions.

We started working on our base-2 chart of the universe in December 2011. It has become apparent to us that within this chart of 202 notations, there are many concepts that change our worldview and our views of space, time and infinity. We are aware of how idiosyncratic it is!

The first 64 notations out of 202 are most unusual. These may be common grounds of a most fundamental nature that might address age-old questions in physics and cosmology.

In 1899 Max Planck defined four fundamental natural units. He defined the numbers, but they were so unusual, he ostensibly ignored them. Only a few scholars1d picked up on his numbers over the next 100 years. In 2001 Frank Wilczek2 began to pull those Plank numbers free from numerology,3 and Planck’s base units began getting more consistent attention. Today, science tends to recognize the Planck units, i.e. their potential to become part of (1) an integrative theory about the nature of things, even a starting point for creation, and (2) the beginnings of complexity, a concept that helps us to understand the foundations of the sciences, mathematics, logic, and epistemology.

Geometries. Now, for a little perspective on our work, we were high school geometry people4 who in 2011 followed a very simple tetrahedral-octahedral complex5 back 45 steps (halving at each step) down among elementary particles and then another 67 steps to the Planck scale.Being rather naive about it all, we then decided to start with Planck’s base units and multiply by two (2). Sure enough, in 112 steps we were back in the classroom and in another 90 steps we were at the current expansion of the universe.6 We asked, “Did we just encapsulate everything, everywhere, for all time? …the entire universe in just 202 base-2 notations or doublings?

The Chart, A Map of the Universe. Although there are many blanks spaces, the chart seemed to be the beginning of a simple map7 of the universe using base-2 (doublings). We learned that the conceptual foundations of base-2 (exponential functions) were introduced to the world around 1740 by the Swiss mathematician, Leonhard Euler (there’s always so much to learn). Rather unwittingly, we took Euler’s base-2 to the 202nd power and have now begun to ask questions about its context in light of the nature of creation, space, and time.We had been unaware of the 1957 work by Kees Boeke in his private school, De Werkplaats, in Bilthoven, Holland. Boeke did his base-10 chart, Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps8 and over time it became sensationally popular.

Our chart is a bit different. First, we have our geometries. Second, we start with the Planck units. Third, we have a scale of the Planck’s units from the smallest units of space and time to the largest. Fourth, we have the current expansion of the universe within the 202nd notation. Fifth, our chart is 3.333+ times more granular than base-10. Sixth, this chart mimics life’s natural doublings. And seventh, our base-2 chart has a built-in, all natural inflation.9That is quite a lot, but then, it really began to challenge us:• Mathematical confirmation of the speed of light. We discovered between the 143rd and 144th notation, a simple mathematical confirmation of the speed of light,10 that validated both the distance and the time units.

That’s a key; it actually completes the simple logic of this chart. It has a mathematical, functional, and conceptual wholeness.

Dark energy and dark matter defined. Looking further, we observed the first 64 notations couldn’t be reached by CERN laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland or by all the experts at the Max Planck Institute in Garching Germany; they have held the record11 for the shortest unit of measured time. Those first 64 notations are too short and too small to ever be measured by physical tools. So, what is all that aggregating mass and energy? A simple, logical conclusion: it is the “impossible-to-define” dark energy and dark matter.12 As we bring it into the light of day, I believe we will discover it is also our long-sought-for common ground.

Retrospective. Granted, that’s rather radical for simple people using simple logic. Yet, once opened for inquiry, this virtually unexplored domain of just over 64 notations looks like it can also give us the footings to create a bridge13 between quantum mechanics and general relativity, and between the Langlands programs and string theory. These are not incompatible concepts but different faces of a common foundation just before those few transformations that precede the 67th notation where particles and waves are finally observed.

In 1999 NATO gathered our most elite astrophysicists and cosmologists14 living at that time. All were scholars of structure formation. At no time did they have a discussion about the Planck base units. Nobody was asking, “What could be the earliest manifestation of the Planck base units?” For us, twelve years later in 2011, it was the only question we wanted to try to answer.

Space-time defined by spheres.15

Looking around the scholarly world, it became obvious that we were unwittingly jumping on a bandwagon with Carlo Rovelli and Robert Muller who found space-and-time to be derivative, discrete and quantized. In our model, each notation builds on the prior notation(s). Each notation is part of the operational whole. Each is active and seemingly forever. Space and time are defined by pi (π), continuity, symmetry, and harmony. A simple circle, then a sphere, becomes a key nexus for transformations, all functions with qualities that describe (1) the infinite, (2) a finite-infinite bridge,15 and (3) the inherent quality and actual quantities that define the finite and our very first instant of time.

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This is such a different perspective.16 In a very rudimentary way we’re coming full circle. As I explore the common grounds between pi (π), space, time, continuity, symmetry and harmony, there are both quantitative and qualitative shared expressions. Taking a rather speculative leap of faith, I believe these are also the foundations of ethics and aesthetics.16

Of course, altogether too simple for most, I know this will be bit difficult to sell but as a people and global community, what are our options? …continue going on the way we are?Quantitative science, qualitative living.17

Some time ago, in one of my many statements online, I said it would be wise for science to be critical of theology. Science can inform theology, yet theology can also inform the sciences. There can be mutual respect. So, I asked, “What might we learn from the core insights from within religious beliefs?” To create an example, I went back into my family’s traditions. Given the Abrahamic faiths have the attention of about 57% of the world’s population (that includes Jews, Christians and Muslims as well as the Druze, Bahá’í and Rastafarians), an example of such respect might be this very different interpretation of the Genesis story shared by all Abrahamic faiths. The antithesis of disagreements, nastiness, and even violence. In the face of hostility, there is symmetry and harmony as a foundational understanding18 of the very nature of our very beingness. Given all notations are always active, what we consider to be history is the active encoding of our universe.

That is, I would conclude everything you say, do or think; it all impacts the look and feel and quality of our little universe.You make a difference. And, that difference is greater than one could ever imagine.#It is refreshing to find people out on the web who are also shining their light in these seldom visited spaces and who are open and joyful in the process. If you, or anybody you know, has such a vision, please let us know! We would enjoy meeting you online. Thank you. -BEC

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• For more, go to these prior homepages:
• A Simple Model – 12 points absorb the universe in 202 steps.
• It’s been “top down” too long.  It’s time to build from the “bottom up”
• Transformations – Cubic close packing, period doubling, Fourier transform

Common grounds — The first 64-notations

Every concept can be improved even if it seems complete unto itself

Questions, questions, and more questions

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Endnotes and Footnotes: (currently the most heavily edited area of this work)

1. Scholars: In less cynical times, most of us believed that the truth always rises. And, some of us have had great faith that scholars engage that truth most readily:

1a. The most recent scholars to whom I have turned (and a few have disappointed)

1b. 77+ scholars in 1979. The project was called “An Architecture for Integrative Systems.”

1c. Influential, today, such work does make a difference.

1d. Aggregating articles and papers about Max Planck’s base units. To date, these are most substantial that I’ve found. If you can add any to it, I would be grateful. -BEC

2. Frank Wilczek: In his Physics Today article, “Scaling Mount Planck II: Base Camp,” Wilczek says: “The strong and weak couplings equalize — at roughly the Planck scale! Planck, of course, knew of neither the strong nor the weak interaction, nor of quantum field theory and running couplings. The reappearance of his scale in this entirely new context confirms his intuition about the fundamental character of the Planck scale” (fifth paragraph).

These are not coincidences. Numbers are numbers. Functions are functions. And, as well, our chart of numbers tells an important story of our time. Here is a highly-integrated mathematical scaling of the universe. Academic openness and integrity should subject this new conceptual frame of reference to a rigorous analysis.

3. 2004 Nobel Laureate and the Planck numbers: Wilczek’s three articles about the Planck base units in Physics Today stirred the pot; yet, when he received his Nobel Prize in 2004, all his writings took on a new vibrancy and importance. Wilczek became part of an elite group of celebrity physicists. His analysis of the Planck scale set these numbers apart in a most-special category even though there are other similar methods to generate fundamental numbers.

4-5. High school geometry people: Straying just a bit from the textbook, the teachers were fascinated with the way the octahedron and tetrahedron, two of Plato’s solids, were inextricably woven. Some of the students became equally fascinated. https://81018.com/home/ https://81018.com/tot/

6. Current Expansion, a chart: Starting with Planck Length in December 2011, Planck Time was added three years later, and Mass and Charge were added in February 2015. Today’s working chart emerged in April 2016. It was our first horizontally-scrolled chart whereby any one of the Planck numbers could be readily tracked. Notation 202 has a duration of 10.9816 billion years, and the current expansion defines the Now, this current moment of time which is shared everywhere throughout the entire universe. https://81018.com/chart/

7. Map of the Universe Using Base-2 (or doublings): Euler was a mathematician’s mathematician. He opened the way to infinitesimal calculus and a most-penetrating analysis of the infinite. We believe Euler will be instrumental in helping us interpret our charts. In 1988, 240 years after being published, one of Euler’s most seminal work, Introductio in analysin infinitorum (1748), was finally translated into English by John D. Blanton. Others quickly followed. We will be using an online translation by Ian Bruce. Of our 202 doublings, from the first notation to at least the 67th notation, could readily be considered infinitesimal. Our goal is to begin to understand the relation between the infinite and the infinitesimal, and we invite you on this journey with us.

8. Kees Boeke’s base 10 work. Here is a precedent for our work. In 1957 in a high school in Holland, headmaster Kees Boeke developed a wonderful teaching tool showing the relative sizes of things with his book, Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps. Within a short time, it had its champions and today it has become well-known through the world as an IMAX production and several online iterations. It appears that at no time did any scholar attempt to establish causal efficacy between successive notations.Using base-2, the challenge becomes apparent.

9. All Natural. With the work of Alan Guth (MIT) and so many others in the astrophysics community, the rapid expansion and continued inflation of the universe had become a major issue and stumbling block. Causal efficacy is stretched and strained. In the 1999 conference on structures, the most-elite inner circle of of cosmology threw up their hands and said, “Let’s come up with a better theory.”In our simple model a natural inflation is readily observed from the start. Several doubling mechanisms have been identified, however, the most-simple doubling, sphere stacking at the infinitesimal domains, could readily account for most all other doubling phenomenon.This explanation is sweet because it is so simple.

10.  Speed of light. The electromagnetic spectrum in some sense of the word extends from Notation 1 to 202. Let us start a deep search of the literature that explores this bandwidth beyond the first possible visible light (within the 94-and-95th notations). What is the initial very, very small charge? Does each new sphere bring and equal charge and do these aggregate with each doubling? Within the chart of numbers, it is assumed that there is an aggregation because at one second, between the 143rd and 144th notations there is a mathematical confirmation of the speed of light.

11. Measuring an interval of light. The Max Planck Institute in Garching Germany has held the record for measuring the shortest interval of time. They are down into the attoseconds (10-18 seconds). It is a long way to go to get to Planck Time at 5.39116(13)×10-44 seconds. Our understanding of the current range is limited. It goes from the somewhat familiar nanoseconds (a billionth of a second) to picoseconds, then to femtoseconds, and finally into attoseconds. Beyond the attosecond there are zeptoseconds and the yoctosecond 10−24, but SI units recognize nothing smaller. References: https://81018.com/a84 https://81018.com/formulas/ https://81018.com/dark/

12. Dark energy-matter. Just look at the chart and observe the line for coulombs and the line for mass. Each notation “fills up” so every notation has a percentage of dark energy and dark mass. This would be the most simple explanation for dark energy and dark matter. A science writer was complaining, “I’m the only one who doesn’t have a dark energy and dark matter theory.” So, I wrote to her and said she would be most welcome to adopt ours as her own. You would be welcomed to do the same! Our first analysis, October 18, 2018, is here.

13. Bridges to build. For over 100 years there has been an insurmountable divide between quantum mechanics and relativity theory. Some of the smartest people on earth have been unable to create that bridge. First, all the big bang talk obscured the primary playing field. They now have 64 notations within which to work. It might also help if these exquisitely smart people would create a bridge between the Langlands programs and string theory. All the factors involved with those two bridges will also be involved in building a bridge between the infinitesimal and the infinite (another look). All key bridges, none have been built because the experts and scholars have not had room to think or breath. Most have been unaware of those 64 doublings with 19 prime numbers with which to work. Our scholars’ imaginations have been hamstrung with particles and waves.

14. NATO and Structure Formation. At the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, the consensus among the world’s best scholars was that the big bang theory needed to be revised. The net-net. These scholars departed from this conference and many engaged in multiverse speculations, and speculations, and speculations. George Ellis, who authored a seminal work (PDF) with Stephen Hawking in 1974, has an excellent commentary, Physics on Edge (Inference: International Review of Science, VOL. 3, # 2, AUGUST 2017), on the fractured belief systems among scholars who study these issues. That seminal work, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time, was highly influential, but failed to understand the infinitesimal structure of space-time.

15. Bridge Finite-Infinite-Divide: Not often discussed, a Google search in October 2019 with delimiter quotes rendered just 674 results, most referring to a May 24, 2016 article in Quanta Magazine. By using the word, bridge, as a noun, i.e. the “Finite-Infinite Bridge,” Google pulled up just six results of which three are from our work here.Key words to explore further: Carlo Rovelli Robert Muller derivative, discrete and quantized. pi (π) continuity, symmetry, and harmony circle sphere a key nexus for transformations

16. May the circle be unbroken: Not often within this kind of discussion are the subjects of ethics and aesthetics engaged, however, within our exploration of concepts that can bridge the finite and infinite, continuity, symmetry and harmony were applied to replace absolute space and time. Within those three concepts an understanding of both aesthetics and ethics emerge.

17.  Science & Theology: Too much “positional” time and energy is spent on this topic. Open questions should be clearly and carefully stated without all the positional gestures and maneuvers. We know there is incompleteness. We know that both sides of the equations have “stood their ground.” That is not enough. We need to do better. If we open up the dialogue of first principles in light of the first 64 notations, I predict that ground will be fertile. Not only will the Abrahamic faiths benefit, all religions including atheism, might discover common grounds. The creation story, the old Genesis story, can be opened up for all.

18. Universals: One of my earlier considerations of the emergence of constants and universals

Yes, work continues today, Saturday, October 26, 2019… thank you for your patience.One of the next articles for this site will use both expressions, Bridge Finite-Infinite-Divide, and Finite-Infinite Bridge in the title and subtitle. Comments? Please email me (BEC) or complete the form below.

__________________________

References, research, and resources:

Set Theory, Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory, Future Summary, WilczekArts, Twelvefold way The zeta function Euler’s formula Unifying Lattice Models, Links and Quantum Geometric Langlands via Branes in String Theory, Meer Ashwinkumar, Meng-Chwan Tan, Quantum q-Langlands, Correspondence Mina Aganagic, Edward Frenkel, Andrei Okounkov 2007 – No time – Rovelli as seen in Discover magazine

# Two Primordial Mysteries

Introduction. Two primordial mysteries, (1) dark matter-and-energy and (2) the reasons for homogeneity and isotropy, have roots within 64 unexplored domains that start at the Planck base units and applied base-2 or doublings each successive notation to the wave-particle duality (and our understanding of quantum fluctuations).

The values of the base units were determined in 1899 by Max Planck. At that time, they were so unusual, even he ostensibly ignored them and only a few scholars1 picked up on his numbers for over years.

A key breakthrough in 2001, initiated by Frank Wilczek.2 pulled those numbers free from numerology,3 and open a path for more consistent attention. But even today, those numbers are not recognized as the first moment of time.

Even though the very nature of light is within these numbers, the numbers are still all but ignored. Just divide Planck Length by Planck Time and you’ll see that Planck was the earliest to confirm the speed of light within .1% of the laboratory measurements. That, too, is not recognized.

The path from the simplicity of those numbers to simple complexities that define us has not been analyzed. Here are the foundations of mathematics, logic, epistemology, ethics and value, all within these first 64 notations, waiting to be affirmed.

Geometries. The most simple sphere and the generation of the tetrahedral-octahedral complex4 has been somewhat understood since Kepler. Cubic-close packing of equal spheres was initiated, yet at no time was it applied to the infinitesimal.

Encapsulate everything, everywhere, for all time. The entire universe is defined by  just 202 base-2 notations or doublings. Our scale of the Planck’s units from the smallest units of space and time to the largest within 202nd base-2 notations changes the paradigm. Beside mimicking life’s natural doublings, here is a built-in, all natural inflation.

Across the entire chart, there is a mathematical confirmation of the speed of light.

## Mathematical, functional, and conceptual wholeness

Dark energy and dark matter defined. Looking further, we observed the first 64 notations couldn’t be reached by CERN laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland or by all the experts at the Max Planck Institute in Garching Germany; they have held the record11 for the shortest unit of measured time. Those first 64 notations are too short and too small to ever be measured by physical tools. So, what is all that aggregating mass and energy? A simple, logical conclusion: it is the “impossible-to-define” dark energy and dark matter.12

As we bring it into the light of day, I believe we will discover it is also our long-sought-for common ground.Retrospective. Granted, that’s rather radical for simple people using simple logic. Yet, once opened for inquiry, this virtually unexplored domain of just over 64 notations looks like it can also give us the footings to create a bridge13 between quantum mechanics and general relativity, and between the Langlands programs and string theory. These are not incompatible concepts but different faces of a common foundation just before those few transformations that precede the 67th notation where particles and waves are finally observed.

In 1999 NATO gathered our most elite astrophysicists and cosmologists14 living at that time. All were scholars of structure formation. At no time did they have a discussion about the Planck base units. Nobody was asking, “What could be the earliest manifestation of the Planck base units?” For us, twelve years later in 2011, it was the only question we wanted to try to answer.

Space-time defined by spheres.15 Looking around the scholarly world, it became obvious that we were unwittingly jumping on a bandwagon with Carlo Rovelli and Robert Muller who found space-and-time to be derivative, discrete and quantized. In our model, each notation builds on the prior notation(s). Each notation is part of the operational whole. Each is active and seemingly forever. Space and time are defined by pi (π), continuity, symmetry, and harmony. A simple circle, then a sphere, becomes a key nexus for transformations, all functions with qualities that describe (1) the infinite, (2) a finite-infinite bridge,16 and (3) the inherent quality and actual quantities that define the finite and our very first instant of time.

__________

This is such a different perspective.16 In a very rudimentary way we’re coming full circle. As I explore the common grounds between pi (π), space, time, continuity, symmetry and harmony, there are both quantitative and qualitative shared expressions. Taking a rather speculative leap of faith, I believe these are also the foundations of ethics and aesthetics.16 Of course, altogether too simple for most, I know this will be bit difficult to sell but as a people and global community, what are our options? …continue going on the way we are?

Quantitative science, qualitative living.17 Some time ago, in one of my many statements online, I said it would be wise for science to be critical of theology.

Science can inform theology, yet theology can also inform the sciences. There can be mutual respect. So, I asked, “What might we learn from the core insights from within religious beliefs?” To create an example, I went back into my family’s traditions. Given the Abrahamic faiths have the attention of about 57% of the world’s population (that includes Jews, Christians and Muslims as well as the Druze, Bahá’í and Rastafarians), an example of such respect might be this very different interpretation of the Genesis story shared by all Abrahamic faiths. The antithesis of disagreements, nastiness, and even violence. In the face of hostility, there is symmetry and harmony as a foundational understanding18 of the very nature of our very beingness. Given all notations are always active, what we consider to be history is the active encoding of our universe.

That is, I would conclude everything you say, do or think; it all impacts the look and feel and quality of our little universe.You make a difference. And, that difference is greater than one could ever imagine.#It is refreshing to find people out on the web who are also shining their light in these seldom visited spaces and who are open and joyful in the process. If you, or anybody you know, has such a vision, please let us know! We would enjoy meeting you online. Thank you. -BEC

__________________________

For more, go to these prior homepages:

A Simple Model – 12 points absorb the universe in 202 steps.It’s been “top down” too long. It’s time to build from the “bottom up”Transformations – Cubic close packing, period doubling, Fourier transform

Common grounds — The first 64-notationsEvery concept can be improved even if it seems complete unto itself

Questions, questions, and more questions

__________________________

## Endnotes and Footnotes:

[1] Scholars: In less cynical times, most of us believed that the truth always rises. And, some of us have had great faith that scholars engage that truth most readily:

1a. The most recent scholars to whom I have turned (and yes, a few have disappointed)
1b. 77+ scholars in 1979. The project was called “An Architecture for Integrative Systems.
1c. Influential, today, such work does make a difference.
1d. Aggregating articles and papers about Max Planck’s base units. To date, these are most substantial that I’ve found. If you can add any to it, I would be grateful. –BEC

[2] Frank Wilczek: In his Physics Today article, “Scaling Mount Planck II: Base Camp,” Wilczek says: “The strong and weak couplings equalize — at roughly the Planck scale! Planck, of course, knew of neither the strong nor the weak interaction, nor of quantum field theory and running couplings. The reappearance of his scale in this entirely new context confirms his intuition about the fundamental character of the Planck scale” (fifth paragraph).

These are not coincidences. Numbers are numbers. Functions are functions. And, as well, our chart of numbers tells an important story of our time. Here is a highly-integrated mathematical scaling of the universe. Academic openness and integrity should subject this new conceptual frame of reference to a rigorous analysis.

[3] 2004 Nobel Laureate and the Planck numbers: Wilczek’s three articles about the Planck base units in Physics Today stirred the pot; yet, when he received his Nobel Prize in 2004, all his writings took on a new vibrancy and importance. Wilczek became part of an elite group of celebrity physicists. His analysis of the Planck scale set these numbers apart in a most-special category even though there are other similar methods to generate fundamental numbers.

[4-5] High school geometry people: Straying just a bit from the textbook, the teachers were fascinated with the way the octahedron and tetrahedron, two of Plato’s solids, were inextricably woven.

Some of the students became equally fascinated. https://81018.com/home/ https://81018.com/tot/

[6] Current Expansion, a chart: Starting with Planck Length in December 2011, Planck Time was added three years later, and Mass and Charge were added in February 2015. Today’s working chart emerged in April 2016. It was our first horizontally-scrolled chart whereby any one of the Planck numbers could be readily tracked.

Notation 202 has a duration of 10.9816 billion years, and the current expansion defines the Now, this current moment of time which is shared everywhere throughout the entire universe. https://81018.com/chart/

[7] Map of the Universe Using Base-2 (or doublings): Euler was a mathematician’s mathematician. He opened the way to infinitesimal calculus and a most-penetrating analysis of the infinite. We believe Euler will be instrumental in helping us interpret our charts. In 1988, 240 years after being published, one of Euler’s most seminal work, Introductio in analysin infinitorum (1748), was finally translated into English by John D. Blanton. Others quickly followed. We will be using an online translation by Ian Bruce.

Of our 202 doublings, from the first notation to at least the 67th notation, could readily be considered infinitesimal. Our goal is to begin to understand the relation between the infinite and the infinitesimal, and we invite you on this journey with us.

[8] Kees Boeke’s base 10 work. Here is a precedent for our work. In 1957 in a high school in Holland, headmaster Kees Boeke developed a wonderful teaching tool showing the relative sizes of things with his book, Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps. Within a short time, it had its champions and today it has become well-known through the world as an IMAX production and several online iterations. It appears that at no time did any scholar attempt to establish causal efficacy between successive notations.Using base-2, the challenge becomes apparent.

[9] All Natural. With the work of Alan Guth (MIT) and so many others in the astrophysics community, the rapid expansion and continued inflation of the universe had become a major issue and stumbling block. Causal efficacy is stretched and strained. In the 1999 conference on structures, the most-elite inner circle of of cosmology threw up their hands and said, “Let’s come up with a better theory.”In our simple model a natural inflation is readily observed from the start. Several doubling mechanisms have been identified, however, the most-simple doubling, sphere stacking at the infinitesimal domains, could readily account for most all other doubling phenomenon.This explanation is sweet because it is so simple.

[10] Speed of light. The electromagnetic spectrum in some sense of the word extends from Notation 1 to 202. Let us start a deep search of the literature that explores this bandwidth beyond the first possible visible light (within the 94-and-95th notations). What is the initial very, very small charge? Does each new sphere bring and equal charge and do these aggregate with each doubling? Within the chart of numbers, it is assumed that there is an aggregation because at one second, between the 143rd and 144th notations there is a mathematical confirmation of the speed of light.

[11] Measuring an interval of light. The Max Planck Institute in Garching Germany has held the record for measuring the shortest interval of time. They are down into the attoseconds (10-18 seconds). It is a long way to go to get to Planck Time at 5.39116(13)×10-44 seconds. Our understanding of the current range is limited. It goes from the somewhat familiar nanoseconds (a billionth of a second) to picoseconds, then to femtoseconds, and finally into attoseconds. Beyond the attosecond there are zeptoseconds and the yoctosecond 10-24, but SI units recognize nothing smaller. References: https://81018.com/a84 https://81018.com/formulas/ https://81018.com/dark/

[12] Dark energy-matter. Just look at the chart and observe the line for coulombs and the line for mass. Each notation “fills up” so every notation has a percentage of dark energy and dark mass. This would be the most simple explanation for dark energy and dark matter. A science writer was complaining, “I’m the only one who doesn’t have a dark energy and dark matter theory.” So, I wrote to her and said she would be most welcome to adopt ours as her own. You would be welcomed to do the same! Our first analysis, October 18, 2018, is here.

[13] Bridges to build. For over 100 years there has been an insurmountable divide between quantum mechanics and relativity theory. Some of the smartest people on earth have been unable to create that bridge. First, all the big bang talk obscured the primary playing field. They now have 64 notations within which to work. It might also help if these exquisitely smart people would create a bridge between the Langlands programs and string theory. All the factors involved with those two bridges will also be involved in building a bridge between the infinitesimal and the infinite (another look). All key bridges, none have been built because the experts and scholars have not had room to think or breath. Most have been unaware of those 64 doublings with 19 prime numbers with which to work. Our scholars’ imaginations have been hamstrung with particles and waves.

[14] NATO and Structure Formation. At the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, the consensus among the world’s best scholars was that the big bang theory needed to be revised.

The net-net. These scholars departed from this conference and many engaged in multiverse speculations, and speculations, and speculations. George Ellis, who authored a seminal work (PDF) with Stephen Hawking in 1974, has an excellent commentary, Physics on Edge (Inference: International Review of Science, VOL. 3, # 2, AUGUST 2017), on the fractured belief systems among scholars who study these issues. That seminal work, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time, was highly influential, but failed to understand the infinitesimal structure of space-time.

[15] Bridge Finite-Infinite-Divide: Not often discussed, a Google search in October 2019 with delimiter quotes rendered just 674 results, most referring to a May 24, 2016 article in Quanta Magazine. By using the word, bridge, as a noun, i.e. the “Finite-Infinite Bridge,” Google pulled up just six results of which three are from our work here.

[16] Key words to explore further: Carlo Rovelli, Robert Muller, derivative, discrete and quantized. pi (π), continuity, symmetry, and harmony, circle, sphere, nexus for transformations, m ay the circle be unbroken: Not often within this kind of discussion are the subjects of ethics and aesthetics engaged, however, within our exploration of concepts that can bridge the finite and infinite, continuity, symmetry and harmony were applied to replace absolute space and time. Within those three concepts an understanding of both aesthetics and ethics emerge.

[17] Science & Theology: Too much “positional” time and energy is spent on this topic. Open questions should be clearly and carefully stated without all the positional gestures and maneuvers. We know there is incompleteness. We know that both sides of the equations have “stood their ground.” That is not enough.We need to do better. If we open up the dialogue of first principles in light of the first 64 notations, I predict that ground will be fertile. Not only will the Abrahamic faiths benefit, all religions including atheism, might discover common grounds. The creation story, the old Genesis story, can be opened up for all.

[18] Universals: One of my earlier considerations of the emergence of constants and universals.

One of the next articles for this site will use both expressions, Bridge Finite-Infinite-Divide, or Finite-Infinite Bridge in the title and subtitle. Comments?

Editor’s Notes
__________________________
References, research, and resources: Set Theory, Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory, Future Summary, Wilczek, Ars Conject and Twelvefold way, The zeta function, Euler’s formula, Unifying Lattice Models, Links and Quantum Geometric Langlands via Branes in String Theory,

Meer Ashwinkumar,

Meng-Chwan

TanQuantum

q-Langlands Correspondence

Mina Aganagic,

Edward Frenkel,

Andrei Okounkov

2007 – No time – Rovelli as seen in Discover magazine

# The first 67-steps out of the 202 that outline the universe

Please note: Initiated on Sunday, May 24, 2020, this posting is still actively being developed. More: (1) https://81018.com/duped/#Aristotle and (2)_https://81018.com/ccp/

###### by Bruce Camber

Introduction

The first 67 base-2 notations (doublings) from the Planck base units to particle physics is a key.1 If the overall logic of the 202 doublings do in fact outline the universe, and these notations appear to be consistent, the universe is foundationally exponential; that changes everything.2

More space than anyone imagined. Science and mathematics have a new domain within which to compute and it is much larger than anyone ever imagined. Everybody thought it was much-much smaller than a grain of wheat, then it is like discovering that this space is equal to ten years of the harvests of all the wheat in the world. It’s the wheat and the chessboard story!

String Theory, Langlands Program, Particle Physics, Quantum Theory: The string theory folks had to create their own mathematical structures and they’ve had an impossible time bringing their rather uniquely-defined structures inline with particle physics and quantum mechanics. In light of the 67 notations, their basic assumptions are mistaken.3

Mathematicians have been struggling as well. Beginning in 1967, the goals of Robert Langlands captured the imagination of many. The Langlands programs had very specific goals to solve the most probing mathematical problems. If they could pull it all together, they would, at long last, have a grand unified theory of mathematics. Yet, with its pure mathematics and geometries, they’ve to create their own playing field with only glimpses of string theory, particle physics and quantum physics.

Both string theorist and the Langlands mathematicians need the elbow room of those 67 doublings (and a definitive belief in the Planck base units) to begin bringing these most basic strands of intellectual inquiry all together.

Prior to this base-2 work, nobody was thinking that there could be a systemic approach from the Planck base units. Nobody was thinking the universe was exponential before it was linear. Nobody was thinking that quantum fluctuations were an effect of a geometric formulation that did not perfectly fill space.

Tetrahedrons with octahedrons fill space perfectly. In their tiling and tessellating they create plates of triangles, squares, and hexagonals that easily interconnect everything in the universe. Our base-2 expansion is one path from the beginning to this moment, right now. Base-3 is another path. Base-5 and base-7 and base-11 are even shorter paths, yet all are interconnected by base-2.

It is a little like the New York City subway system. Base-2 is the local, yet it is quite a bit faster than walking. It connects with all the other bases but then there are the expresses. With base-3 there are only 67 touchpoints out of 201 and with base-11 there are only 18 touchpoints between 11 and 198.

Yet, from Notation-64 through Notation-67, all new possibilities open up.

It is very hard to open a radically different view of life and the universe where every notation from the beginning of time is still active, encoding, and re-encoding.

Our focus at the 67th notation is of our universe at less than a fraction-of-a-fraction of a second old. Using base-2 notation, it is 7.95630×10-24 seconds (.0000 0000 0000 0000 0007 95630 s).

The first second of activity is not until Notation 143

So we are opening up an entirely new space that has been overlooked by the academy. It’s a new place for the old sciences and mathematics. Aristotle’s 1800 year mistake threw us off a key path, Newton’s absolutes got us looking in the wrong direction, and then Hawking hid all the clues behind his infinitely hot beginning.

______________________________________________

Note: There’s a good possibility that there will be more to come for this page.

______________________________________________

Endnotes, Footnotes, References and Resources

[1] Our Charts of the Universe. In December 2011 for the very first chart the first 67 steps were mostly blank. We guessed, but knew it was future work. In June 2016 we completed our horizontally-scrolled chart and by this point we were willing to make some guesses. Lines 8 through 12 were all speculative, but we were at least thinking about it and working on it.

[2] Changes everything indeed. The logic is there. The numbers are there. Base-2, base-3, base-5, and base-7 and more are all there. The prime numbers are all there to start unique configurations of mathematics and geometry.

[3] String theory begins with point-like particles similar to particle physics but they have reduce them to one-dimensional objects. Certainly these might look to be one-dimensional, but if they are primarily defined as a doubling of Planck Length and Planck Time, and Planck Mass and Planck Charge, with very definitive values, the first principles of string theory are fundamentally changed. A review of the numbers at the 67th notation reveal what might best be described as part of the neutron family. An example of such densities would be a neutron star.

__________________________________________________________________________

### Key Dates for The first 67-steps

Posted online for collaborations:  July 4, 2020
Projected Homepage date: Sometime in the future
Last edit: July 3, 2020

__________________________________________________________________________

# Charting a study of just the first 67 keys

Introduction: The chart from the Planck base units to the wave-particle duality (and our first measurements of quantum fluctuations) requires 67 doublings of the Planck scale numbers. What we have within those numbers at the 67th notation  provides a new description of quantum fluctuations, another validation that there is cogency within our charts, and most significantly, 67 key notations where Langlands programs and string theories can be constructed.

There are many other studies that can also be included, everything from pointfree geometries, scalar field theory, dark energy and dark matter, and so much more!

## Working document to come:

https://81018.com/creating/ (very limited access until published) and that document will be used to continue to update https://brucecamber.files.wordpress.com/2020/03/camber-3u2.pdf which is https://81018.com/imperfection/ (May 2020)

## Other websites and topics under review:

( All for the page: https://81018.com/imperfection/#11b )

## Key Dates for The first 67 notations

Posted online for collaborations: April 2, 2020
Last edit: Wednesday, July 1, 2020
Related: https://81018.com/common//
The Universe As An Intimate Place: https://81018.com/alternative/

# A Simple Mathematical Model of the Universe

###### by Bruce Camber Use the left arrow  just above or the title link to a related homepage.

Background. Closely-associated with other homepages, this article will continue to be updated. Twelve Concepts (this page) is associated with Transformation (Aug. 2019), Bottom-up (Sept. 2019), Map the Universe (Oct. 2019), Finite-Infinite Bridge (Nov. 2019), Our young, cosmological model (Dec. 2019), A Simple View (Jan. 2020), Claims (Feb. 2020) and Perfection (Feb. 2020)

# The twelve foundational concepts of this model:

## #1 Grasp the boundaries.The Approximate Age of the Universe in seconds:436,117,076,640,000,000± seconds1

“436 quadrillion, 117 trillion, 76 billion, 640 million seconds.” A review of this very big number resulting from a rather simple math exercise begins to give us a sense that the universe is finite. It has a starting point and the current time is always defined by the current expansion.

Within this model there is no need for absolute space and time. We surely envision a space and time that goes on forever but that doesn’t ascribe a primordial status to it. It is our hope.

Now, if you will, think what happens when we all know and can say, “The universe is just over 436 quadrillion seconds old!?!” If we all used a working Universe Clock (a little like the US Debt Clock), it just might help us all feel some commonality with each other within this world, with our little Solar System, then within the Milky Way and even our Local Group.*

Yes, just think what might happen when we all envision everything we do and think in context with the entire universe.1a

A Dilemma: In 2011 when we first engaged the question, the universe was estimated to be between 13.772-and-13.82 billion years, with an uncertainty of just 59 million years. That estimate continues to be more refined. Some now put the number closer to 14.4 billion years.

Yet, throughout the universe, how long is a year? We are on a Solar-Time System based on our Sun. The rest of the universe is not. Our year has 365 days except for Leap Year when it has 366 days. A simple question is, “For every thousand years, should we add 250 days?” We can all readily do the easy calculations — the number of seconds in a minute (60), an hour (3600), a day (86,400), and then a 365-day year (31,536,000 seconds). There are 31,556,952 seconds in a 365.2425-day year. And, 31,557,600 are in a 365.25-day year.

We chose 365.2425 days/year, 31,556,952 seconds/year or 31,556,952,000,000,000 per billion years (an aeon). Multiplied by 13.82 is 436,117,076,640,000,000 seconds.

At some point in the near future, we’ll be increasing that number. First, we’ll probably be multiplying by 14.4. Then we will need to add the approximate amount of time that will have passed from the moment the experts make their calculation. In 2011 we used the numbers from NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP).1b There is also ongoing work with the Hubble Space Telescope,1c the ESA Planck satellite,1d and NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope.1e

Just a second: The value of a second was established by a consortium of government agencies around the world. In 1841 they unofficially began cooperating and sharing insights. In 1947 they formed the International Organization for Standardization1f (ISO) to share “official standards” but those standards were more fluid than most expected.

How does one define one second? The ancient approximation was 1/86,400 of the time that it takes the Earth to rotate once on its axis. In the 1700s it was determined by the pendulum swing of a carefully-calibrated grandfather clock, and then more recently by the very stable calibrations within the cesium 133 atom.

We’ve been advocating that the second be defined by an exact multiple of Planck Time. At Notation 143, it is .60116 seconds. Why not add that fraction that brings it as close as one needs to the current one second mark? We proposed such a concept back in 2012 when we advocated that a standard length be based between the multiples of the Planck Length.  In 2012 a retired NASA scientist1g thought it was a worthwhile proposal.

Reviews: (1) Our 2017 analysis for Huntsville’s NASA SpaceApp: https://81018.com/universeclock/,  (2).earlier calculations of an actual Planck time line, the 2016 horizontally-scrolled chart,  and (3).the first calculations for time in 2014,  a vertically-scrolled chart!

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## #2  Capture everything, everywhere, for all time.Apply base-2 to the Planck units:202 notations from the first moment of time to the Now.2

2202  By definition, the Planck base units are key initial quantities of physical reality. Pi (π) and other dimensionless constants are part of the dynamics. Taken as a given, if these base units are doubled, then doubled again and again, in just 202 doublings, the current time (the Age of the Universe right now) and the current size of the universe (right now) are inscribed. There are well over 1000 numbers that are generated within this chart (horizontally-scrolled). It is entirely predictive; each notation necessarily builds on the prior notation; and, all notations are never ending  and never repeating.

The very first instant of the universe is Planck Time: 5.391 16(13)×10-44 seconds. It is so infinitesimally small, the first second of this universe only emerges between notations 143 and 144. The first year emerges within notation 169. The first thousand years, a millennium, emerge between notations 178 and 179. The first million years are between notations 188 and 189; and, the first billion, an aeon, is between notations 198 and 199. Notation 200 has 2.744 billion years. Notation 201 has 5.4908 billion years. All of human history and most of the history of our Planet Earth are within Notation 202 (10.9816 billion years in duration). Given these notations appear to be cumulative, we would be in the earliest part of Notation 202. Here we assume the universe has been expanding for 13.81 billion less the cumulative 10.9816 billion years.

For earlier perspectives, go to: https://81018.com/realization1/   https://81018.com/time/  https://81018.com/nature/   https://81018.com/newton/

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## #3 Eliminate some basic mysteries.Dark energy and dark matter:Study those notations that cannot be physically measured.

264  The first 64 notations.3  We take as a given that all 202 base-2 notations defined within the horizontally-scrolled chart are real. Logic tells us. Mathematics tells us. Then there are repeated confirmations between the systems of mathematics and our physically-measured realities. The first 64 notations are foundational and require much more study. The first few notations are initially displayed when one opens the chart online. If one were to scroll through the chart (yes, horizontally scrolled), especially observe how those first 64 notations begin to yield an impressive mass and charge. At just the 64th notation, the Planck Mass multiple is now 4.01495×1011 kilograms and Planck Charge multiple is 34.5986 Coulombs. Yet, the Planck Length and Planck Time multiple are still infinitesimally small. The first actual “measurements” of a multiple of the Planck Length appear to be between Notations 64 and 67 and currently the smallest measurement of a fractional unit of time is within the 84th notation.

A rather naive-and-startling conclusion for many, yet seemingly quite obvious, is that  the first 60± notations define dark energy and dark matter. It is simple, all-natural, and logically follows.

The Process: Again, to derive the 202 steps or notations from the Planck base units to the approximate age and size of the Universe today, multiply the four Planck base units by 2 (and the results by 2, over and over again). Perhaps the simplest line to follow is the Planck Time as it doubles up to and beyond the current age of the universe within Notation 202.

The challenge: Now, particularly watch lines 5 and 6 within our large horizontally-scrolled chart: https://81018.com/chart/  We start with Planck Mass (2.176.470×10-8 kilograms) and Planck Charge (1.875×10-18 Coulombs). And it bears repeating — at the 64th doubling or notation, the time and length measurements are still below our abilities to measure directly, yet Planck Mass has increased to 4.01495×1011 kilograms (400 billion kilograms) and Planck Charge has increased to 34.59863 Coulombs (perhaps the inverse of a neutron star yet of similar densities).  It is assumed that our infinitesimal universe is now heavily-laden with what we call planckspheres, a primordial sphere constantly being generated from Notation #1.

That’s stretching credulity, but then it goes extreme.

Just beyond the first second of the universe at 1.2023 seconds at the 144th notation, the other values have exponentially increased to 4.8537×1034 kilograms and 4.1827×1025 coulombs. Today we are within the 202nd notation and the Planck time doubling now approximates the age of the universe and the Planck Length doubling approximates the size of the universe. Planck Mass approximates the total mass of the universe and Planck Charge approximates the total coulombs value of the universe. Some percentage of these totals are below our thresholds for measurement, and so, yes, one might conclude, “Here is our ever-so-illusive dark energy and dark matter.”

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## #4 Start with the most simple and build. Complexity comes quickly.Redefine the infinite and the infinitesimal: Start with the equation for π.

The finite-infinite relation.4 We will continue studying the role of  dimensionless concepts like π (pi). We hypothesize that the qualities that define fundamental physical constants and the dimensionless constants (ratios) will inform a perspective that will help to define the infinite (infinity) as well as the infinitesimal. This definition will not satisfy those scholars engaged in the current debates about the definition and use of infinity within our cultures, yet the hope is that it opens new possibilities for new discussions.

The most-simple, most-ubiquitous, never-ending, never-repeating ratio, pi, is a starting point. By definition, it (1) defines and redefines the infinite, (2) it opens a definition of a finite-infinite bridge, and (3) it opens a range of quantities (and qualities) that capture the infinitesimal across as many as 64 notations.

The abiding concepts that flow within the finite-infinite relation and throughout pi are continuity (order), symmetry (relations) and harmony (dynamics). Yet, these three concepts are also the backbone of the finite, particularly our sciences, th e finite-infinite-bridge, and the infinitesimal. Yes,  our starting pointis — it all started with π (pi) and then her sphere.4

For an earlier analysis, go to: https://81018.com/introduction
And also, see: https://81018.com/symmetry   https://81018.com/harmony/
https://81018.com/perfection  https://81018.com/π/

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## #5 Follow the math and the simplest logic.Mathematically confirm the speed of light:Always follow the numbers.

Light.5 Based on just the accuracy of the determination of the values of Planck Time and Planck Length, the speed of light can be confirmed mathematically. At one second, the Planck Time value is 1 and Planck Length is the distance light travels in one second.  The experimentally-defined speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s in a vacuum. Outside the vacuum, it is a variable. Mathematically, it is also a variable. Our current calculation is: 299,792,437.99 meters/second.

Of course, it is not at all surprising that the Planck Time, Planck Length, and the speed of light correlate throughout the chart given that both Planck Time and Planck Length are defined by the speed of light.

What is surprising is that this simple formula begins to corroborate the basic integrity of the chart and base-2 exponentiation, and it all begs for a much deeper analysis.

For earlier analyses, go tohttps://81018.com/formula1/  https://81018.com/c/

Yes, the speed of light is approximated at every notation. It generally ranges around ± .1% of the laboratory defined speed, 299,792,458 meters/second.  Just .1% of that value is 299,792 m/s; our current calculations create a range of approximately 213,648 m/s.  With our current figures, the highest calculation is 299,982,157 (Notation #16) and the lowest (#3) is 299,768,509.931 (a range of 213,648 m/s). So, Planck’s little equation for Planck Time, Planck Length (lP) divided by light equals Planck Time (tP), seems to be telling us an important story throughout all 202 notations. Of course, more analysis is required.

Work on the chart began in 2011. To review, go tohttps://81018.com/chart/

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## #6 Force fit what you can.Compare their intellectual expansion to our mathematical expansion: The numbers are the numbers; logic is logic.

Big Bang Subsumed Within Quiet Expansion.6 There is a concresence between the events of the current big bang theory and our mathematically-defined Quiet Expansion. This analysis opens many questions based on the fact that observational data from the intellectual definition of the Big Bang actually works within the mathematically-defined  inflation of our “Quiet Expansion.”

Editor’s note regarding the Quiet Expansion: 20-to-20,000 Hz is the generally accepted range of audible frequencies for human hearing; these convert to wavelengths of 1.7 centimeters to around 17 meters or from the 109th to the 120th notation.

For a direct comparison and earlier review, go tohttps://81018.com/calculations

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## #7 Analyze the logic.Examine six samples from across the 202 notations or doublings: Caution! This is even more of a stretch.

The Logic of Numbers.7 To grasp each parameter that defines this chart is not trivial. It requires transitioning beyond our commonsense boundaries. Thinking of the universe as exponential at its core is difficult. Thinking about time as an interval without a past but as encoded as a necessary effect within the entire universe even stretches our sense of relationality. I suspect it will do the same for you. The net-net of studying the simple doubling formula is an entirely different orientation to our little universe of just 202 notations.

Studying the logic of these six samplings does not make it much easier.

For review, go to: https://81018.com/planck_universe/ and https://81018.com/planck-scale/ Also, if you have not looked at the chart of numbers, please do: https://81018.com/chart/

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## #8 The first sphere.Sphere stacking is at the heart of all doublings:Study this most pivotal image.

Stacking/Doubling.8 This simple dynamic image has no less than four key stories. The first story is the emergence of that very first sphere. Sphere stacking is the next story.

The Planck scale, if compared to the atom, is like the atom compared to our solar system. Out of the 202 doublings, 1 to 80, goes from the Planck scale to the atom, and 81 to 160 goes from the atom to the solar system. Surmised is that these planckspheres which have a very small mass and charge, and the smallest length and smallest duration, literally fill the universe (See #3).

That first sphere. It is, by definition, the most simple dynamic of the universe. Yet, there is nothing simple or singular about it. The next sphere comes, and then the next. The centerpoints all connect. That’s an active equation. Stacking beings. More centerpoints connect. The first sphere interacts with all other spheres, centerpoint to centerpoints to centerpoints.

The story is being demonstrated with the dynamic image (above right) whereby geometries are created. Vertices or nodes, lines, triangles, tetrahedrons and octahedrons literally tile and tessellate the universe as it emerges.

Aether. Many physicists continue to work to justify the concept of an aether. Johannes Kepler, with his 1611 work publication of Harmonices Mundi, had a primitive aether using basic geometries. Kepler then gave us clues with his study of the packing of cannonballs; and with this image just above, both projective and Euclidean geometries are opened. A case could be made for the classic Michelson-Morely 1887 work which looked for a carrier of light waves. When brought down to the Planck scale, the dynamics of the first infinitesimal spheres tell a new story and a very different concept of the aether is introduced.

For an earlier review, go tohttps://81018.com/stacking/

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## #9  Open up period doubling bifurcation. Get to know the Feigenbaum constant:δ = 4.669 201 609 102 990 671 853 203 821 578

Period doubling Bifurcation.9  In 1975 mathematician, Mitchell Feigenbaum, discovered a limiting ratio for each bifurcation interval. It was a constant. The plain vanilla version of period doubling was guided by such constants, yet, from my initial studies, nobody could discern why. Nobody was looking at the 202 notations, so certainly nobody was looking below that 64th notation.

There is nothing simple about Henri Poincaré and his work. Yet, when seen from the Planck scale and through the most simple-but-dynamic sphere, an aether that Poincaré may have well envisioned (p.7, The Foundations of Science: Science and Hypothesis…, Science Press, 1913 by H. Poincare, authorized translation by George Bruce Halsted) appears to manifest.

Jules Henri Poincaré brings so much to this exploration — our current studies include applying his conceptual framework for the Poincaré sphere so to open discussions about polarization and its applicability within the dynamics of the Fourier transform. Ostensibly all these dynamics, including Fourier A and Fourier B (below) are part of Notation #1.

That first infinitesimal sphere brings with it a huge agenda, but a deeper analysis of period doubling has been blocked by big bang cosmology.

Here we can begin to discern the mathematics and geometries that are the basis of period doublings bifurcations. Of course, we’ll continue looking at sphere stacking. We’re learning how to dance in this sphere of influence. Still entirely clumsy, there is a lot to learn.

In a recent article, I said, “…now included are Mandelbrot’s work on fractals, the Santa Fe Institute and their work on complexity and chaos theory, and Stephen Wolfram on computational irreducibility. In 2006 Ari Lehto refocused his work to explore period doubling at the Planck scale and in 2014 Charles Tresser added insights regarding its universality.”  https://81018.com/transformation/

For review, go to: https://81018.com/transformation/

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## #10 Test the Fourier series. Learn about the Fourier transform dynamics at the Planck scale:

###### Fourier A

Fourier Transform.10 There are so many equations within the Fourier transform, it rather quickly spins one’s head with calculations. Where period doubling captures the moment when things become two, here we discover how two things are dynamically related to all other things. The Fourier transform has such a diversity of applications, it touches every part of our life. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, at no time has its inherent power been explored at the Planck scale. It, too, has been hidden by big bang cosmology.

It appears that the Fourier transform at the Planck scale could open a new discussion of the very nature of “gravitational weak” and “electromagnetic and strong.”  Just observe the two graphics on the right. Click on each image to go further.

More coming from equations of motion, structural dynamics…

For review, go to: https://81018.com/transformation/#10b

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## #11 This is where it is all going.We’re living in an exponential universe and among all things infinite:We’ll all continue studying Euler’s equations.

Euler.11 Our chart and all these formulations are inherent within an application of Euler’s exponentiation. It assumes a Planck-scale sphere, herein called a plancksphere, which has been populating the universe from the first instance of space and time, and, it creates a basis for a mathematical physics, a new foundational science that gives rise to particles and waves.

Euler’s formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula that establishes the fundamental relationship between our most basic and our more complex mathematics.

If the universe is fundamentally exponential, it changes the paradigm. It is a very different foundation. If space and time are derivative and finite, this model becomes a major transition. There are basic concepts to be re-instantiated. And, over the past 40 years, there are many very confident articles, books, videos and movies that will need to be updated and rewritten, and a whole new universe needs to be explored.

For review, go to: https://81018.com/pursuit/

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## #12 Geometries of probabilities and fluctuations.Study the geometries of gaps:Indeterminacy is geometrical.

Logic is logic. A gap is a gap.12 This model of the universe brings pure mathematics into the picture within the first notations. Everything is used and needed — algebra, calculus, geometry and topology, combinatorics, logic, and number theory. Then, by the 64th notation much of the applied mathematics is required, especially dynamical systems and differential equations, mathematical physics, information theory (and, yes, even signal processing).

Within this particular article, we have not discussed the application of probabilities-and-statistics and game theory. These studies are also put to the test. At some notation (or notations) within the scale from 1-to-64, a simple geometry of probabilities is introduced. That geometry has been discussed in many documents on this website. Even before we had our first Big Board, we were discussing squishy geometry in our high school.  It all begins with just five tetrahedrons (seven nodes), but includes the icosahedron, and then the Pentakis dodecahedron. That gap is real and ubiquitous within basic geometries.

## Conclusion.

This article is just a start. Yes, it’s part of an eight-year start! The work is still in the earliest possible stage of exploration. Yet, I think we have brought it far enough that you can now either rationally slap it down (and tell us why it is not so), or be a little bold, and “like” what you see as an exploratory introduction. That would give us a little encouragement to continue on.  -BEC

Yes, a little like an old-fashioned 12-step program: Here for those who need a little help to break free of big bang cosmology (it has been so profoundly ingrained and is totally addictive), yet, be cautioned, this is an early first draft!

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## Endnotes and Footnotes

1  What is a second?  Technically within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO standards) the second is one of seven SI base units. They define a second as “9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom.”

There is nothing intuitive or simple about it and we believe there is a more intuitive way.

In light of the entire universe. By using the chart of 202 base-2 notations, we actually start at the Planck scale and go to the current time. Here a second is easily defined in light of the entire universe. Based on a a multiple of Planck Time, one second is between Notations 143 (just .60116 seconds) and Notation 144 (where the doubling is now 1.2023 seconds). This second is defined by dimensionless constants that are universal, not by physical measurements done by people and machines.

Could these Planck units provide a basis for standards? To attempt to open up that question for dialogue, we will engage many of the people throughout the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). We have asked Dr. Ian Robinson of the UK’s National Physical Laboratory. We have also asked scientist/scholars at the National Institute for Standards & Technology here in the USA. Can we get beyond the “local measurements” of the instruments like those done by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), the Hubble Space Telescope, ESA Planck satellite, and NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope?  Perhaps all forms of measurement with devices, instruments, and tools should be to confirm not to determine a standard.

When the second is defined in light of Planck Time, the entire chart will come alive for many more people. In 2012 we first suggested a concept like it, “Use the Planck Length to define a meter.” A NASA scientist who was helping us with some of our calculations thought it was a worthy idea.  Defining the number of seconds in a year should be trivial and not quite so tortured!

The dilemma.  Almost everyone in this world believes that space and time are absolute. That concept is part of the fabric of our commonsense. To think of time as the Now, where the universe is constantly changing and evolving in part based on what is happening Now, flies in the face of that commonsense. That the universe is always the total sum of all its relations, an actual composite of all relations everywhere for all time, is just too big for most of us. A little like Kermit, a frog singing his song, “It’s not that easy being green,” it is also not easy to change our orientation.

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2 202 doublings of the Planck base unitsThe Planck units have had a slow ascendancy. In December 2011 when we backed into our model of 202 base-2 notations, we were chasing simple embedded Euclidean geometries (tetrahedron and octahedrons). It had structure, logic, simplicity, and energy (light and coulombs). It was comprehensive and predictive, but it flew in the face of (1) Isaac Newton’s absolute space and time and (2) big bang cosmology. Both have had sharp and well-informed critics over time, so it seemed a natural coalition to build on their arguments. Also, it appeared that the cost-benefit analyses weighed in our favor. It was therefore “just” a matter of making the case for it, building a consensus, and then a group of advocates with as many possible people and within as many disciplines as possible.

May the circle be unbroken. In September 2019, the the television producer, Ken Burns, released a block of shows about the history of Country Music. The sixth episode featured an iconic, highly-symbolic country song about unbroken circles; our focus turned to pi and the infinite.

In the original 1907 Ada R. Habershon version, the question was asked, “Will the circle be unbroken?” The 1935 Carter Family version asks, “Can the circle be unbroken?”  We proclaim, “May the circle be unbroken.” It is not a question. Human circles are always broken, physical circles tend to be imperfect. Yet at the deepest levels (Notation #1), conceptually these circles are never broken and give rise to the laws of conservation of energy and matter.

The mystery of pi. A ratio, never-ending, never-repeating, always a relation, it stretches well beyond us, and it is ubiquitous. It doesn’t have space-time coordinates but is part of all space-time coordinates. While dancing around a new definition of the infinite, I say, “Let pi be our initial definition of the infinite and infinity. Forget all other definitions.”  If we start with pi, we can let pi inform any and all more complex definitions. So, within this context, we considered potential infinite qualities. Today, these are continuity/order, symmetry/relations, harmony/dynamics. There is also the randomness and uniqueness within the “never-repeating” aspect of the ratio. What else? I could not grasp more so turned to the scholars and scientists who have made pi their primary study.

So, there should be more to come, yet those concepts of professional scholars and scientists could also be spread out in the endnotes, footnotes, references and resources…

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3 Dark Energy & Dark Matter.  This work is not theoretical. It is mathematical. It is practical. It is logical. It really is a new order of commonsense that asks everyone to reconsider the very nature of their own logic. It is a simple chart that easily defines dark energy and dark matter. Yet, it is also non-intuitive. Time has a new face. Infinity has a key role. Base-2 exponentiation, a doubling mechanism, burst out of the most simple geometries which burst out of a stacking of spheres. The whole chart of 202 notations became a working model of the universe because it is so very simple. And, there is no extralogic to carry it forward. And, yes, although the Planck units were overlooked for many years, that is not the case today.

Possibly more to come…

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4 Redefine the infinite and the infinitesimal. Throughout history, the finite-infinite debate is fraught with emotion with those who “believe” and those who do not. Those debates are ignored. We attempt to start with a clean slate — tabula rasa — by starting with most simple concepts that defy a finite label to the most advanced, the current work within renormalization and regularization whereby infinities are carefully analyzed so  to control that influence. Here are perhaps are the most advance concepts about infinity and infinitesimals. Also, the highly-technical descriptions of infinity and the infinitesimals by out most erudite scholars have yielded concepts with highly-specialized language. That work will be engaged, but always with a goal of discovering new relations that could be used to influence the general perceptions of the world’s people.

To start simply and modestly, the qualities of pi were analyzed.

Within classic studies of the electron, the electron is a point particle with a point charge and no spatial extent. The radius formula is:

Within our base-2 chart, this “point” particle falls within Notation 60. There are 60 doublings of the Planck scale prior to reaching the size of a “point” particle. Denying this infinitesimal range seems a bit too sure that particles and waves are our fundamental building blocks with which to construct our universe. As we shall see within the remaining key concepts of this article, the simple sphere, once it begins stacking, is simple no longer.

Expand our understanding of infinity…

More to come…  Question: What is an “infinity moment”?

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5 Light: Time, Length, Mass and Charge  Two of the most simple-and-basic formulas open a key  discussion. Reviewing line 10 of the horizontally-scrolled chart is the simple division of each Planck Length multiple by its associated Planck Time multiple for all 202 notations. We discover that the result is very close — within .1 % of the laboratory-defined speed of light in a vacuum: 299,792,458 meters per second. Space and time are the first-order equivalence of light and they are a Janus face. Einstein’s oft-quoted formulation is a second-order equivalence whereby, with the speed of light squared, mass and energy become a Janus face.

Line 10 of the chart is the first simple confirmation that this model has some cogency.

There should be more to come...

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6 Big Bang easily swallowed by a Quiet Expansion. The big bang’s isolation is absorbed within the logic of our natural inflation. Guth, Linde  et al  have been hit long and hard enough about the extraordinary measures taken to hone that old theory. The 1999 University of Cambridge, Newton Institute conference, Structure Formation in the Universe (the book),  may have set the foundation for a major revision, yet something as simple as the base-2 chart, perhaps Wheeler’s Dream, is apparently just too simple for many.

Maybe more to come…

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7 Logic 101: The chart has too much information to analyze quickly, but the simple logic tells us that the universe is exponential. It tells us that there is an infinitesimal universe that is ordered, has a geometry, and has at least 60 domains, 10-34 meters to 10-18 and 10-44 to 10-26 seconds, each increased by doubling (base- 2) each step of the way.

Of the many people with whom I have spoken about this work, a biology professor, George Fox, asked for some clarity. Dr. Fox is a leading biologist with firsthand experience introducing new concepts. He asked me to examine the logic of samplings across the 202 column grid and this 2016 article resulted.

Examining that logic was challenging. Yet, because we believed we were engaging a new model of the universe, a new concept of time-and-space and charge-and-mass, we have been patient with the challenge and with our own gaps in knowledge. What we did learn was that although it stretched our understanding of logic, it was not illogical or extralogical.

Notations #1 to #64: The challenge now is to build a mathematical foundation for the universe that starts with spheres, the deepest dynamics inherent within all spheres at the Planck scale, and to date, we are examining the structuring within cubic close packing, period doubling bifurcation, and the Fourier transform. Eventually, we will attempt to bring in the more classic studies of holonomy and conformal field theory as well attempt to build a mathematical-and-natural progression to particles and waves.

Along this path whenever possible, dimensionless physical constants and  fundamental physical constants will be applied. Dimensional analysis and Buckingham π theorem will be employed. The concepts of nondimensionalization and natural units will be further analyzed until this new system of measurement begins to make sense to others.

Planck units use the gravitational constant G  (a constant of proportionality) measured in a laboratory to just four digits. The modern notation of Newton’s law involving G was introduced in the 1890s by C. V. Boys. The first implicit measurement with an accuracy within about 1% is attributed to Henry Cavendish in a 1798 experiment.

Still rough and more to come…

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8 Sphere Stacking: A Fundamental Dynamic Of The Universe. Three necessary facets of physicality:

• One plancksphere created the initial bridge.
• Endless planckspheres are being generated from Notation #1; this is the expansion.
• Sphere stacking (doublings) define all subsequent notations.
• Nodes or vertices, lines, triangles, tetrahedrons, and octahedrons begin their definitions within the first few notations, and quickly become projective and Euclidean geometries.

What began as a centuries old problem to maximize one’s use of space on the deck of a ship was then applied to crystal and atomic structure. Now it goes ever so much smaller into the Planck scale.

Cubic-close packing of equal spheres began around Notation 114; it was then applied chemical structure and went down into the notations around 90. Then it was applied to atomic structure and went down into notations around 80. With this next application, we bring it all the way down into Notation #1.

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9 Period doubling bifurcation. We are trying to discern if anybody has defined a mechanism that could explain a period doubling hierarchy. Though studied as early as 1887 by Lord Rayleigh, it appears to be somewhat of a mystery. I’ll check with Ari Lehto, Charles Tresser and some of the other scholar-experts to find out where the edge of that research is today.

So, of course, there is much more to come…

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10 Fourier series, transform: The goal here is to bring everyday physics and mathematics to bear to grasp the foundations of our universe so there is nothing esoteric or extra-logical about it. How very satisfying it will be if key mathematicians throughout our history, people like J. Kepler-C.F.Gauss-T.C. Hales (cubic-close packing),; Poincaré-Feigenbam (period doubling bifurcation), and Fourier-Dirac-Strogatz (Fourier transform), are responsible for the concepts that describe and predict the behaviors of our infinitesimal universe.

To that end, we are going over these details just one more time. I know we are missing  a lot.

So, of course, there is much more to come…

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11 Euler’s Equations: The most beautiful equation, Euler’s identity, will have a key role in this model. I am not sure how and who yet, but some mathematical genius, somebody like Po-Shen Loh (video), will come along and tell us. Exponential notations, 22, 23 and 264 and 2202 are all key steps for our students to begin to grasp the “singularity” and harmony of our universe.

Again, of course, there is much more to come…

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12 The place and power of simple logic: Where there is continuity, there is discontinuity. Where there is symmetry, there is also asymmetry. And, where there is harmony, there is dissonance-and-the discordant.  If the infinite is ever to be meaningful for science, the historic definitions of infinity from philosophical and religious thinkers should be ignored. Defining the infinite as continuity, symmetry, and harmony allows infinity to penetrate the finite and we need not be concerned with Hilbert’s consternation about the exclusivity of each from each other. There is a transformation between the two and it is believed that a finite-infinite bridge can be defined much more clearly.

So, of course, there is much more to come…

## Planck Length compared to the atom is like the atom compared to the Solar System. We have a lot to learn about the infinitesimal!

Key Dates for World Initiated in private on September 5, 2019
Protected posting: Thursday, September 12, 2019
First-draft homepage: Monday, September 30, 2019
Most active editing: September 9 to October 5, 2019
Re-initiated as a homepage: 9 February 2020

# Common Grounds Despite Radical Diversity

###### by Bruce CamberA First draft. It continues to be updated,

Introduction. One of my quiet goals in life has been to understand how concepts somehow transcend our diverse-and-sometimes-opposing points of view. Yet, nothing  seems to work for groups of people who have been hating each other for centuries; peace-makers are hard-pressed to come up with a concept that heals such deep divisions.

Tensions and divides are everywhere… and yes, even within the sciences.

My first-hand experience, grasped from a rather diverse group of scholars1 goes back into the 1970s. I had been wrestling with first principles, particularly our understanding of the foundations of physics (space, time, infinity) and of our universe. I expected that some of these scholars were working with concepts that just might help us break through old mysteries. Concepts could make a difference in the way we understand ourselves, our histories, our sciences and  even our religions.

Quite a bit later in December 2011, after many fits and starts, we began working on our base-2 chart of the universe. It has become apparent to us that within this chart of 202 notations, there are many concepts that change our worldview and our views of space, time and infinity. Rather quickly, we are aware of how idiosyncratic it is!

The first 64 notations out of 202 are most unusual. These may be common grounds of a most fundamental nature that might address age-old questions in physics and cosmology.

In 1899 Max Planck defined four fundamental natural units.  He defined the numbers, but they were so unusual, he ostensibly ignored them. Only a few scholars1d picked up on his numbers over the next 100 years. In 2001 Frank Wilczek2 began to pull those Plank numbers free from numerology,3 and Planck’s base units began getting more consistent attention. Today, science tends to recognize the Planck units, i.e. their potential to become part of (1) an integrative theory about the nature of things, even a starting point for creation, and (2) the beginnings of complexity, a concept that helps us to understand the foundations of the sciences, mathematics, logic, and epistemology.

Geometries. Now, for a little perspective on our work, we were high school geometry people4 who in 2011 followed a very simple tetrahedral-octahedral complex5 back 45 steps (halving at each step) down among elementary particles and then another 67 steps to the Planck scale.

Being rather naive about it all, we then decided to start with Planck’s base units and multiply by two (2). Sure enough, in 112 steps we were back in the classroom and in another 90 steps we were at the current expansion of the universe.6 We asked, “Did we just encapsulate everything, everywhere, for all time? …the entire universe in just 202 base-2 notations or doublings?

The Chart, A Map of the Universe. Although there are many blanks spaces, the chart seemed to be the beginning of a simple map7 of the universe using base-2 (doublings). We learned that the conceptual foundations of base-2 (exponential functions) were introduced to the world around 1740 by the Swiss mathematician, Leonhard Euler (there’s always so much to learn). Rather unwittingly, we took Euler’s base-2 to the 202nd power and have now begun to ask questions about its context in light of the nature of creation, space, and time.

We had been unaware of the 1957 work by Kees Boeke in his private school, De Werkplaats, in Bilthoven, Holland. Boeke did his base-10 chart, Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps8 and over time it became sensationally popular. Our chart is a bit different. First, we have our geometries. Second, we start with the Planck units. Third, we have a scale of the Planck’s units from the smallest units of space and time to the largest. Fourth, we have the current expansion of the universe within the 202nd notation. Fifth, our chart is 3.333+ times more granular than base-10. Sixth, this chart mimics life’s natural doublings. And seventh, our base-2 chart has a built-in, all natural inflation.9

That is quite a lot, but then, it really began to challenge us:

• Mathematical confirmation of the speed of light. We discovered between the 143rd and 144th notation, a simple mathematical confirmation of the speed of light,10 that validated both the distance and the time units. That’s a key; it actually completes the simple logic of this chart. It has a mathematical, functional, and conceptual wholeness.

• Dark energy and dark matter defined. Looking further, we observed the first 64 notations couldn’t be reached by CERN laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland or by all the experts at the Max Planck Institute in Garching Germany; they have held the record11 for the shortest unit of measured time. Those first 64 notations are too short and too small to ever be measured by physical tools. So, what is all that aggregating mass and energy? A simple, logical conclusion: it is the “impossible-to-define” dark energy and dark matter.12 As we bring it into the light of day, I believe we will discover it is also our long-sought-for common ground.

Retrospective. Granted, that’s rather radical for simple people using simple logic. Yet, once opened for inquiry, this virtually unexplored domain of just over 64 notations looks like it can also give us the footings to create a bridge13 between quantum mechanics and general relativity, and between the Langlands programs and string theory. These are not incompatible concepts but different faces of a common foundation just before those few transformations that precede the 67th notation where particles and waves are finally observed.

In 1999 NATO gathered our most elite astrophysicists and cosmologists14 living at that time. All were scholars of structure formation. At no time did they have a discussion about the Planck base units. Nobody was asking, “What could be the earliest manifestation of the Planck base units?” For us, twelve years later in 2011, it was the only question we wanted to try to answer.

Space-time defined by spheres.15 Looking around the scholarly world, it became obvious that we were unwittingly jumping on a bandwagon with Carlo Rovelli and Robert Muller who found space-and-time to be derivative, discrete and quantized. In our model, each notation builds on the prior notation(s). Each notation is part of the operational whole. Each is active and seemingly forever. Space and time are defined by pi (π), continuity, symmetry, and harmony. A simple circle, then a sphere, becomes a key nexus for transformations, all functions with qualities that describe (1) the infinite, (2) a finite-infinite bridge,15 and (3) the inherent quality and actual quantities that define the finite and our very first instant of time.

__________

This is such a different perspective.16 In a very rudimentary way we’re coming full circle.

As I explore the common grounds between pi (π), space, time, continuity, symmetry and harmony, there are both quantitative and qualitative shared expressions. Taking a rather speculative leap of faith, I believe these are also the foundations of ethics and aesthetics.16 Of course, altogether too simple for most, I know this will be bit difficult to sell but as a people and global community, what are our options? …continue going on the way we are?

Quantitative science, qualitative living.17 Some time ago, in one of my many statements online, I said it would be wise for science to be critical of theology. Science can inform theology, yet theology can also inform the sciences. There can be mutual respect. So, I asked, “What might we learn from the core insights from within religious beliefs?” To create an example, I went back into my family’s traditions. Given the Abrahamic faiths  have the attention of about 57% of the world’s population (that includes Jews, Christians and Muslims as well as the Druze, Bahá’í and Rastafarians), an example of such respect might be this very different interpretation of the Genesis story shared by all Abrahamic faiths.

The antithesis of disagreements, nastiness, and even violence. In the face of hostility, there is symmetry and harmony as a foundational understanding18 of the very nature of our very beingness. Given all notations are always active, what we consider to be history is the active encoding of our universe.

That is, I would conclude everything you say, do or think; it all impacts the look and feel and quality of our little universe.

You make a difference. And, that difference is greater than one could ever imagine.

#

It is refreshing to find people out on the web who are also shining their light in these seldom visited spaces and who are open and joyful in the process. If you, or anybody you know, has such a vision, please let us know! We would enjoy meeting you online. Thank you. –BEC

###

# Endnotes and Footnotes:

(currently the most heavily edited area of this work)

1 Scholars: In less cynical times, most of us believed that the truth always rises. And, some of us have had great faith that scholars engage that truth most readily:
1a. The most recent scholars to whom I have turned (and yes, a few have disappointed)
1b. 77+ scholars in 1979. The project was called “An Architecture for Integrative Systems.
1c. Influential, today, such work does make a difference.
1d. Aggregating articles and papers about Max Planck’s base units. To date, these are most substantial that I’ve found. If you can add any to it, I would be grateful. –BEC

2 Frank Wilczek: In his Physics Today article, “Scaling Mount Planck II: Base Camp,” Wilczek says: “The strong and weak couplings equalize — at roughly the Planck scale! Planck, of course, knew of neither the strong nor the weak interaction, nor of quantum field theory and running couplings. The reappearance of his scale in this entirely new context confirms his intuition about the fundamental character of the Planck scale(fifth paragraph).

These are not coincidences. Numbers are numbers. Functions are functions. And, as well, our chart of numbers tells an important story of our time. Here is a highly-integrated mathematical scaling of the universe. Academic openness and integrity should subject this new conceptual frame of reference to a rigorous analysis.

3 2004 Nobel Laureate and the Planck numbers: Wilczek’s three articles about the Planck base units in Physics Today stirred the pot; yet, when he received his Nobel Prize in 2004, all his writings took on a new vibrancy and importance. Wilczek became part of an elite group of celebrity physicists. His analysis of the Planck scale set these numbers apart in a most-special category even though there are other similar methods to generate fundamental numbers.

4-5 Straying just a bit from the textbook, the teachers were fascinated with the way the octahedron and tetrahedron, two of Plato’s solids, were inextricably woven. Some of the students became equally fascinated. https://81018.com/home/ https://81018.com/tot/

6 Current Expansion, a chart: Starting with Planck Length in December 2011, Planck Time was added three years later, and Mass and Charge were added in February 2015. Today’s working chart emerged in April 2016. It was our first horizontally-scrolled chart whereby any one of the Planck numbers could be readily tracked. Notation 202 has  a duration of 10.9816 billion years, and the current expansion defines the Now, this current moment of time which is shared everywhere throughout the entire universe. https://81018.com/chart/

7 Map of the Universe Using Base-2 (or doublings): Euler was a mathematician’s mathematician. He opened the way to infinitesimal calculus and a most-penetrating analysis of the infinite. We believe Euler will be instrumental in helping us interpret our charts. In 1988, 240 years after being published, one of Euler’s most seminal work, Introductio in analysin infinitorum (1748), was finally translated into English by John D. Blanton. Others quickly followed. We will be using an online translation by Ian Bruce. Of our 202 doublings, from the first notation to at least the 67th notation, could readily be considered infinitesimal. Our goal is to begin to understand the relation between the infinite and the infinitesimal, and we invite you on this journey with us.

8 Kees Boeke’s base 10 work. Here is a precedent for our work. In 1957 in a high school in Holland, headmaster Kees Boeke developed a wonderful teaching tool showing the relative sizes of things with his book, Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps. Within a short time, it had its champions and today it has become well-known through the world as an IMAX production and several online iterations. It appears that at no time did any scholar attempt to establish causal efficacy between successive notations.

Using base-2, the challenge becomes apparent.

9 All Natural. With the work of Alan Guth (MIT) and so many others in the astrophysics community, the rapid expansion and continued inflation of the universe had become a major issue and stumbling block. Causal efficacy is stretched and strained. In the 1999 conference on structures, the most-elite inner circle of of cosmology threw up their hands and said, “Let’s come up with a better theory.”

In our simple model a natural inflation is readily observed from the start. Several doubling mechanisms have been identified, however, the most-simple doubling, sphere stacking at the infinitesimal domains, could readily account for most all other doubling phenomenon.

This explanation is sweet because it is so simple.

10 Speed of light. The electromagnetic spectrum in some sense of the word extends from Notation 1 to 202. Let us start a deep search of the literature that explores this bandwidth beyond the first possible visible light (within the 94-and-95th notations). What is the initial very, very small charge? Does each new sphere bring and equal charge and do these aggregate with each doubling? Within the chart of numbers, it is assumed that there is an aggregation because at one second, between the 143rd and 144th notations there is a mathematical confirmation of the speed of light.

11 Measuring an interval of light. The Max Planck Institute in Garching Germany has held the record for measuring the shortest interval of time. They are down into the attoseconds (10-18 seconds). It is a long way to go to get to Planck Time at 5.39116(13)×10-44 seconds. Our understanding of the current range is limited. It goes from the somewhat familiar nanoseconds (a billionth of a second) to picoseconds, then to femtoseconds, and finally into attoseconds. Beyond the attosecond there are zeptoseconds and the yoctosecond 10−24, but SI units recognize nothing smaller.

12 Dark energy-matter. Just look at the chart and observe the line for coulombs and the line for mass. Each notation “fills up” so every notation has a percentage of dark energy and dark mass. This would be the most simple explanation for dark energy and dark matter. A science writer was complaining, “I’m the only one who doesn’t have a dark energy and dark matter theory.” So, I wrote to her and said she would be most welcome to adopt ours as her own. You would be welcomed to do the same! Our first analysis, October 18, 2018, is here.

13 Bridges to build. For over 100 years there has been an insurmountable divide between quantum mechanics and relativity theory. Some of the smartest people on earth have been unable to create that bridge. First, all the big bang talk obscured the primary playing field. They now have 64 notations within which to work. It might also help if these exquisitely smart people would create a bridge between the . All the factors involved with those two bridges will also be involved in building a bridge between the infinitesimal and the infinite (another look). All key bridges, none have been built because the experts and scholars have not had room to think or breath. Most have been unaware of those 64 doublings with 19 prime numbers with which to work. Our scholars’ imaginations have been hamstrung with particles and waves.

14 NATO and Structure Formation. At the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, the consensus among the world’s best scholars was that the big bang theory needed to be revised. The net-net. These scholars departed from this conference and many engaged in multiverse speculations, and speculations, and speculations. George Ellis, who authored a seminal work (PDF) with Stephen Hawking in 1974, has an excellent commentary, Physics on Edge (Inference: International Review of Science, VOL. 3, # 2, AUGUST 2017), on the fractured belief systems among scholars who study these issues. That seminal work, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time, was highly influential, but failed to understand the infinitesimal structure of space-time.

15 Bridge Finite-Infinite-Divide: Not often discussed, a Google search in October 2019 with delimiter quotes rendered just 674 results, most referring to a May 24, 2016 article in Quanta Magazine. By using the word, bridge, as a noun, i.e. the “Finite-Infinite Bridge,” Google pulled up just six results of which three are from our work here.

16 May the circle be unbroken: Not often within this kind of discussion are the subjects of ethics and aesthetics engaged, however, within our exploration of concepts that can bridge the finite and infinite, continuity, symmetry and harmony were applied to replace absolute space and time. Within those three concepts an understanding of both aesthetics and ethics emerge.

17 Science & Theology: Too much “positional” time and energy is spent on this topic. Open questions should be clearly and carefully stated without all the positional gestures and maneuvers. We know there is incompleteness. We know that both sides of the equations have “stood their ground.” That is not enough.We need to do better. If we open up the dialogue of first principles in light of the first 64 notations, I predict that ground will be fertile.  Not only will the Abrahamic faiths benefit, all religions including atheism, might discover common grounds. The creation story, the old Genesis story, can be opened up for all.

18 Universals:  One of my earlier considerations of  the emergence of constants and universals

Yes, work continues today, Saturday, October 26, 2019… thank you for your patience.

One of the next articles for this site will use both expressions, Bridge Finite-Infinite-Divide, and  Finite-Infinite Bridge in the title and subtitle. Comments? Please email me (BEC) or complete the form below.

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## References, research, and resources:

Initiated in private on Thursday, October 19, 2019
Publicly Posted: Saturday, October 20, 2019
A first draft homepage: Sunday, October 21, 2019
Most active editing: October 19 to October 21, 2019

# Re-examine Big Bang Enigmas

###### BY BRUCE E. CAMBER

Introduction

Does everything start simple before it becomes complex?

In order to begin to explore a natural, highly-integrated mathematical view of the universe, it seems that two of our major conceptual orientations need to be set aside: (1) absolute space and time from Isaac Newton (1643-1727) and (2) the infinitely-hot start of the universe, ostensibly big bang cosmology, as represented by Stephen Hawking (1942-2018).

Our alternative is a natural inflation defined from Planck’s base units to the age-and-size of the universe in 202 base-2 notations or doublings that are always active and are progressively building on each other. Our definitions for space and time are Max Planck’s formulas 1 from 1899 whereby both are quantized, discrete and finite.

Arguments

Arguments about finite space and time and the finite-infinite relation are part of the earliest recordings of our history. And, those arguments continue today without abatement. Possible answers are still debated with strong opinions on the opposing sides.2

We backed into our understanding slowly by adopting three very different concepts and orientations and, if true, these three may begin to open a new door to explore our universe in ways heretofore undocumented.

The Infinitesimally Small: The Planck base units. We have found no other references to a cosmology whereby the universe is fundamentally defined by applying base-2 exponentiation or doublings to the Planck base units of time, length, mass and charge. These units become the standard units of measurement to define 202 base-2 notations that extend to the age and the size, and the mass and the charge of the universe.

To lift up or debunk these 202 notations is the goal of this project.

Our most naive application of that concept was when we started in December 2011 as a group of mathematics (geometry) teachers and students in a New Orleans high school. Though similar to the 1957 work of Kees Boeke using base-10 (“…to scale of the universe in 40 jumps“), our 2011 group started with a geometry. We divided-by-2 the edges of the tetrahedron and octahedron to discover what we initially thought was a Zeno-like progression. It isn’t. There are limits!

Physical limits. We had discovered those limitations that Max Planck defined in 1899, particularly what is now known as Planck Length and Planck Time. In just 45 divisions we were among the size of particles within the atom. In another 67, we were among the two smallest Planck numbers. Then, to be consistent, we started with the Planck units and simply multiplied-by-2 and in 112 steps we were back to the approximate size of our classroom objects. In another 90 steps we were at the approximate size and age of the universe. We discovered that it took just 202 base-2 doublings or notations 3 to encapsulate the universe. It defined a natural inflation. And, it appears that it could provide a base platform for a grand unified theory of mathematics.

That is enough, yet this nascent model also encouraged questions about the finite-infinite relation and the very nature of infinity.

The Very Large Scale. Our initial introduction to these numbers was just with the Planck Length. We assumed that the first 64+ notations were just prior to the big bang and were defined by the Planck Epoch and the Grand Unification Epoch. The problem quickly became clear that the size, mass, and charge within our nascent model could not support a “big bang.” And there was no reason to think these processes required “infinitely hot.” We obviously needed more data. In 2014 we added a Planck Time progression alongside Planck Length; and then in 2015, we charted Planck Mass and Planck Charge progressions. These numbers described a natural inflation of the universe and our analysis and comparison with the big bang epochs 4 defied the logic of big bang cosmology.

We were challenged, “How do we reconcile these two vastly different models?” We rather slowly realized that there was no reconciliation, so we began to review the logic of our mathematics. We wrote for the advice of those scholars who had made this area of study their life’s work.

At that time, nobody analyzed our work. Nobody engaged its logic. Of course, it is naive; so here, we bring our work forward as logically and consistently as we can and request help from our scholars and scientists to interpret the data. Because we have viewed Max Planck’s formulas in rather unique ways, it should be straightforward to tell us where and how we have strayed from pure logic and math.

Three concepts, three questions:

1. Basic Construct: Does simple math-and-logic work consistently everywhere for all times?
Science believes our universe is homogeneous and isotropic but can not tell you why that is so. Doesn’t this simple math and natural inflation based on the progressive geometries of the tetrahedron and octahedron provide a construct or framework for an initial answer? Does the simple multiplying and dividing-by-2 provide another answer? Though we concluded that these two progressions provided new insights to old questions, we did not want to conclude too-too much so we have always sought the feedback of experts.
See footnotes 1 through 4.
2. Basic Shape: What could possibly be the building block at the Planck scale?
We decided that the most-simple, ubiquitous-but-mysterious building block is the sphere.5 Pi is deep in the heart of most of Planck equations and definitions of dimensionless constants. As a result, we hypothesized that the first notation, perhaps the first, second and third notations, results in an endless generation of spheres. This is the face of the four Planck base units, plus light and the other dimensionless constants involved in the definition of those Planck units. Perhaps not a crystalline clear picture of what is happening at this finite-infinite transformation, it is the best we can do today. Some have call these spheres, “Planck spheres.” That seems appropriate so we have adopted that nomenclature. It seems that these planckspheres do not come “out of nothing” but out of that which we do not define as finite. It could be part of a definition of a finite-infinite bridge. It may also be how the infinite is expressed within the finite without becoming finite.
3. Basic Dynamics: What is the the most fundamental doubling mechanism?
Cubic-close packing 6 is an inherent doubling function whereby geometric structures, particularly the tetrahedron and octahedron, emerge. The thrust 7 to inflate this doubling may well come from Planck Charge, light, and the never-ending, never-repeating numbers of pi and the dimensionless constants. It is instructive to follow any one of the numbers on our horizontally-scrolled chart where the logic flow can be analyzed. 8

Basic functions at the Planck scale

These rather different, simple concepts are possibly enough to start a dialogue. We backed into this model. We claim no genius or depth of knowledge regarding the issues involved. There are open questions that are raised, but at least these first three steps along this path have been presented and our standing request of our readers is to tell us where and how our logic fails and that invitation is open to everyone including you.

Our Challenge: Research baseline questions

• Who has the best insights about the very nature of the Planck units? We are exploring the work of Paul Steinhardt (ArXiv), Ed Witten, Andrei Linde, Andreas Albrecht, and others.
• What is the role of quantum physics in cosmology? …isotropy? …homogeneity? DAMTP
• Does space-and-time give rise to quantum effects or is space-time a quantum effect?
• Do the Planck units have a quantum origin or do they originate from light, the dimensionless constants, and each other?
• Do the 202 base-2 doublings from Planck base units to the age and size of the universe constitute the infrastructure for a real cosmology?
• How do quantum effects play a key role in controlling the rate-and-end of inflation?
• What about all the successes of general relativity?
• How do you explain the stages meticulously described by Einstein gravity (and in agreement with observations) when the universe is not inflating?”
##### Please note: The footnotes are still being worked-and-reworked.

Endnotes, Footnotes, References & Resources:

1 Max Planck’s formulas. Max Planck’s simple formula for light is part of his pre-definition of Planck Time. I don’t think anybody would dispute its basic logic, but its meaning is not straightforward. Has anybody truly answered the question, “What is light?” Of course, the first 93 doublings are below the visible spectrum (Notations 94 and 95). Notwithstanding, is there an inherent quality of light that presumably remains the same throughout all 202 notations? Certainly the electromagnetic spectrum provides a sense of the characteristics of light from gamma waves, to x-rays to ultraviolent on the infinitesimal side and then from infrared to microwave to radio waves within the human-scale and large-scale side of the spectrum. Yet, there is so much more going on here.

To date, our questions are also focused on the nature of the never-ending, never-repeating dimensionless constants. Do these define a bridge between the finite and infinite?

A key idea. Consider the nature of time. It seems that our Universe Clock, in light of this model, suggests that every second is active and continues to effect the content, the quality, and the substance of this universe. That time doesn’t stand still. It is always changing and it is always the the Now.

2 Strong opinions on opposing sides. We try to avoid religious and theological discussions per se by redefining the very nature of the infinite as continuity, symmetry, and harmony as evidenced with those words highlighted at the top of every homepage. Though several of our homepages extend this insight, perhaps it would be helpful if people could just lighten up a little.

3 The 202 doublings enclose a trifecta to define the universe: (1) encapsulate all the space and time of the universe, (2) define a natural inflation, and (3) provide a base platform for a grand unified theory of mathematics. The result is that space and time are finite, the universe is totally interconnected and integrated, and all mathematics is likewise. The reasons for the homogeneity and isotropy of the universe become self-evident. Our sense of time becomes the Now.

4 Big bang cosmology versus the Quiet Expansion: There are seventeen epochs defined by big bang cosmology. Each is superficially compared to the notations of our Quiet Expansion, also known as a natural inflation. Often just one of the faces of each big bang epoch is used to position the Quiet Expansion alongside it. Eventually all four faces will be used and perhaps the known failures of big bang cosmology can be addressed in new ways.

5 The Sphere: Within this infinitesimally small domain, the sphere becomes known as the Plancksphere and it is being extruded from the finite-infinite relation as a constant stream of spheres, providing no less than 64 doublings up into the domain of particle physics.

It would seem these spheres are the basis of string theory. Clumping and stacking, defining space and time and mass and charge, then come the geometries and infinitesimal form, structure, relations, and systems. This is emergence.

6 Doublings: We were in search of the gritty visualization that is not given within descriptive words like base-2 exponential notation, Euler’s perfect number, fractal division and/or bifurcation theory. We all need a visual reference whereby physical processes demonstrate the doubling phenomena that is the natural inflation of this universe. We found it in 2016 within a visualization of cannonball stacking by none other than Johannes Kepler.

Here is our first reference to it: https://81018.com/number/#Kepler

7 Thrust: I have always told myself, “You start small and build on it day by day and finally it progresses and you have something.” Nothing just explodes into beingness. Though an older article now, the focus on thrust will be continued throughout this study.

8 Logic: The numbers within our charts stretch our imaginations; there is no question about that. Yet, this stretching feels productive, like it might lead somewhere special. Our first article is here: https://81018.com/planck_universe/

Our large-scale, notation by notation, effort has been opened up here: https://81018.com/1-202/

# Welcome.

Today we welcome scholars and visitors from the following countries:

Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Congo-Kinsasha, Cambodia, Denmark, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Malta, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovaki, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

# An analysis of the 202 notations or doublings of the Planck base units

## We backed into our map of the entire universe defined by 202 geometric and mathematical relations.

###### by bruce camber (October 2018)

History. This website began back in December 2011 with work in a high school geometry class in New Orleans. We had first observed how the tetrahedron is perfectly filled with four half-sized tetrahedrons (one in each corner) and an octahedron (revealing one triangular face in the center of each of the four faces of the tetrahedron). We then observed how the octahedron was perfectly filled with six half-sized octahedrons (one in each corner) and eight tetrahedrons (one in each face). We observed how the two objects together perfectly fill space, theoretically tiling and tessellating the universe. The question was asked, “How far within can we go?”  By filling each tetrahedron and octahedron with smaller and smaller tetrahedrons and octahedrons, we discovered the smallest limits. By multiplying each by 2, and the result by 2, over and over again, we reached the upper limit,

Once we defined those boundaries, we began re-examining the processes.

202 notations or doubling or groups or steps. In just just three steps within, we had so many tetrahedrons and octahedrons, we turned to paper! Within just 45 steps going within, we were down into the sizes that CERN Labs (Geneva) measures. Within another 67 steps within, we were facing the Planck Wall and realized that this is where Zeno had also finally reached a limit.

When we multiplied our objects by 2 to get bigger, we were equally surprised that we reached the approximate size of the universe in just over 90 steps, all successive doublings. That we mapped the entire universe in 202 doublings with geometries and multiplication by 2 was as satisfying as it was mystifying.

Mystery. First, we couldn’t find any references to it on the web! We did find Kees Boeke’s base-10 and that was some comfort, but where is our more granular base-2? How could something so simple be new?

Then we asked the question, “Does this geometry represent anything in reality?” It is symbolic, of course, but in many different ways, it is also observable. We’ve kept that question open.

A STEM Tool. Now, both surprised and a bit perplexed, we asked,”What can we do with this nascent model?” We decided to share our map of the universe with other schools. For us, it seemed like an excellent STEM tool.

To summarize, in this first mapping of the universe, we de facto discovered the Planck Length, base-2 notation, a rather overwhelming continuum of geometries, and a delightful way of ordering information along a scale of the universe.

But, we still had a lot of work to do. First, we started to learn about the other Planck base units. How would they track with the Planck Length expansion? We could not even begin to guess. We are told that we live in an expanding universe, so we realized that we would have to keep track of the top numbers and the expansion. We also asked, “What comes before the Planck units?”

We didn’t have a clue.

It took us three years to be somewhat convinced that what we did was original. So far, all that we know is that we backed into a base-2 chart of the universe and have now started to learn about the Planck base units…

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Related Webpages

December 2011:

Learning Geometry

Original chart

Working Index

January 2012:

Early Questions

First Overview

Early ideas

2013:

Letters to
Scientific American

Wikipedia Rejection

Simple facts

2014:

Start Simply

Big Bang Questioned

Planck Time

2015:

Planck Mass &
Planck Charge

Big Bang Questioned

2016: