Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss: In 1587 the most efficient stacking of cannonballs was addressed by Thomas Harriot and then in 1611 by Johannes Kepler. It took over 200 years before Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss actually started to prove these conjectures and about another 200 years before the conjectures were more formally proven by Thomas Hales (website) and his people (2014). This question about density had become a key mathematical challenge, deemed by David Hilbert in 1900 to be the eighteenth problem; there appears to be no references to the size of the spheres. For example, I would ask, “Is it possible to have a sphere the size of the Planck Length?” Given the ineffable work of pi, I would argue, “Yes,” and begin sphere stacking at the Planck scale.
Fourier series, transform: The goal here is to bring everyday physics and mathematics to bear to grasp the foundations of our universe so there is nothing esoteric or extra-logical about it. How very satisfying it will be if key mathematicians throughout our history, people like J. Kepler, C.F.Gauss, T.C. Hales (cubic-close packing), Poincaré-Feigenbam (period doubling bifurcation), and Fourier-Dirac-Strogatz (Fourier transform), are responsible for the concepts that describe and predict the behaviors of our infinitesimal universe.
Cubic close packing. Our knowledge of cubic close packing goes back to Thomas Harriot (circa 1587), Johannes Kepler (circa 1611), and Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (circa 1801). More recently, through the work of Thomas Hales (1998, 2014), we learned that these scholars were each proven to have calculated a very good approximation of sphere-packed densities . Also, notably, in the 2010 Wikipedia’s summaries of this discipline inspired a programmer to create a simple, but highly-informative simulation of sphere stacking.1
Path integrals and Gaussian fixed point. See Assaf Shomer’s on page 7: “The derivation of the path integral formula in quantum mechanics of a massive particle involves chopping up the quantum evolution into very short time intervals and inserting complete sets of states between them.”
In the letter, Langlands described a way to extend some of Carl Friedrich Gauss’ pioneering work on prime numbers. Number theorists before Gauss had noticed a hidden relationship among primes: that all the primes that can be formulated as the sum of two squares (for instance, 2^2 + 1^2 = 5 or 3^2+2^2 = 13) have a remainder of 1 when divided by 4, but didn’t know if it held true in all cases Quanta magazine reported. Gauss proved this idea in what’s now known as the quadratic reciprocity law.
Langlands took Gauss’ work and showed that the prime numbers that can be expressed as the sum of numbers raised to the third or fourth power (such as 1^3+2^3+4^3=73) can be tied to the distant mathematical realm of harmonic analysis. (This kind of analysis includes Fourier transforms, a mainstay tool used by scientists and engineers to analyze signals that have a periodic nature, such as sound waves or electromagnetic radiation spectra.)
In 1899 Max Planck calculated numbers for Planck Length & Planck Time.1
Max Planck knew he was onto something significant, but he couldn’t quite make it work. One can imagine that he had hoped that the young Einstein could help. Surely Einstein opened new doors to explore, but his were different. And, we have learned over the years that all big ideas and concepts incubate slowly.
Within Max Planck’s equations, space-and-time are necessarily yoked. One is always a face of the other and a primary characteristic of light. As such, both are also yoked to mass-and-charge. Planck and Einstein redefined the very nature of space-and-time, and mass-and-energy. In so doing, they unwittingly redefined the finite and infinite.
A goal of this article will be to examine how this could be so. We start with one of the world’s oldest, best-known, and most-used mathematical constructs, pi, along with her circles and spheres. Most of us have not explored how in some manner of speaking these three are derived from continuity-symmetry-harmony. Another intention of this posting is to see how pi-circles-and-spheres generate space, time, and geometries.
Too small to measure, Planck Length and Planck Time redefine the infinitesimal. It appears nothing is meaningfully smaller, shorter or faster.
When the Planck base units are re-envisioned to create a base-2 chart from the smallest to the largest measurements of space and time, it becomes increasingly evident (1) neither space-nor-time are absolute, (2) time-and-space are Janus-faced, correlated with the Janus-face of mass and energy, and (3) all the notations are, even today, generating one Plancksphere per Plancksecond.
There are around 65 notations (doublings) before waves, particles, and fluctuations. Sixty-five successive doublings of the Planck Length and Planck Time are enough space and time to do a lot of mathematics-and-geometry, but key leaders within the academic-intellectual community think it’s too small for much of anything.
The First Three Minutes.3 In this 1976 book Steven Weinberg begins his study of the universe at about 1/100 of a second after the big bang. That is Notation-138 within our horizontally-scrolled chart. There are 202 base-2 notations or doublings from Planck Time, the very first infinitesimal moment of the universe, to this very day. And, yes, there are just 202 simple doublings.
We all know that life is about doublings. Every living thing doubles in some special way. Yet, Weinberg could not explore from Notation-1 to Notation-137. Though the Planck units have been around since 1899, that progression of Planck doublings did not come out until 2011. To date, we know of no other model of the universe that relies exclusively on the Planck base units.
The First Three Seconds: A Review of Possible Expansion Histories of the Early Universe, (June 2020). Twenty-seven leading scholars from around the world collaborated on a composite article about the first three seconds. The very first second is between Notation-143 and 144. They, too, assumed an infinitely-hot start of the universe so their first three seconds are shrouded in mystery. They didn’t explore the concept of a cold-start model which was first proposed in 1927 by Lemaître when he began to share his earliest thoughts about the beginnings of this universe, so they, too, missed a lot of possible action between Planck Time and that first second.
New ideas take time to incubate.4 Max Planck first wrote about Albert Einstein’s new ideas back in 1905. Years later, after Planck died in 1947, Einstein wrote to Planck’s widow about his special memories with Max yet acknowledged how general relativity and quantum theory would, for now, have to stand awkwardly together. These two seemingly irreconcilable pillars of modern physics have continued to stymie the world so much so that the world’s people, especially her leading scholars, have been quite unsure of space and time.
It seems most people still do. To stray from that bit of so-called commonsense is not easy. If space and time are not absolute, then what is? What holds it all together?
What’s in the heart of every Planck Time transformation? The Planck scale is a different scale but it may not be as strange as so many scholars seem to think today. As a result of our studies of this model since December 2011… though still fuzzy, some clarity is becoming apparent.
Continuity-symmetry-and-harmony are such key concepts, there are links to those three facets of reality at the top of every homepage or top posting within this site.
Where do these concepts reside? Or, could the three be the container for everything, everywhere, for all time? Here the answer is a cautious “Yes.”
Finite & Infinite
Simple logic tells us that the very first spheres are still being pushed forward.7 By going over those progressions of the doublings, over and over again, it slowly became apparent that each notation is always active. Each builds on the prior notations. Time is a face of light, the Janus face of space. So, along with the oldest-most-popular mathematical construct, pi, all of the dimensionless constants became our focus.
If these special equations and relations do not reside within the finite, might we assume that they are somehow aspects of the infinite? Can the infinite be brought into the finite without becoming finite? What connects the finite and infinite? Quite puzzling, it behooves us to ask, “In what ways might David Hilbert have been wrong about his conclusion regarding the finite-infinite relation?”
Simple logic seems to tell us there is an ever-so-active, rather intimate bridge between the finite and infinite. By definition, the finite is the quantitative. Perhaps we should be thinking about the infinite as the qualitative. So, we now propose (and have begun exploring the idea) that this bridge is defined by all the dimensionless constants and the infinite is the qualitative face of reality and beingness.
We’ve all been taught that the infinite is some abstract superlative that is not part of our immediate reality. Here, quite the opposite, it appears that the infinite is not only an intimate part of our experience, it is the experience of the experience that can not be defined by space and time. It is defined by ratios and relations. And, the infinite is experienced as some expression of continuity, symmetry and harmony. That’s a perfection and it appears to extend into the finite.
Yet, recognizing the transitioning from spheres to tetrahedrons and octahedrons, somewhere along that progression of notational doublings, the most simple tetrahedral gap, just five tetrahedrons sharing a common edge, would be among the many combinations that would be tested. My suspicion is such a gap doesn’t become part of fabric of the universe until as late as the first three seconds up within Notation-143, Notation-144 and Notation-145 and then over time, that structure begins working its way back to earlier notations between 48 and 64.
It is a new topic opened for discussions and analyses. Again, in this model, we shall give the infinite everything qualitative. We’ll give the finite everything that is quantitative. And within this model of the universe, quite obviously the quantitative and qualitative co-exist quite well together.
Yet, those age-old questions about good and evil are implied.8 Might we say that all qualities that do not reflect continuity, symmetry and harmony (but do reflect discontinuity, asymmetry, and disharmony) are perspectival and are actively impressed within the very fabric of this dynamic universe? The implications are so far-reaching. More…
That encompasses the first four groups of nanoseconds of the universe. The related length scale is in the domain in which most of life takes place. Here time is dynamic right back to the first instant. Each notation defines the look and feel of the universe within that notation.
Wouldn’t you think that our entire universe shares this moment in time? If it is true for the first 116 notations, it may well be true for the next 86 notations.
The measurement of the Zeptoscond, just one sextillionth of a second — that’s a trillionth of a billionth of a second — is work led by a laser physicist, Martin Schultze. It is truly a measurement by devices, not just a mathematical calculation, and Schultze steps us back into Notation-74 to Notation-77 within our horizontally-scrolled chart.
On to Planck Time. As fast as it is, that zeptoscond is still rather slow when compared to 10−44 seconds given within Planck Time. Next will be the Yoctosecond (10−24), just one septillionth of a second (10−24). Within our chart, the Yoctosecond ranges from Notations 65-to-67.
No Names. The actual words for the next six categories (or groups) down to the Planck scale do not yet exist. Hardly trivial, until each group has a name, they have a limited identity and study of them is more difficult.
The last International System of Units (SI) categories to be added were in 1991. It may well be time to call them back together again. They need to name those next six new groups: 10−27, 10−30, 10−33, 10−36, 10−39, and 10−42 seconds. Planck Time at 5.391 16(13)×10-44 seconds is within the 10−42 seconds’ expansion. It could be named a Plancksecond or PlanckSecond. To date, that combination of words has only been used casually to refer to an extremely short period of time.
Stretching Credulity Even Further
The four base units in lockstep.10 There is literally no room for error within the first groups of notations. It would seem that even with the abundance of scaling vertices, 8.5 billion within Notation-12, and 5.902958×1020 vertices at Notation-24, the thrust of precision would keep everything perfectly aligned. Yet, we know by Notation-64 with its 6.2771017×1057 scaling vertices, quantum fluctuations are emerging. That’s well-established fact.
Consciousness is also a fact.11 We assume it is within the earliest sixty notations. Back in and around 2016, our guess for consciousness was that a primitive consciousness might emerge as early as Notation-48 and that domain could be considered a place for the introduction of a type of fluctuation. We are now researching to see if there may be a better nomenclature already established to distinguish the emergence of various kinds of fluctuations. At Notation-48 there are 2.2300745×1043 scaling vertices. It may well be the area in which we begin our search for the first manifestations of a gap integral to creating a system for the five most primitive perceptions.
Review. These Planck spheres manifest the most complete sense of continuity, symmetry and harmony possible. Sphere stacking would be generating “pure” tetrahedrons and octahedrons. Yet, within each doubling, new dynamics are introduced.
Prime numbers. 12 Rather casually proposed in a few sentences and brief paragraphs in earlier postings is the role of the prime numbers. There are 45 prime notations within the 202 notations that currently encapsulate the universe. There are just nineteen primes within the first 67 notations. The postulation is that each prime supports a new mathematical system that initiates even more diversity and complexity. As within computer programming, there is an order of operations based on the logic of mathematical expression. Each expression gives us clues about our universe and their ordering and we need to pay attention to all of them.
Of course, our suspicion is, “Yes, of course,” observation and mathematics most often concur.
We know how idiosyncratic this model of the universe is. We also know how simple and logical it is. We also know there are over twenty assumptions, all departures from the academic norms, that have been made since 2011. With this posting, we’ll add another: Time measurement varies between the 202nd notation and all other notations. Notation-202 feels directional and seems linear; it is asymmetric. Notations 1-201 are all symmetric and each notation has been “filled” with infinitesimal spheres that are defined by the Planck base units.
It seems the answer to their question is “perspectival, yet fundamentally open.” The five dynamics of pi push our faculties to imagine what these small-scale dynamics look like within the largest-possible scale, i.e., the size and age of the universe at this moment in time.
Emergence, Inflation, Acceleration.15 The other dynamic in all these equations is within light. In one of her earliest articles by Eleonora Di Valentino, with her co-authors Alessandro Melchiorri, Valentina Salvatelli, and Alessandra Silvestri, wrote Parametrised modiﬁed gravity and the CMB Bispectrum (ArXiv 2012). They conclude, “Cosmic acceleration is one of the major challenges faced by modern cosmology and understanding the very nature of what is sourcing, it is the main focus of up-coming and future cosmological experiments.”
That number would be the top end. It should be equal to the current expansion of our universe. There are so many dynamics within the first few steps… notwithstanding, it is already an impossibly large number to grasp. We should also consider an even larger number by multiplying it by the total number of seconds since the start of the universe. That would give us an approximate total number of Planckspheres within the universe and it would constitute the physical foundations of the universe. It’s a rather novel concept and such a different vision of the old aether. We’ll need to revisit Michelson-Morley and Wilczek’s matrix or grid. Perhaps we should add it to our list of claims or novel concepts. -BEC
 The Speed of Light and the Nature of Light in a Very Different Light: 202 Notations.
Light defines (1) each notation, (2) space-time, and (3) mass-energy. Yet, in this model of the universe, each is defined even more fundamentally by continuity, symmetry, and harmony. The speed of light is defined within each notation as well. When we first started exploring the numbers for these Planck Length doublings, we had no idea that we would find a simple correlation between Planck Length and Planck Time. Then, we started thinking about Planck’s formulas, particularly the more simple expression for Planck Time:
The results of that simple act of division — Planck Length divided by Planck Time is equal to the speed of light — was nowhere to be found so we began writing it up. Planck’s formula in light of the 202 notations, the instantiation of the sphere as the first expression of space-time, mass-energy, and the building of geometries (cubic close packing), and 64 to 67 notations to quantum fluctuations, particles, and waves, extends the deeper definitions of light as an aether, matrix and grid.
[2b] John Barrow (1982): With an extraordinary depth and range of scholarship, and a sensitivity to young students, my first letter to John Barrow in 2013 was an earnest request for help, “What do we do with these numbers?” He never commented about my naive attempt to shoehorn everything-everywhere-for all time into 202 notations. Barrow died on September 26, 2020.
[2c] Thanu Padmanabhan: His 1985 article — Physical significance of planck length (PDF) — captured my attention. His nonperturbative approach produced a quantum cosmological model free from singularities and the horizon problem. I was very surprised and gratified to see that his article was published so early in his career. He was just 28 years old (born March 10, 1957). Yet, with guidance from India’s renown astrophysicist, Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, he has been a most prodigious scholar.
[2d] Frank Wilczek (2001) became a Nobel Laureate in 2004, yet he continued his wide-eye, open and enthusiastic approach to the unknowns within life. He was one of the first of those within his caliber who encouraged our explorations. His three articles about Planck units truly opened the door for the rest of us.
In June 2020, twenty-seven leading scholars from around the world argued most convincingly about the early structures of the universe. A tribute to Weinberg, their article was titled, The First Three Seconds: A Review of Possible Expansion Histories of the Early Universe, (June 2020). Forty-four years after Weinberg’s popular work, they acknowledge the abundance of mystery within the first three seconds. More…
Those are the magical three seconds that open up to an entirely new and profoundly simple universe.
 Yes, New Ideas Do Take Time To Incubate, Sometimes Centuries. Those “seemingly irreconcilable pillars” have been screaming at us for over one hundred years, “It’s incomplete. You’re missing key parts.” So instead of going in circles with the same parameters trying to do a different thing, break the circle so it becomes a spiral and find those missing parameters! Our simple guess is the first 67 notations.
Brandon Brown wrote the book, Planck: Driven by Vision, Broken by War, OUP, 2015. He is Prof. Dr. Brandon Brown on the University of San Francisco campus and he has become a foremost Max Planck scholar with his comments and analysis from his 2015 book published by Oxford University Press. The Planck-Einstein relation was one of the most formative personal relations in history and one of the reasons their silos stand today is because physics has not fully embraced mathematics and mathematics hasn’t fully embraced physics. Arrogance and turf wars keep them apart. The first 64-to-67 notations are grounds for reconciliation; and with it, I predict will come the birth of entirely new science.
Though it appears that Planck was unable to break out of Newton’s commonsense worldview, Einstein made some progress. Yet, he was wrapped up in his own vision. With the help of Max Planck Institutes and people like Brandon Brown, an actual dialogue between Planck and Einstein about the Planck base numbers may yet be uncovered. To date, there is no record of it. If the two of them really focused on those Planck numbers, they just might have discovered those 64-to-67 notations prior to particles, waves, and fluctuations.
 “Commonsense is not so common.” It took the intellect of Sir Isaac Newton to define perhaps the most widely-held “commonsense” worldview which today makes very little sense at all. That is, of course, Newton’s claim that space and time are absolute. To this day, it is still pushed forward by respectable scientists and philosophers among us. For me it stands as one of history’s most egregious intellectual mistakes that has created walls and silos within our current picture of the universe. The expression has been credited to several — Voltaire (1764), poet and political writer, Nicholas Amhurst (1726), and a Roman poet, Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis (aka Juvenal, Book III of Satires, circa AD 181). It has become so true, today it’s a truism!
We have missed something most fundamental.
Tensions are real and there are many reasons why these tensions are signals for what people have in so many different ways characterized as a “new physics beyond the standard model.” That expression has been repeated so often, it now has its own acronym, BSM.
More: breaking though commonsense and the BSM
 Perfection and possible degrees of perfection. We have all experienced a moment that was profoundly moving. Possibly it felt transcendent. Some might call it a moment of perfection. In 1971, confronted with such, I attempted to describe them in the most general mathematical and scientific terms that caught the spirit of such an experience — continuity-symmetry-harmony. I quickly learned that all experiences are within space and time and Newton’s container universe was the generally-accepted, commonsense description of such. It wasn’t enough for me, so I took on those conditional expressions — continuity-symmetry-harmony — to evaluate all new information about the structures of reality. So within quantum physics, I gravitated toward quantum chaos theory and the EPR paradox and what has become known as quantum entanglement.
 The very first spheres are still being pushed forward. Hard to believe, of course, but so much about this sphere generation is hard to believe. There is no name for 1044 spheres. One could say, “Somewhere just under a trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion.” It doesn’t compute easily. Then, if we are to imagine that amount per second, it becomes rather unfathomable. Nevertheless, very large and very small numbers are the next steps for all of us to begin to grasp the boundaries of this universe. More…
 Qualitative, values, ethics, morals, aesthetics. Continuity, symmetry and harmony became the basis to make valuations: What is good? What is better? And, what is the best? These valuations are perspectival. They slide around plancksecond-by-plancksecond, second-by-second, day-by-day, and year-to-year. So even though seemingly arbitrary, there are aggregations of value which also become a basis for judgement and evaluations such that a quantitative value may be assigned to an experience, an artform, or performance, and especially to things. More…
The group responsible for such standards is CODATA, the Committee on Data of the International Science Council (ISC). They are charged to improve the availability and usability of data within all areas of research. Having a name for these infinitesimal measurements is the first step in having the reality of these dimensions become adopted science. I have asked many of the members of their Executive Committee to take up that cause. More…
 Four Planck base units in a base-2 notational lockstep: At this point, we can only use our intuition and logic to construct the very nature of simplicity and perfection. Langlands programs and string theory may help yet those disciplines will have to incorporate, then evolve out of the functions of pi, circles, and sphere. They’ll have to find places into which they can pick up and integrate all their earlier work, accommodating the four Planck units working together. In this model, each of these initial 64-to-67 notations represent unique opportunities, relations, and functions. More…
As we continue this analysis, it will be coming increasingly important that the six groups of scales of the universe with no names, be named officially-and-formally by the ISO and CODATA and all their consultative entities like NIST, BIPM, and standards groups within 141 other countries. Prior to quantum fluctuations, there are these clusters of measurements that have no name: 10−27, 10−30, 10−33, 10−36, 10−39, and 10−42 seconds. As we observed earlier, Planck Time at 5.391 16(13)×10-44 seconds is within the 10−42. More…
 Consciousness: We know where the brain is located, but we do not know how where the mind is located nor are we profoundly sure how the brain/mind relation works. The first experts to whom I turned for insights about these issues was John Eccles. His report with Karl Popper is The Self and Its Brain (Springer, 1977) set the stage for me. The next was Roger Penrose, author of The Emperor’s New Mind (Oxford, 1989) and Shadows of the Mind (Oxford, 1994). Their genius is clear and their concepts robust, yet neither Eccles nor Penrose were able to define a grid within which the mind and brain were in concert.
Enter Computational Neuroscience. While an undergraduate in-and-around 1957, Stephen Grossberg posited nonlinear differential equations for neural networks. One could say that it was a stroke of genius as well as a deep-seated intuition. Grossberg was among the first to begin to define computational neuroscience. Yet, the scientific community has been limited without a simple grid that includes everything, everywhere, for all time, including consciousness. The first grid by Kees Boeke used base-10 and though digital, it encouraged analogical thinking with no causal efficacy. Here within a base-2 grid, causality is driving the exploration.
 Prime numbers: Prime numbers have a key role within encryption technologies today, but one might still ask, “Is that all there is? Could primes be playing a more fundamental and pivotal role within the structure of things?” We would assign the first 19 primes — 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, and 67 — to absorb the expansion of structures and functions within Mathematical Systems Theory (Also, see the text of that title by Diederich Hinrichsen and Anthony J. Pritchard, Vol. 48, 2005). Prime elements and irreducible elements, prime ideas, group theory There will be more to come.
 Two values for the Hubble constant: In lectures and papers, Wendy Freedman is an expert and leading scholar regarding all things related to the Hubble Constant. She says, “Our value of the Hubble constant, Ho = 69.8, with statistical and systematic uncertainties of 0.8 and 1.7 km/sec/Mpc, respectively, falls midway between the value obtained from the Planck Cosmic Microwave Background analysis, and that obtained using Cepheids.” Freedman has not seen our base-2 scale from the Planck Time, assumed to be the first moment of time, to our current time. Nor has she seen the comparative analysis with the big bang epochs. She is also unaware of the difference between Notation-202 and the first 201 notations. Using the simple logic of this simple model of the universe, the age of the area in the universe being measured will render one result for all images within 2.82+ billion years and another Hubble Constant for all images within areas older than 2.82+ billion years (perhaps as high as 3.2 billion). More to come…
 Open or closed: Joseph Silk is highly-regarded within the Astrophysics and Cosmology community. His overview gave me a chance to go over the basics just one more time, and ask myself, “What am I missing? Why is our idiosyncratic theory so wrong and the big bang theory so right?”
So, I empathize with those people who started within this industry back in the 1970s. Now fifty years later, those people (like me who are now over 70 years old) remember when there was a certain respect for Sir Fred Hoyle’s steady-state theory as an alternative, competitive theory to the big bang. Since that time investments in the big bang theory skyrocketed and reached an all-time high under the leadership of Stephen Hawking. With its many unresolved problems exacerbated by time and with the Planck base units finally becoming recognized, the value of big bang cosmology is falling. Those who have invested heavily in it cannot be absurd to themselves. Yet, we all know that which is more-true-than-false prevails.
Of course, these kinds of transitions are not easy.
I was glad to discover that second article by Joseph Silk with his two younger colleagues. There is an honesty to their question and we need to explore these kinds of questions. For me, it helped to shape the finite-infinite analysis, especially our focus on dimensionless constants: finite, infinite or in that hyphen between the two. This time, however, it shaped that quantitative-qualitative analysis; and so far, it feels good and seems to work.
Not all mathematical advances relating to π were aimed at increasing the accuracy of approximations. When Euler solved the Basel problem in 1735, finding the exact value of the sum of the reciprocal squares, he established a connection between π and the prime numbers that later contributed to the development and study of the Riemann zeta function. Fore more:
• Complex numbers and Euler’s identity
• Number Theory and RZF
October 24, 2020 at 12:22 pm · Reply to “Infinity Is Not The Problem” Does the qualitative reside within the finite? Could the perfection of the sphere be an example? Is pi an example? I’ve been playing with it within an examination of the Planck scale: https://81018.com/the-three/ Might all the dimensionless constants be the bridge between the finite and infinite
The Standard Model is not a complete description of Nature: it does not account for dark matter, dark energy, gravity, or neutrino masses and mixings. There are also remain many features of the Standard Model itself which are not understood, and which may find their answers in speculative ideas beyond the Standard Model such as supersymmetry, large extra dimensions, and/or extended Higgs sectors.
Conspiracy of BSM physics and cosmology, Maxim Yu. Khlopov. Nov 2019: The only experimentally proven evidence for new physics is the effect of neutrino oscillations, but the physical nature of neutrino mass is still unknown. “… the conspiracy of Beyond the Standard model (BSM) Cosmology  is puzzling taking into account the plethora of nontrivial cosmological consequences of BSM particle models. “
@Pontifex What you are saying is actually backed up by a mathematical-and-scientific model of the universe. There are just 202 base-2 notations from the Planck units to the current-time-and-size of the universe: https://81018.com/chart/ Also: http://81018.com
@lori_deschene You’ve got good spirit, a good heart… now we have to break free of our little worldviews and get a highly-integrated, mathematical view of the universe (all within 202 base-2 notations). http://81018.com Everything we say and do affects the universe.
What works survives. Every possible geometric combination that works provides form, function, structure, and then substance, relations, and networks of relations. What works best, survives. The universe, the penultimate opportunist, is creating something big that requires solid foundations. Perhaps somewhere around Notation-50, our universe begins to experiment with those five tetrahedrons with its built-in gap. Out of an abundance of shapes and configurations, the five tetrahedral structure is surrounded by perfectly manifesting forms and structures. Within a moment, that gap comes alive. Perhaps as early as Notation-50, the gap becomes a structural system, and then becomes a systemic fluctuation. Just a guess, the first expression of these systemic fluctuations just might be considered a primitive consciousness. By Notation-67, when it can be measured and “observed”, it will be defined as a quantum fluctuation.
Background: FQXi called for papers. It encouraged people to focus on the raw power of logic and mathematics to anticipate the structure of real realities. If there is logical and mathematical cohesion, there is probably a real physical reality that it describes. Matching them up and learning where and how such a unit of cohesion fits within the larger frameworks is the challenge. More...
Summaries. The vastness of space bewilders most of us because our current commonsense understanding of space-and-time is ostensibly Newton’s absolute space and time. It’s challenged by many including our base-2 chart of numbers. We start with Planck Time (and Planck length, mass and charge) and go to the current age and size of the universe in 202 notations or doublings. That horizontally-scrolled chart (34 pages) of just the numbers was completed in 2016. Here space and time are derivative-and-finite. As this data continues to be analyzed, the infinite is necessarily studied and it is also redefined. Within this emerging model, infinity iscontinuity creating a finite order and time, symmetry creating finite relations and space, and harmony creating finite dynamics and space-time moments. No other definition of infinity or the infinite is engaged. Just 202 notations, domains, jumps or steps might seem intimate enough; yet, in the spirit of John Wheeler, the other prime-number bases (base-3, base-5, base-7, etc) are also explored as a series of possible “wormholes” creating another level of intimacy. Within our projected domain for systems theory, between Notation-50 to Notation-60, the Mind (all forms of consciousness), is being explored. By definition, all notations are always active and building on each other, yet particularly within Notation-202, at the current time, the Now, and the current expansion. Considering the diversity of mathematical and physical systems, it is projected that prime-number notations are also how unique mathematical systems develop at or below Notation-64 and how unique physical systems develop above notation-64. These might be considered matrices within the matrix, or perhaps, subgrids nested within the grid. This picture of the universe is not of a cold-and-hostile place but quite possibly of a warm-and-fuzzy, intimate place. Quick ReviewFinite-Infinite
Could this be a start to construct a warm-and-fuzzy model of this universe? We think the answer is “Yes.”
To that end, our first hypothesis is that Planck Time is the first instance of time and that we are now within the earliest part of Notation-202, right up to this day, this moment-and-instant. That gives us a coherent, little mathematical outline of the universe. And, because it all started in a high school geometry class chasing the tetrahedron-and-octahedron back to the Planck numbers, this outline also begins to demonstrate how numbers correspond to simple geometries.
Now, that should be quite encouraging. We know that geometries and numbers are as much a key part of the foundations of physics as particles and waves, so perhaps we are onto something that could become warm and inviting. We ask many people for feedback.
Pi and Perfections.2 The next hypothesis is that all four Planck base-unit values manifest as an infinitesimal sphere. There is nothing more simple than a sphere. And, the next hypothesis is that there is an endless stream of primordial spheres that follow that first sphere so a natural inflation and simple geometries begin to emerge. More structure, textures, and complexity is observed with all the dimensionless constants that define those Planck units. Eventually even more textures will be added, starting with all the other scientific functions without a necessary length or time dimension. How-why-when-and-where each would manifest is an open question. Notwithstanding, this outline of our universe becomes a working model as more-and-more relations are defined for each notation.
Our hypothesis is that pi (π) is a primary gateway between the finite and the infinite2 and that the qualities of the infinite can be known through the qualities of the sphere. At the Planck base-unit scale, perfect continuity is the never-ending and never-repeating numbers.3 Perfect symmetries can be understood by carefully examining close-cubic packing of equal spheres.4 And, its perfect harmonies are best engaged within the Fourier transform.5 There is something very warm about continuity, symmetry and harmony and here we say, the qualitative expression defines the infinite and the quantitative expression defines the finite.
That is a very different notion of infinity and perfection.
Within this model, however, there are notations that are defined by such perfection and all are prior to the aggregation of the five tetrahedral cluster.6
The Tetrahedron and Imperfections. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) believed the tetrahedron could tile and tessellate the universe.7 It was passed down for at least 1800 years before being debunked. Today we know that an octahedral-tetrahedral couplet is required. Moreover, with just five tetrahedrons sharing a common edge and its two vertices, a natural geometric gap emerges.8 It is proposed that this gap becomes systemic, possibly between Notations 50-60, and opens the first possible systemic fluctuations. Then, around Notation-64 and certainly by Notation-67, systemic fluctuations become measurable and are defined as quantum fluctuations.9
Within this model, quantum indeterminacy now becomes dominant and the universe as we know it continues to unfold.
Our Fuzzy Universe. In 1945 John Wheeler (Princeton) and Richard Feynman (Caltech) proposed quantum field theory or QFT.10 Very well-defined, QFT, more than Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, captures the deep roots for the unpredictable and indeterminate11 within the sciences, mathematics, logic, linguistics, philosophy, and consciousness. Gödel’s constructions using logic are too limited because he never applied that logic to a base-2 model of the universe12 especially considering the perfections within the earliest notations and the dynamics of the finite-infinite relation.
Finite-infinite bridge. This model creates boundary conditions and parameters. The Planck base units and the sphere define our universe with its initial functions and dynamics. There is no singularity per se; all the equations that define each Planck unit and the sphere are all active and define a bridge between the finite and infinite. This bridge is a key to our understanding the very nature and structures of our little universe.
In that spirit let us go over the basics of this model one more time:
Light and the four Planck base units.13 Planck’s natural units, based on the universal constants of G, ħ, c, and kB, are tested within this model by applying Planck’s simple equation for Planck Time adjusted for the speed of light, c. This highly-integrated chart of numbers defines a consistent variable speed of light throughout the model. It is generally within .01% of the laboratory defined speed of light. The next challenge on this path is to understand more deeply G, ħ, and kB.
Simplicity and complexity within the infinitesimal sphere.14 The product of the finite-infinite relation, the qualities of the infinitesimal sphere tell us about the the most basic qualities of the infinite. Going larger, the quantitative is further defined. Going smaller the qualitative is further defined.
Perfected systems are possible up to and around Notation-64. Perfected systems are infinitesimal states of being. It would seem, however, that moments or instants of perfection could spark right through to Notation-202.
QFT, quantum fluctuations, and quantum indeterminacy extend from Notation-64 up to and including Notation-202. The first measurable unit of time (attosecond) is within Notation-84; the first second is between Notation-143 and Notation-144.
The Intimacy of Our Universe
Sphere-stacking and cubic-close packing of equal spheres.15 What started around 1587 with Thomas Harriot, then involved Kepler, Gauss, Poincaré and culminated with the most-recent work of Thomas Hales, continues today under many other labels. Seeing how things fit compactly together, has become today’s work to understand the sub-grid physics modeling and the numerical techniques to validate the predictive results of our numerical simulations.
Within this simulation of sphere stacking, the first black circle is perhaps Notation-0 defined by the Planck base units. Notation-1, the first doubling, gives us the green circle (illustrated just above). Now, although difficult to picture, imagine a highly-dense block of these spheres populating every square inch of the universe with octahedrons surrounded by tetrahedrons creating a blank canvas of dimensionality through connections of the centerpoints of circles. Tiling and tessellating the universe takes on a very new meaning! Imagine if you can that there are literally zillions of these infinitesimal spheres populating every square inch of the universe and this simple tetrahedral-octahedral system, pervasive, is the first level of interconnectivity.
This simple base-2 ordering system quickly becomes complex. Each of the nineteen subsequent prime-number notations — 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, and 61 — introduce even more complex mathematics. The remaining prime numbers — 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, 101, 103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151, 157, 163, 167, 173, 179, 181, 191, 197 and 199 — open physical potentials.
Also, base-2 is just one dynamic of this expansion. This universe appears to be opportunistic so may well use the other prime number bases — base-3, base-5, base-7, base-11, and base-13 (right up on up to base-101 — to introduce yet even more complex functions. Of course, most notations are included within base-3 (there are 67), base-5 (40) and base-7 (28).
One can imagine how any given moment in the universe necessarily involves all 202 notations, yet to experience that moment as a conscious moment, to experience the fullness of a moment within Notation-202, just may actually be limited to specific notations.
We ask questions of many people. We are always asking for insights, comments, suggestions and criticism. Some of the people to whom we have turned are pictured and linked below.
 Planck Base Units. The first moment of time in this universe can be called, Planck Time; however, it did not mark the start of the universe all by itself. Planck Length, Planck Mass, and Planck Charge were all happening at the same moment. It is still a very simple start.Things are simple before they become complex. Doubling by stacking is a very simple process, however, it produces a natural inflation.
Follow the numbers. Our chart of numbers was first inspired by following a simple progression of the simplest geometries starting with the tetrahedron and the octahedron within it. But as simple as these two objects are, there is one object that is technically more simple, the sphere. Our intuitions, very early in 2012, was to say, “It all starts with spheres. And, there is a migration path from spheres to the Platonic solids.” We set out to understand what those statements meant if anything at all.
 The sphere as perfection and a gateway. Too much mystery and hocus-pocus surround the infinite. It was made even more mysterious when in 1687 Cambridge University Lucasian Professor Isaac Newton incorrectly defined space and time as absolutes. When his book, affectionately known as the Principia, became the primary reference for science, his absolutes became forever and universal, preconditions of all that is. And, even though this point of view became the world’s commonsense embrace of space and time, along with mass and charge, all four need to be put back inside the sphere.
Editor’s comment: Time in a bottle.Jim Croce’s 1973 love song, captured the imaginations of most who listened to it, yet time, I believe, is more logically enclosed with space (length), mass and charge with an infinitesimal sphere. Of course, lyrically, it doesn’t inspire one as much as the old seafaring bottle.
There are within the perfect sphere many equations that define each of the Planck units and equations that define a sphere and sphereness. All the equations are reaching across the finite-infinite bridge or gateway and all of them are about continuity (order), symmetries (relations) and harmony (dynamics). It is quite unlike the imagery of one of my favorite physicists, John Wheeler, when he said, “When I became interested in gravitation and general relativity, I found myself forced to invent the idea of quantum foam—made up not merely of particles popping into and out of existence without limit, but of spacetime itself churned into a lather of distorted geometry.”
John Wheeler actually named the two most-basic Planck base units, “Planck Length” and “Planck Time.” Yet, when he thinks about those Planck units, it is in light of the big bang theory. Did he ever consider Planck Length divided by Planck Time is equal to the speed of light? Did he ever consider Planck Time as the first unit of time? Did he ever consider the geometric gap created by five tetrahedrons? To date, we’ve found no records of such inquiries. Yet, he personally knew Gödel and was quoted in a tribute to him by physicists, James E. Peebles & William G. Unruh in Nature, 453, page 50 (2008), “To say Gödel is the greatest logician since Aristotle would be to slight Gödel.” It is wonderful that Wheeler defends Gödel, but it would have been better if they both recognized importance of Aristotle’s mistake and the place and importance of Planck base units.
 Never-ending, never-repeating. Obviously not originating from the finite, but equations that are incommensurable, should not be left out in some never-never land. Fundamentally, I believe any number like pi (π) defines the infinite. Though numbers by their nature are finite, certain very special orders of numbers are infinite; so, I am encouraged to say that this type of ordering is one of the facets of infinity. Of course, people ascribe many other qualities to infinity. We only ascribed continuity (order), symmetry (relations) and harmony (dynamics). Any other quality is solely the choice of an individual and not our concern here. Within the sciences, especially mathematics and physics, continuity is the first principle for order, and here it is. Simple. Simple. Simple. The sphere comes first. What else could there be?
 Close-cubic packing of equal spheres. Had you ever seen this dynamic GIF? It is a key function (so it’s pictured again). Applied to the Planck scale, the first sphere pictured is THE first sphere in the universe. But then look at what happens as the internal dynamics of a sphere “discover” other spheres, geometries (and all of Euclid) begin to emerge. Sphere stacking begins in earnest.
The very nature of the symmetry of a sphere and these first relations tell us how space, time, mass, and charge are each one of the four most-primary facets of light. Gravitation, temperature, motion… are derivative.
 Perfect harmony vis-a-vis the Fourier transform. Can we get inside the sphere and begin to understand all these dynamics? It is so rich with the entire history of the Fourier transform and all its multitude of applications, and here it is within the very first notations. Here is the epitome of fundamentality. It certainly needs much more analysis and discussion, so of course, there is more to come even within this document.
 Five tetrahedral cluster. Something so simple and so geometric, yet so fundamental, I believe it could engender the development of an entirely new science to study the geometry imperfection. Currently there is not even a line or a paragraph about the five tetrahedral cluster within the textbooks of quantum field theory. There are many discussions about tetrahedral configurations (i.e. Quantum Tetrahedra, Mauro Carfora, Annalisa Marzuoli, Mario Rasetti, 2010) and these are now being studied.
Of course, there is so much more to come.
 Tile and tessellate the universe. Cambridge University Lucasian Professor Isaac Newton formalized the study of “science” with his publication of his Principia in 1687. He was sure space and time were absolute, forever and universal, preconditions of all that is. He was only partially right. Although his “absolute point of view” continues as the our commonsense embrace of space and time, it is silly today. First, Einstein locked the two together. Then, he locked mass-and-charge together and his mentor, Max Planck, gave us the formulas that tied all four to the speed of light.
We ignore those equations to our peril. Yet, as a result of ignoring Aristotle’s mistake, we fail to see the obvious. Though it took 1800 years to stop repeating his mistake, it still lives on within our refusal to engage the fullness of geometry and its first-and-most-simple imperfection. It takes a tetrahedron and an octahedron to tile and tessellate the universe. We all need to understand this role of that tetrahedral-octahedral cluster as deeply as Newton wanted space and time to be absolute. Geometries and numbers connect the universe. Here, Aristotle’s 1800 year mistake confronts Newton’s 300 year mistake. It took an Einstein to break that grip. We will know that we are getting successful when Hawking’s infinitely-hot mistake goes cool and becomes an historical footnote.
This outline, a nascent model and construction project, just might help to change things.
The first three epochs of big bang cosmology — The Planck Epoch, the Grand Unification Epoch, and the Inflationary epoch — will eventually be understood notation-by-notation. For example, from 10-44 seconds to 10-41 seconds, Notation-1 to Notation-10 maybe known as the The Initial Processes of Forms. Notation-11 to Notation-20, or 10-40 to 10-38 seconds, might be known as The Initial Processes of Structures. Notation-21 to Notation-30, or from 10-37 to 10-35 seconds might be known as The Initial Processes of Substances. Notation-31 to Notation-40, or from 10-34 to 10-32 seconds, might be known as The Initial Processes of Qualities. Notation-41 to Notation-50, or from 10-31 to 10-29 seconds, might be known as The Initial Processes of Relations. Notation-51 to Notation-60, or from 10-28 to 10-26 seconds, might be known as The Initial Processes of Relations. One might say that these are the domains of perfection or the pure, there is no room or time for the imperfect. Yet, with the initiation of real relations, one could intuit how processes within Notation-202 might effect one of the notations in the 40s and 50s.
Big bang cosmology has barely gotten out of the Planck Epoch, into the Grand Unification Epoch and off to the Inflationary Epoch! The big bang cosmology is built on wishful thinking and not on numbers, mathematical functions, and logic. More to come…
Now, how many notations before the five tetrahedral cluster with its natural geometric gap would find a functional place? It may be a question of logic that the Langlands programs or string people have answered.
Our research is ongoing.
In this model, it appears that the tetrahedral-octahedral cluster could perhaps be manifest by the fourth notation. It is hypothesized that it becomes the basic building structure for the universe, a core of physical beingness. So, we now ask, “What might happen to create the five tetrahedrons (which are carried into the icosahedron and the Pentakis dodecahedron)?” When might such a combination manifest in the physical universe? It is proposed that this gap becomes systemic, possibly between Notation-50 and Notation-60, and opens the first possible systemic fluctuations, which between Notation-64 and Notation-67, become measurable and are defined as quantum fluctuations per se.
Somewhere near here quantum indeterminacy becomes dominant. More to come….
I believe we’ve been blinded by basics that were not basic enough; and as a result, we’ve additionally adopted blinders by adopting the mistakes of the luminous and superluminous such as those of Aristotle, Newton, and, yes, even Hawking. Even the best among us make mistakes. And, we all still have much more to learn.
Although Felix Klein (1849-1925) said “Physics is geometry” and John Wheeler (from about 1952 to 1972) also made the statement, “Physics is geometry,” no scholar has brought that geometry down to the initial gap that creates quantum fluctuations, or cubic-close packing of equal spheres for the generation of simple geometries, and then to a primordial sphere itself.
 Quantum field theory (QFT). Within this model, we are now exploring a range of notations when-and-where quantum field theory can actually manifest within this universe. We are exploring whether the perfected notations are a variable and could actually be dependent on the thoughts and activities within Notation-202. One of our little paths within this model just might open QFT to consciousness and the how the qualities of a conscious moment become translated to quantitative entities.
 From the Physics to Logic of the Indeterminate. This convergence of three footnotes, 10, 11, and 12, is a direct result of a challenge by the scholarly group, FQXi. They challenge thinkers to engage Gödel, Turing, and QFT, to discern in what ways the most basic principles of all three impact our understanding of undecidability, uncomputability, and unpredictability. For further work within this area, we refer you to this first draft, a response to their challenge.
 Gödel, base-2 model and Planck’s units. Gödel didn’t know there could be a mathematical progression from the Planck units in such a manner that unites space, time, matter and energy. Although special relativity pushes the absolutes out of the picture, Gödel gives Newton’s absolute time a place within General Relativity. Given Einstein’s special relations with Max Planck, it is of some interest to note that neither Einstein nor Gödel truly engaged the Planck base units. You would think it might have come up during Gödel’s time as a teacher-professor (1940-1978) at the Institute for Advanced Studies which included those long walks with Einstein. Even with his work on numbering and base-2, Gödel did not clearly demarcate a beginning of the universe but like Einstein, assumes the big bang.
 Revisit: Light and the Planck units. Aristotle failed to understand the tetrahedron. Newton failed to understand space and time. And, Hawking failed to understand the Planck base units. Their failures would not be important if they didn’t throw generations of scholars off their search for the truth, for better explanations, and to understand more deeply the way things really relate. I believe we would be so much further along the path of self-understanding had we had a better understanding of the universal constants of G, ħ, c, and kB. Planck’s simple equation for Planck Time gives us the speed of light, c, in 1899, yet we ignored it.
What are we to do with this highly-integrated chart of numbers as it defines a consistent variable speed of light throughout the model? It is generally within .01% of the laboratory defined speed of light.
Yes, quite obviously, our next challenge is go further with c, and to take on G, ħ, and kB.
Perfected systems on the same grid as quantum indeterminacy is hard to fathom.
Let me re-iterate: QFT, quantum fluctuations, and quantum indeterminacy extend from Notation-64 up to and including Notation-202. The first measurable unit of time is within Notation-84; the first second is between Notation-143 and Notation-144.
 Revisit: The basics. The three key transitions of our thinking begin with 1) spheres, 2).sphere-stacking, and 3) cubic-close packing of equal spheres (ccp). The key people in this emergence span four centuries starting with Thomas Harriot (1587), Kepler (1611), Gauss (1801), Poincaré (conjecture – 1904) and Thomas Hales (1998). Sub-grid physics modeling is one of our continuing research projects: the numerical techniques to validate the predictive results of our numerical simulations.
Working References & Resources:
Please note: Always a work-in-progress, the following references and resources are still very rough, not even a first draft. -BEC (May 8, 2020)
3. The sphere. It did not result in a theory of everything, but with mathematics it necessarily encapsulated everything, everywhere for all time. It then became mathematics in search of a theory (theoria).
7. Aristotle’s 1800 year mistake: • We are redefining space, time, mass and energy. All notations are active and interdependent, all connected through base-2, possibly 67 notations interconnected through base-3, and forty through base-5. Once we get a pathway opened to some of the string theory and Langlands people, it will be fascinating to begin getting their inputs.
In 1998/99 Merab Gogberashvili published on arXiv a number of articles on a very similar theme.  He showed that if the Universe is considered as a thin shell (a mathematical synonym for “brane”) expanding in 5-dimensional space, then there is a possibility to obtain one scale for particle theory corresponding to the 5-dimensional cosmological constant and Universe thickness, and thus to solve the hierarchy problem. It was also shown that four-dimensionality of the Universe is the result of stability requirement, since the extra component of the Einstein field equations giving the localized solution for matter fields coincides with the one of the conditions of stability.
9. Felix Klein (1849-1925) said “Physics is geometry.” John Wheeler from about 1952 to 1972 also made the statement, “Physics is geometry.”
Usually a quantum critical point is a point in the phase diagram of a material where a continuous phase transition takes place at absolute zero. In this model, there are 202 notations and it would appear that each has many “quantum” critical points, some superconducting cold and others superconducting hot. “Quantum” is in quotes because it has not been fully defined. If the packet of energy is not measurable and will never be directly measurable with an instrument, is it systemic or quantum?
“Eudoxus, arrived at an answer that, in one form or another, would survive for two thousand years. For mathematical purposes he imagined the heavens as a series of nesting, concentric, transparent spheres… Aristotle, amended this system. He assumed the spheres were not just mathematical constructs but physical realities; to accommodate the mechanics of an interlocking system, he added counter turning spheres.”
Lincoln Kinnear Barnett, editor and author, Life Magazine, author The Universe and Doctor Einstein, Harper & Brothers, 1948, and The World We Live In, published by Life magazine, 1952-1954. He said, “The gateway to universal knowledge may be opened by the unified field theory upon which Einstein has been at work for a quarter century. Today the outer limits of man’s knowledge are defined by relativity, the inner limits by the quantum theory. Relativity has shaped all our concepts of space, time, gravitation, and the realities that are too remote and too vast to be perceived. Quantum theory has shaped all our concepts of the atom, the basic units of matter and energy, and the realities that are too elusive and too small to be perceived. Yet these two great scientific systems rest on entirely different and unrelated theoretical foundations. The purpose of Einstein’s unified field theory is to construct a bridge between them. Believing in the harmony and uniformity of nature, Einstein hopes to evolve a single edifice of physical laws that will encompass both the phenomena of the atom and the phenomena of outer space. Just as relativity reduced gravitational force to a geometrical peculiarity of the spacetime continuum, the unified field theory will reduce electromagnetic force—the other great universal force—to equivalent status.”
11. Unpredictable and indeterminate. “A theory is a set of formulas, often assumed to be closed under logical consequence. Decidability for a theory concerns whether there is an effective procedure that decides whether the formula is a member of the theory or not, given an arbitrary formula in the signature of the theory. The problem of decidability arises naturally when a theory is defined as the set of logical consequences of a fixed set of axioms.”
“There are several basic results about decidability of theories. Every inconsistent theory is decidable, as every formula in the signature of the theory will be a logical consequence of, and thus a member of, the theory. Every completerecursively enumerable first-order theory is decidable. An extension of a decidable theory may not be decidable. For example, there are undecidable theories in propositional logic, although the set of validities (the smallest theory) is decidable.” – Wikipedia
13. Revisit: Light and the Planck units. In the first notations, there is such a thrust of light and Planck Charge, continuity-symmetry-and-harmony define everything. The building blocks are spheres and whatever new mathematics can be injected into the emerging forms. A long, long way from particles and waves, dynamic forms (aka automorphic forms)..: • M. Planck, Über irrevesible Strahlungsvorgänge, 1899 S.-B. Preuss Akad. Wiss. 440-480 Google ScholarM. Planck, 1900 Ann. d. Phys.1 69 CrossrefGoogle Scholar reprinted in Max Planck, Physikalische Abhandlungen und Vorträge, Band I. Friedr. Vieweg. 1958 pp. 560-600, 614-667 Google Scholar
Background: This FQXi challenge brings into focus the role of sphere, particularly the Poincaré sphere. The high school students who interpret the role of spheres and transformations to their entire family will also include the Poincaré spheres.
 Poincaré Spheres: Leibniz-Euler-Gauss helped to give us Henri Poincaré. The Poincaré sphere with the Fourier transform and Lorentz symmetries and transformations will continued to be studied and the progress indexed to relevant pages on this website and the most relevant articles throughout the web.
“What difference would it make? Even if this model of the universe is right, so what?’
Planck Time is a real number generated by fundamental physical constants. In this model it is assumed to be the very first moment of time, the very start of this universe. That unit of time is 5.391 247(60)×10-44 seconds.
Planck Length and Planck Time define each other, a necessary tension and a necessary relation, expressed by a simple formula: Planck Length divided by Planck Time is equal to the speed of light.
The work of pi (π) within the formulas for these physical constants shape the first manifestation of beingness, necessarily a sphere, and with the sphere come all the sphere dynamics uncovered by Euler, Gauss, Poincare, Fourier and others.
The universe is a system that builds logically and systematically on itself and everything that happens, right from that very first moment, structurally continues within this instant.
STOP TEACHING CONFINING, LIMITING PHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND MATHEMATICS.
STOP CHASING CONCEPTS THAT CAN NOT WORK. SAVE BILLIONS OF DOLLARS BY NOT.
OPEN NEW AVENUES FOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT.
REOPEN OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE INFINITE AND THE NATURE OF VALUE.
RELEASE US FROM THE CONFINES OF ABSOLUTE SPACE & TIME.
This page was initiated in February 2020. See Ethan Siegel.
by Bruce Camber The arrow pointing left just above or the title link to a related homepage.
Abstract: The long-standing “infinitely hot” big bang cosmology blocked the view of a simple mathematical construct that encapsulates the entire universe within ordered relations that provide an outline, possibly a new foundation, that starts very cold with the Planck base units. By applying base-2, the universe is parsed and parameterized within 202 notations (doublings, groups and sets). Here is a different approach to space-and-time, mass-and-charge, and the finite-infinite relation, all concepts needed for the sciences, mathematics, and commonsense. Here we focus on twelve basic concepts to transition from Newton’s absolute space-time, big bang cosmology, and the place of particles-and-waves toan infinitesimal, sphere-based model that gives rise to a finite, discrete space-time, and then to quantum fluctuations and indeterminacy, and then to our universe as we know it.
“436 quadrillion, 117 trillion, 76 billion, 640 million seconds.” A review of this very big number resulting from a rather simple math exercise begins to give us a sense that the universe is finite. It has a starting point and the current time is always defined by the current expansion.
Within this model there is no need for absolute space and time. We surely envision a space and time that goes on forever but that doesn’t ascribe a primordial status to it. It is our hope.
Now, if you will, think what happens when we all know and can say, “The universe is just over 436 quadrillion seconds old!?!” If we all used a working Universe Clock (a little like the US Debt Clock), it just might help us all feel some commonality with each other within this world, with our little Solar System, then within the Milky Way and even our Local Group.*
Yes, just think what might happen when we all envision everything we do and think in context with the entire universe.1a
A Dilemma: In 2011 when we first engaged the question, the universe was estimated to be between 13.772-and-13.82 billion years, with an uncertainty of just 59 million years. That estimate continues to be more refined. Some now put the number closer to 14.4 billion years.
Yet, throughout the universe, how long is a year? We are on a Solar-Time System based on our Sun. The rest of the universe is not. Our year has 365 days except for Leap Year when it has 366 days. A simple question is, “For every thousand years, should we add 250 days?” We can all readily do the easy calculations — the number of seconds in a minute (60), an hour (3600), a day (86,400), and then a 365-day year (31,536,000 seconds). There are 31,556,952 seconds in a 365.2425-day year. And, 31,557,600 are in a 365.25-day year.
We chose 365.2425 days/year, 31,556,952 seconds/year or 31,556,952,000,000,000 per billion years (an aeon). Multiplied by 13.82 is 436,117,076,640,000,000 seconds.
Just a second: The value of a second was established by a consortium of government agencies around the world. In 1841 they unofficially began cooperating and sharing insights. In 1947 they formed the International Organization for Standardization1f (ISO) to share “official standards” but those standards were more fluid than most expected.
How does one define one second? The ancient approximation was 1/86,400 of the time that it takes the Earth to rotate once on its axis. In the 1700s it was determined by the pendulum swing of a carefully-calibrated grandfather clock, and then more recently by the very stable calibrations within the cesium 133 atom.
We’ve been advocating that the second be defined by an exact multiple of Planck Time. At Notation 143, it is .60116 seconds. Why not add that fraction that brings it as close as one needs to the current one second mark? We proposed such a concept back in 2012 when we advocated that a standard length be based between the multiples of the Planck Length. In 2012 a retired NASA scientist1g thought it was a worthwhile proposal.
2202 By definition, the Planck base units are key initial quantities of physical reality. Pi (π) and other dimensionless constants are part of the dynamics. Taken as a given, if these base units are doubled, then doubled again and again, in just 202 doublings, the current time (the Age of the Universe right now) and the current size of the universe (right now) are inscribed. There are well over 1000 numbers that are generated within this chart (horizontally-scrolled). It is entirely predictive; each notation necessarily builds on the prior notation; and, all notations are never ending and never repeating.
The very first instant of the universe is Planck Time: 5.391 16(13)×10-44 seconds. It is so infinitesimally small, the first second of this universe only emerges between notations 143 and 144. The first year emerges within notation 169. The first thousand years, a millennium, emerge between notations 178 and 179. The first million years are between notations 188 and 189; and, the first billion, an aeon, is between notations 198 and 199. Notation 200 has 2.744 billion years. Notation 201 has 5.4908 billion years. All of human history and most of the history of our Planet Earth are within Notation 202 (10.9816 billion years in duration). Given these notations appear to be cumulative, we would be in the earliest part of Notation 202. Here we assume the universe has been expanding for 13.81 billion less the cumulative 10.9816 billion years.
264The first 64 notations.3 We take as a given that all 202 base-2 notations defined within the horizontally-scrolled chart are real. Logic tells us. Mathematics tells us. Then there are repeated confirmations between the systems of mathematics and our physically-measured realities. The first 64 notations are foundational and require much more study. The first few notations are initially displayed when one opens the chart online. If one were to scroll through the chart (yes, horizontally scrolled), especially observe how those first 64 notations begin to yield an impressive mass and charge. At just the 64th notation, the Planck Mass multiple is now 4.01495×1011 kilograms and Planck Charge multiple is 34.5986 Coulombs. Yet, the Planck Length and Planck Time multiple are still infinitesimally small. The first actual “measurements” of a multiple of the Planck Length appear to be between Notations 64 and 67 and currently the smallest measurement of a fractional unit of time is within the 84th notation.
A rather naive-and-startling conclusion for many, yet seemingly quite obvious, is that the first 60± notations define dark energy and dark matter. It is simple, all-natural, and logically follows.
The Process: Again, to derive the 202 steps or notations from the Planck base units to the approximate age and size of the Universe today, multiply the four Planck base units by 2 (and the results by 2, over and over again). Perhaps the simplest line to follow is the Planck Time as it doubles up to and beyond the current age of the universe within Notation 202.
The challenge: Now, particularly watch lines 5 and 6 within our large horizontally-scrolled chart: https://81018.com/chart/ We start with Planck Mass (2.176.470×10-8 kilograms) and Planck Charge (1.875×10-18 Coulombs). And it bears repeating — at the 64th doubling or notation, the time and length measurements are still below our abilities to measure directly, yet Planck Mass has increased to 4.01495×1011 kilograms (400 billion kilograms) and Planck Charge has increased to 34.59863 Coulombs (perhaps the inverse of a neutron star yet of similar densities). It is assumed that our infinitesimal universe is now heavily-laden with what we call planckspheres, a primordial sphere constantly being generated from Notation #1.
That’s stretching credulity, but then it goes extreme.
Just beyond the first second of the universe at 1.2023 seconds at the 144th notation, the other values have exponentially increased to 4.8537×1034 kilograms and 4.1827×1025 coulombs. Today we are within the 202nd notation and the Planck time doubling now approximates the age of the universe and the Planck Length doubling approximates the size of the universe. Planck Mass approximates the total mass of the universe and Planck Charge approximates the total coulombs value of the universe. Some percentage of these totals are below our thresholds for measurement, and so, yes, one might conclude, “Here is our ever-so-illusive dark energy and dark matter.”
#4 Start with the most simple and build. Complexity comes quickly. Redefine the infinite and the infinitesimal: Start with the equation for π.
The finite-infinite relation.4 We will continue studying the role of dimensionless concepts like π (pi). We hypothesize that the qualities that define fundamental physical constants and the dimensionless constants (ratios) will inform a perspective that will help to define the infinite (infinity) as well as the infinitesimal. This definition will not satisfy those scholars engaged in the current debates about the definition and use of infinity within our cultures, yet the hope is that it opens new possibilities for new discussions.
The most-simple, most-ubiquitous, never-ending, never-repeating ratio, pi, is a starting point. By definition, it (1) defines and redefines the infinite, (2) it opens a definition of a finite-infinite bridge, and (3) it opens a range of quantities (and qualities) that capture the infinitesimal across as many as 64 notations.
The abiding concepts that flow within the finite-infinite relation and throughout pi are continuity (order), symmetry (relations) and harmony (dynamics). Yet, these three concepts are also the backbone of the finite, particularly our sciences, th e finite-infinite-bridge, and the infinitesimal. Yes, our starting pointis — it all started with π (pi) and then her sphere.4
#5 Follow the math and the simplest logic. Mathematically confirm the speed of light: Always follow the numbers.
Light.5 Based on just the accuracy of the determination of the values of Planck Time and Planck Length, the speed of light can be confirmed mathematically. At one second, the Planck Time value is 1 and Planck Length is the distance light travels in one second. The experimentally-defined speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s in a vacuum. Outside the vacuum, it is a variable. Mathematically, it is also a variable. Our current calculation is: 299,792,437.99 meters/second.
Of course, it is not at all surprising that the Planck Time, Planck Length, and the speed of light correlate throughout the chart given that both Planck Time and Planck Length are defined by the speed of light.
What is surprising is that this simple formula begins to corroborate the basic integrity of the chart and base-2 exponentiation, and it all begs for a much deeper analysis.
Yes, the speed of light is approximated at every notation. It generally ranges around ± .1% of the laboratory defined speed, 299,792,458 meters/second. Just .1% of that value is 299,792 m/s; our current calculations create a range of approximately 213,648 m/s. With our current figures, the highest calculation is 299,982,157 (Notation #16) and the lowest (#3) is 299,768,509.931 (a range of 213,648 m/s). So, Planck’s little equation for Planck Time, Planck Length (lP) divided by light equals Planck Time (tP), seems to be telling us an important story throughout all 202 notations. Of course, more analysis is required.
#6 Force fit what you can. Compare their intellectual expansion to our mathematical expansion: The numbers are the numbers; logic is logic.
Big BangSubsumed Within Quiet Expansion.6 There is a concresence between the events of the current big bang theory and our mathematically-defined Quiet Expansion. This analysis opens many questions based on the fact that observational data from the intellectual definition of the Big Bang actually works within the mathematically-defined inflation of our “Quiet Expansion.”
Editor’s note regarding the Quiet Expansion: 20-to-20,000 Hz is the generally accepted range of audible frequencies for human hearing; these convert to wavelengths of 1.7 centimeters to around 17 meters or from the 109th to the 120th notation.
#7 Analyze the logic. Examine six samples from across the 202 notations or doublings: Caution! This is a stretch.
The Logic of Numbers.7 To grasp each parameter that defines this chart is not trivial. It requires transitioning beyond our commonsense boundaries. Thinking of the universe as exponential at its core is difficult. Thinking about time as an interval without a past but as encoded as a necessary effect within the entire universe even stretches our sense of relationality. I suspect it will do the same for you. The net-net of studying the simple doubling formula is an entirely different orientation to our little universe of just 202 notations.
Studying the logic of these six samplings does not make it much easier.
#8 The first sphere. Sphere stacking is at the heart of all doublings: Study this most pivotal image.
Stacking/Doubling.8 This simple dynamic image has no less than four key stories. The first story is the emergence of that very first sphere. Sphere stacking is the next story.
The Planck scale, if compared to the atom, is like the atom compared to our solar system. Out of the 202 doublings, 1 to 80, goes from the Planck scale to the atom, and 81 to 160 goes from the atom to the solar system. Surmised is that these planckspheres which have a very small mass and charge, and the smallest length and smallest duration, literally fill the universe (See #3).
That first sphere. It is, by definition, the most simple dynamic of the universe. Yet, there is nothing simple or singular about it. The next sphere comes, and then the next. The centerpoints all connect. That’s an active equation. Stacking beings. More centerpoints connect. The first sphere interacts with all other spheres, centerpoint to centerpoints to centerpoints.
The story is being demonstrated with the dynamic image (above right) whereby geometries are created. Vertices or nodes, lines, triangles, tetrahedrons and octahedrons literally tile and tessellate the universe as it emerges.
Aether. Many physicists continue to work to justify the concept of an aether. Johannes Kepler, with his 1611 work publication of Harmonices Mundi, had a primitive aether using basic geometries. Kepler then gave us clues with his study of the packing of cannonballs; and with this image just above, both projective and Euclidean geometries are opened. A case could be made for the classic Michelson-Morely 1887 work which looked for a carrier of light waves. When brought down to the Planck scale, the dynamics of the first infinitesimal spheres tell a new story and a very different concept of the aether is introduced.
#9 Open up period doubling bifurcation. Get to know the Feigenbaum constant: δ = 4.669 201 609 102 990 671 853 203 821 578
Period doubling Bifurcation.9 In 1975 mathematician, Mitchell Feigenbaum, discovered a limiting ratio for each bifurcation interval. It was a constant. The plain vanilla version of period doubling was guided by such constants, yet, from my initial studies, nobody could discern why. Nobody was looking at the 202 notations, so certainly nobody was looking below that 64th notation.
Jules Henri Poincaré brings so much to this exploration — our current studies include applying his conceptual framework for the Poincaré sphere so to open discussions about polarization and its applicability within the dynamics of the Fourier transform. Ostensibly all these dynamics, including Fourier A and Fourier B (below) are part of Notation #1.
That first infinitesimal sphere brings with it a huge agenda, but a deeper analysis of period doubling has been blocked by big bang cosmology.
Here we can begin to discern the mathematics and geometries that are the basis of period doublings bifurcations. Of course, we’ll continue looking at sphere stacking. We’re learning how to dance in this sphere of influence. Still entirely clumsy, there is a lot to learn.
In a recent article, I said, “…now included are Mandelbrot’s work on fractals, the Santa Fe Institute and their work on complexity and chaos theory, and Stephen Wolfram on computational irreducibility. In 2006 Ari Lehto refocused his work to explore period doubling at the Planck scale and in 2014 Charles Tresser added insights regarding its universality.” https://81018.com/transformation/
#10 Test the Fourier series. Learn about the Fourier transform dynamics at the Planck scale:
Fourier Transform.10 There are so many equations within the Fourier transform, it rather quickly spins one’s head with calculations. Where period doubling captures the moment when things become two, here we discover how two things are dynamically related to all other things. The Fourier transform has such a diversity of applications, it touches every part of our life. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, at no time has its inherent power been explored at the Planck scale. It, too, has been hidden by big bang cosmology.
It appears that the Fourier transform at the Planck scale could open a new discussion of the very nature of “gravitational weak” and “electromagnetic and strong.” Just observe the two graphics on the right. Click on each image to go further.
More coming from equations of motion, structural dynamics…
#11 This is where it is all going. We’re living in an exponential universe and among all things infinite: We’ll all continue studying Euler’s equations.
Euler.11 Our chart and all these formulations are inherent within an application of Euler’s exponentiation. It assumes a Planck-scale sphere, herein called a plancksphere, which has been populating the universe from the first instance of space and time, and, it creates a basis for a mathematical physics, a new foundational science that gives rise to particles and waves.
Euler’s formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula that establishes the fundamental relationship between our most basic and our more complex mathematics.
If the universe is fundamentally exponential, it changes the paradigm. It is a very different foundation. If space and time are derivative and finite, this model becomes a major transition. There are basic concepts to be re-instantiated. And, over the past 40 years, there are many very confident articles, books, videos and movies that will need to be updated and rewritten, and a whole new universe needs to be explored.
#12 Geometries of probabilities and fluctuations. Study the geometries of gaps: Indeterminacy is geometrical.
Logic is logic. A gap is a gap.12 This model of the universe brings pure mathematics into the picture within the first notations. Everything is used and needed — algebra, calculus, geometry and topology, combinatorics, logic, and number theory. Then, by the 64th notation much of the applied mathematics is required, especially dynamical systems and differential equations, mathematical physics, information theory (and, yes, even signal processing).
Within this particular article, we have not discussed the application of probabilities-and-statistics and game theory. These studies are also put to the test. At some notation (or notations) within the scale from 1-to-64, a simple geometry of probabilities is introduced. That geometry has been discussed in many documents on this website. Even before we had our first Big Board, we were discussing squishy geometryin our high school. It all begins with just five tetrahedrons (seven nodes), but includes the icosahedron, and then the Pentakis dodecahedron. That gap is real and ubiquitous within basic geometries.
This article is just a start. Yes, it’s part of an eight-year start! The work is still in the earliest possible stage of exploration. Yet, I think we have brought it far enough that you can now either rationally slap it down (and tell us why it is not so), or be a little bold, and “like” what you see as an exploratory introduction. That would give us a little encouragement to continue on. -BEC
There is nothing intuitive or simple about it and we believe there is a more intuitive way.
In light of the entire universe. By using the chart of 202 base-2 notations, we actually start at the Planck scale and go to the current time. Here a second is easily defined in light of the entire universe. Based on a a multiple of Planck Time, one second is between Notations 143 (just .60116 seconds) and Notation 144 (where the doubling is now 1.2023 seconds). This second is defined by dimensionless constants that are universal, not by physical measurements done by people and machines.
When the second is defined in light of Planck Time, the entire chart will come alive for many more people. In 2012 we first suggested a concept like it, “Use the Planck Length to define a meter.” A NASA scientist who was helping us with some of our calculations thought it was a worthy idea. Defining the number of seconds in a year should be trivial and not quite so tortured!
The dilemma. Almost everyone in this world believes that space and time are absolute. That concept is part of the fabric of our commonsense. To think of time as the Now, where the universe is constantly changing and evolving in part based on what is happening Now, flies in the face of that commonsense. That the universe is always the total sum of all its relations, an actual composite of all relations everywhere for all time, is just too big for most of us. A little like Kermit, a frog singing his song, “It’s not that easy being green,” it is also not easy to change our orientation.
2 202 doublings of the Planck base units. The Planck units have had a slow ascendancy. In December 2011 when we backed into our model of 202 base-2 notations, we were chasing simple embedded Euclidean geometries (tetrahedron and octahedrons). It had structure, logic, simplicity, and energy (light and coulombs). It was comprehensive and predictive, but it flew in the face of (1) Isaac Newton’s absolute space and time and (2) big bang cosmology. Both have had sharp and well-informed critics over time, so it seemed a natural coalition to build on their arguments. Also, it appeared that the cost-benefit analyses weighed in our favor. It was therefore “just” a matter of making the case for it, building a consensus, and then a group of advocates with as many possible people and within as many disciplines as possible.
May the circle be unbroken. In September 2019, the the television producer, Ken Burns, released a block of shows about the history of Country Music. The sixth episode featured an iconic, highly-symbolic country song about unbroken circles; our focus turned to pi and the infinite.
In the original 1907 Ada R. Habershon version, the question was asked, “Will the circle be unbroken?” The 1935 Carter Family version asks, “Can the circle be unbroken?” We proclaim, “May the circle be unbroken.” It is not a question. Human circles are always broken, physical circles tend to be imperfect. Yet at the deepest levels (Notation #1), conceptually these circles are never broken and give rise to the laws of conservation of energy and matter.
The mystery of pi. A ratio, never-ending, never-repeating, always a relation, it stretches well beyond us, and it is ubiquitous. It doesn’t have space-time coordinates but is part of all space-time coordinates. While dancing around a new definition of the infinite, I say, “Let pi be our initial definition of the infinite and infinity. Forget all other definitions.” If we start with pi, we can let pi inform any and all more complex definitions. So, within this context, we considered potential infinite qualities. Today, these are continuity/order, symmetry/relations, harmony/dynamics. There is also the randomness and uniqueness within the “never-repeating” aspect of the ratio. What else? I could not grasp more so turned to the scholars and scientists who have made pi their primary study.
So, there should be more to come, yet those concepts of professional scholars and scientists could also be spread out in the endnotes, footnotes, references and resources…
3 Dark Energy & Dark Matter. This work is not theoretical. It is mathematical. It is practical. It is logical. It really is a new order of commonsense that asks everyone to reconsider the very nature of their own logic. It is a simple chart that easily defines dark energy and dark matter. Yet, it is also non-intuitive. Time has a new face. Infinity has a key role. Base-2 exponentiation, a doubling mechanism, burst out of the most simple geometries which burst out of a stacking of spheres. The whole chart of 202 notations became a working model of the universe because it is so very simple. And, there is no extralogic to carry it forward. And, yes, although the Planck units were overlooked for many years, that is not the case today.
Possibly more to come…
4Redefine the infinite and the infinitesimal. Throughout history, the finite-infinite debate is fraught with emotion with those who “believe” and those who do not. Those debates are ignored. We attempt to start with a clean slate — tabula rasa — by starting with most simple concepts that defy a finite label to the most advanced, the current work within renormalization and regularization whereby infinities are carefully analyzed so to control that influence. Here are perhaps are the most advance concepts about infinity and infinitesimals. Also, the highly-technical descriptions of infinity and the infinitesimals by out most erudite scholars have yielded concepts with highly-specialized language. That work will be engaged, but always with a goal of discovering new relations that could be used to influence the general perceptions of the world’s people.
To start simply and modestly, the qualities of pi were analyzed.
Within classic studies of the electron, the electron is a point particle with a point charge and no spatial extent. The radius formula is:
Within our base-2 chart, this “point” particle falls within Notation 60. There are 60 doublings of the Planck scale prior to reaching the size of a “point” particle. Denying this infinitesimal range seems a bit too sure that particles and waves are our fundamental building blocks with which to construct our universe. As we shall see within the remaining key concepts of this article, the simple sphere, once it begins stacking, is simple no longer.
More to come… Question: What is an “infinity moment”?
5 Light: Time, Length, Mass and Charge Two of the most simple-and-basic formulas open a key discussion. Reviewing line 10 of the horizontally-scrolled chart is the simple division of each Planck Length multiple by its associated Planck Time multiple for all 202 notations. We discover that the result is very close — within .1 % of the laboratory-defined speed of light in a vacuum: 299,792,458 meters per second. Space and time are the first-order equivalence of light and they are a Janus face. Einstein’s oft-quoted formulation is a second-order equivalence whereby, with the speed of light squared, mass and energy become a Janus face.
Line 10 of the chart is the first simple confirmation that this model has some cogency.
7 Logic 101: The chart has too much information to analyze quickly, but the simple logic tells us that the universe is exponential. It tells us that there is an infinitesimal universe that is ordered, has a geometry, and has at least 60 domains, 10-34 meters to 10-18 and 10-44 to 10-26 seconds, each increased by doubling (base- 2) each step of the way.
Of the many people with whom I have spoken about this work, a biology professor, George Fox, asked for some clarity. Dr. Fox is a leading biologist — he first conceived of the archaeon as a graduate student and had firsthand experience introducing new concepts. He asked me to examine the logic of samplings across the 202 column grid and this 2016 article resulted.
Examining that logic was challenging. Yet, because we believed we were engaging a new model of the universe, a new concept of time-and-space and charge-and-mass, we have been patient with the challenge and with our own gaps in knowledge. What we did learn was that although it stretched our understanding of logic, it was not illogical or extralogical.
Endless planckspheres are being generated from Notation #1; this is the expansion.
Sphere stacking (doublings) define all subsequent notations.
Nodes or vertices, lines, triangles, tetrahedrons, and octahedrons begin their definitions within the first few notations, and quickly become projective and Euclidean geometries.
What began as a centuries old problem to maximize one’s use of space on the deck of a ship was then applied to crystal and atomic structure. Now it goes ever so much smaller into the Planck scale.
Cubic-close packing of equal spheres began around Notation 114; it was then applied chemical structure and went down into the notations around 90. Then it was applied to atomic structure and went down into notations around 80. With this next application, we bring it all the way down into Notation #1.
9Period doubling bifurcation. We are trying to discern if anybody has defined a mechanism that could explain a period doubling hierarchy. Though studied as early as 1887 by Lord Rayleigh, it appears to be somewhat of a mystery. I’ll check with Ari Lehto, Charles Tresser and some of the other scholar-experts to find out where the edge of that research is today.
So, of course, there is much more to come…
10Fourier series, transform: The goal here is to bring everyday physics and mathematics to bear to grasp the foundations of our universe so there is nothing esoteric or extra-logical about it. How very satisfying it will be if key mathematicians throughout our history, people like J. Kepler-C.F.Gauss-T.C. Hales (cubic-close packing),; Poincaré-Feigenbam (period doubling bifurcation), and Fourier-Dirac-Strogatz (Fourier transform), are responsible for the concepts that describe and predict the behaviors of our infinitesimal universe.
To that end, we are going over these details just one more time. I know we are missing a lot.
So, of course, there is much more to come…
11 Euler’s Equations:The most beautiful equation, Euler’s identity, will have a key role in this model. I am not sure how and who yet, but some mathematical genius, somebody like Po-Shen Loh (video), will come along and tell us. Exponential notations, 22, 23 and 264 and 2202 are all key steps for our students to begin to grasp the “singularity” and harmony of our universe.
Again, of course, there is much more to come…
12The place and power of simple logic: Where there is continuity, there is discontinuity. Where there is symmetry, there is also asymmetry. And, where there is harmony, there is dissonance-and-the discordant. If the infinite is ever to be meaningful for science, the historic definitions of infinity from philosophical and religious thinkers should be ignored. Defining the infinite as continuity, symmetry, and harmony allows infinity to penetrate the finite and we need not be concerned with Hilbert’s consternation about the exclusivity of each from each other. There is a transformation between the two and it is believed that a finite-infinite bridge can be defined much more clearly.
The CODATA 2014 values of h, e, k, and NA for the revision of the SI by D B Newell, F Cabiati, J Fischer, K Fujii, S G Karshenboim, H S Margolis, E de Mirandés, P J Mohr, F Nez, K Pachucki, T J Quinn, B N Taylor, M Wang, B M Wood and Z Zhang.
CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants: F. Cabiati, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy; J. Fischer, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany; K. Fujii, National Metrology Institute of Japan, Japan; Savely G. Karshenboim, Pulkovo Observatory, Russian Federation and Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany; E. de Mirandés, Bureau international des poids et mesures; P. J. Mohr, National Institute of Standards and Technology, United States of America; D. B. Newell, National Institute of Standards and Technology, United States of America; F. Nez, Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, France; K. Pachucki, University of Warsaw, Poland; T. J. Quinn, Bureau international des poids et mesures; C. Thomas, Bureau international des poids et mesures; B. N. Taylor, National Institute of Standards and Technology, United States of America; B. M. Wood, National Research Council, Canada; and Z. Zhang, National Institute of Metrology, People’s Republic of China.
Wendy Freedman, University of Chicago, once director of the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, and an expert on the Cepheid variable whereby a star pulsates radially, varying in both diameter and temperature and producing changes in brightness with a well-defined stable period and amplitude.
Lewis Carroll‘s The Mad Gardener’s Song includes the lines “He thought he saw a Garden-Door / That opened with a key: / He looked again, and found it was / A double Rule of Three“
Quantum Electrodynamics and Planck-Scale, Rainer Collier, 28 Sep 2017 arXiv:1710.00618v Institute of Theoretical Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena, Germany
…a fine string is maintained in transverse vibration by connecting one of its extremities with the vibrating prong of a massive tuning-fork, the direction of motion of the point of attachment being parallel to the length of the string …the string may settle down into a state of permanent and vigorous vibration whose period is double that of the point of attachment.
Nonlinear dynamics: chaos are period doubling… intermittency, horseshoes and homoclinic orbits.
chaos is always regarded as intrinsic randomicity of determinate dynamical systems.
…attractor undergoes a period–doubling bifurcation which converts it from a period-1 to a period-2 attractor. This bifurcation is indicated by the forking of the curve
The -coordinate of the Poincaré section of a time-asymptotic orbit plotted against the quality-factor .
Doubly Special Relativity theory (DSR), loop quantum gravitation, the introduction of non-commutative geometries, the use of specially deformed Lorentz algebras, as well as several generalized uncertainty principles (GUP) in which the Planck momentum occurs.
Planck Length compared to the atom is like the atom compared to the Solar System. We have a lot to learn about the infinitesimal!
Key Dates for World 9P Initiated in private on September 5, 2019 Protected posting: Thursday, September 12, 2019 First-draft homepage: Monday, September 30, 2019 Most active editing: September 9 to October 5, 2019
Introduction. Prior to December 2011 the scientific-and-scholarly communities had not seen a base-2 chart of the universe from the Planck base units to the current time and size of the universe. It has 202 notations. Notation-199 holds the first billion years. Notation-188 holds the first million years. The first second comes within Notation-143. The first 64 notations are below the thresholds of measuring devices so basic logic, the formulas that define the Planck base units, all the necessary dimensionless constants, and the actual Planck-derived numerical units at each of the first 64 notations, should guide us.
Finite, Physical, Quantitative. Here are foundations to redefine the aether (or æther or ether). This æther is finite and physical yet beyond the reach of any possible measuring device. Quantum indeterminacy makes measuring impossible, yet here are the foundations of all measurements. Here are the foundations of all things physical. Here things are quantiative, yet we get the feelings of the qualitative.
We will find as many facts as possible, then within the structure of the first 64 notations, begin to make some guesses and postulations about the steps from simplicity to complexity. Because these numbers all originate from with the perfections of continuity, symmetry, and harmony, our most encompassing definition of the infinite, the first notations ostensibly define the finite-infinite transformation.
The formulas that define the Planck base units. First, we have the four formulas for the Planck base units. Don’t let those formulas confuse you. We’ll be taking them apart step by step. First, get visually familiar with each.
Planck’s constant: 6.62607015×10−34 J⋅s
Reduced Planck constant (H- bar): ħ = h/2π
These Planck base units are defined by dimensionless constants. Although every constant will eventually be studied until each becomes a friend, we start with the two constants knowingly shared by us all, π (pi) and c (the speed of light). The most simple dimensionless constant to shape space is pi, first, as a circle, then as spheres, then as sphere stacking, and then as the simple geometries generated from cubic-close packing of equal spheres.
A Primary Assumption. There are finite and infinite systems that : (1).can best be described as continuity (order), symmetry (relations), and harmony (dynamics).
What else can we assume? What about the Poincaré sphere? Could the polarization happen in the first doubling? When and how might the Fourier transform apply, even at these infinitesimal frequencies? What about Maxwell’s equations?
The first doubling could readily involve even more of the greats of mathematics, everyone from Leibniz (calculus, relational space and time), Euler (exponentiation), Gauss (beams, kernels, and Spherical Gauss-Laguerre Basis Function and Gauss‐Legendre algorithm), Langlands (automorphics), Laplace (operator on the 2‐sphere), Lorentz transformations, Witten (string/M-theory), Dijkgraaf (topological string partition function)… (yes, to be review, researched, and continued)
So we start with the sphere. We ask, “Is the simplest sphere the first manifestation of the physical?” Can the universe be populated by what we call the plancksphere? Is it the current expansion of the universe, the forward thrust of the earliest notations?”
My quick answer is, “Yes. Yes, and Yes.”
Within this model the æther is this forever changing domain, always expanding, the most-infinitesimal spheres from the first moment of time, plus a never-ending generation of planckspheres always filling the current notation.
Quite roughly, there are eight billion more years within this current notation. It is still “filling up” causing a sense of the directionality of time. And, “Yes” that conclusion flies in the face of many, possibly most — and probably all — current theories held by the many within our scholarly and scientific communities.
That steady stream of planckspheres blasting into the universe is a penultimate mystery. Mathematical logic is the only way we can visit there. My simple guess today is that there is a progression from circle to sphere, an infinitesimal circle with the qualities defined Planck base units and those currently understood qualities of spheres such as the Fourier transform.
In a figure of speech, “It’s a long way to Tipperary!” Much more to come….
Which is it: aether, æther, or ether? Currently the generally-accepted use is ether. However, the most unusual look and feel is æther. Our redefinition of this ether is such a fundamental shift, I will be using the archaic spelling, æther.
Here, we intuit that infinity is the qualitative concresence of continuity, symmetry and harmony while the finite is the quantitative conscresence.
Just think how infinitesimally smaller the plancksphere is when compared to a neutrino. If the first notations are part of the expansion of the universe right now, and each notation is involved, in some manner of speaking, of blasting the universe with an endless stream of planckspheres, what a different model of the universe we have!
All notations would be in some sense derivative and dependent.
It is a struggle to understand Notation 202 with a duration 10.9816 billion years! The sum total of all prior notations is also 10.9816 billion years! So, we are in the earliest part of Notation 202 and all of our common history is a very small part of 202. What happened 400,000 years ago to support human life?
Robert B. Laughlin, Nobel Laureate in Physics, endowed chair in physics, Stanford University, had this to say about ether in contemporary theoretical physics:
It is ironic that Einstein’s most creative work, the general theory of relativity, should boil down to conceptualizing space as a medium when his original premise [in special relativity] was that no such medium existed. The word ‘ether’ has extremely negative connotations in theoretical physics because of its past association with opposition to relativity. This is unfortunate because, stripped of these connotations, it rather nicely captures the way most physicists actually think about the vacuum. Relativity actually says nothing about the existence or nonexistence of matter pervading the universe, only that any such matter must have relativistic symmetry. It turns out that such matter exists. About the time relativity was becoming accepted, studies of radioactivity began showing that the empty vacuum of space had spectroscopic structure similar to that of ordinary quantum solids and fluids. Subsequent studies with large particle accelerators have now led us to understand that space is more like a piece of window glass than ideal Newtonian emptiness. It is filled with ‘stuff’ that is normally transparent but can be made visible by hitting it sufficiently hard to knock out a part. The modern concept of the vacuum of space, confirmed every day by experiment, is a relativistic ether. But we do not call it this because it is taboo.
Isaac Newton suggests the existence of an aether in the Third Book of Opticks (1st ed. 1704; 2nd ed. 1718): “Doth not this aethereal medium in passing out of water, glass, crystal, and other compact and dense bodies in empty spaces, grow denser and denser by degrees, and by that means refract the rays of light not in a point, but by bending them gradually in curve lines? …Is not this medium much rarer within the dense bodies of the Sun, stars, planets and comets, than in the empty celestial space between them? And in passing from them to great distances, doth it not grow denser and denser perpetually, and thereby cause the gravity of those great bodies towards one another, and of their parts towards the bodies; every body endeavouring to go from the denser parts of the medium towards the rarer?”
In the 19th century, luminiferous aether (or ether), meaning light-bearing aether, was a theorized medium for the propagation of light (electromagnetic radiation). However, a series of increasingly complex experiments had been carried out in the late 1800s like the Michelson-Morley experiment in an attempt to detect the motion of Earth through the aether, and had failed to do so. A range of proposed aether-dragging theories could explain the null result but these were more complex, and tended to use arbitrary-looking coefficients and physical assumptions. Joseph Larmor discussed the aether in terms of a moving magnetic field caused by the acceleration of electrons.
James Clerk Maxwell said of the aether, “In several parts of this treatise an attempt has been made to explain electromagnetic phenomena by means of mechanical action transmitted from one body to another by means of a medium occupying the space between them. The undulatory theory of light also assumes the existence of a medium. We have now to show that the properties of the electromagnetic medium are identical with those of the luminiferous medium.”
Hendrik Lorentz and George Francis FitzGerald offered within the framework of Lorentz ether theory a more elegant solution to how the motion of an absolute aether could be undetectable (length contraction), but if their equations were correct, Albert Einstein‘s 1905 special theory of relativity could generate the same mathematics without referring to an aether at all. This led most physicists to conclude that this early modern notion of a luminiferous aether was not a useful concept. Einstein however stated that this consideration was too radical and too anticipatory and that his theory of relativity still needed the presence of a medium with certain properties.
4:46 PM · Jan 22, 2020: We’re certainly not given much time on this earth. We’ve got to come to terms with that fact and when we know our time is close, settle down, make the rounds to say good-bye, “I love you” and “Thank you” and engage those last days with peace and joy.
ABSTRACT.Max Planck’s 1899 calculations for Planck Time and Planck Length were so precise that simple mathematics gave him the most accurate definition of the speed of light with the smallest possible statistical error at the earliest possible date. Planck Length divided by Planck Time is equal to299,792,422.79 meters/second if Planck Length is 1.616255×10-35 meters and Planck Time is 5.391247×10-44 seconds. The laboratory measurement in a vacuum would not be settled until 1975 and 1983: 299,792,458. Planck’s equations are a mathematical accounting for the first moment in time. To come up to the current time for the entire universe, we apply base-2 exponential notation. Within just 202 doublings we are at the age of the universe today, the Now. Between the 143rd and 144th notation, at just one second, the length is the distance light travels in a second. This chart is based on light. That 202nd notation is 10.9816 billion years. The 201st doubling is 5.4908 billion years, and the aggregate total of notations 1- to-200 is also 5.4908 billion years. If the universe is generally-accepted to be 13.81 billion years, about 2.8284 billion years of the 202nd notation has unfolded. Mathematically validated, the raw data of this chart needs deep analysis. Scholars from around the world are being invited to help us to evaluate the sanctity of its logic.
Introduction. Our base-2 chart from the Planck scale to the current age and size of the universe defines the longest, most-meaningful, continuity equations in the shortest number of steps or doublings. There is an order throughout our universe and here we find a basis for homogeneity. A planckscale, primordial version of Poincaré’s sphere is assumed to be the most-simple expression of Planck Length and Planck Time. Sphere stacking is introduced and the geometries of tetrahedrons and octahedrons emerge. There are now several layers of relations that are best described by symmetry functions. Here we find a basis for isotropy.
The most basic functions of the universe begin to emerge: the Lorentz transformations, Poincaré spheres and period-doubling bifurcations. There is a convergence of formulas in what has been improperly described as a singularity. The dynamics of these interacting symmetries are best described by harmonic analyses, harmonic series and Fourier transform. There is a time and place for every dimensionless constant.
The first ten notations build on each other and are the foundations for all that follow.
Using base-2 exponentiation. There are just 202 notations that encapsulate the universe from the first moment of time, Planck Time, to this moment in time, the Now, approximately 13.81 billion years later. Of the 10.9816 billion years of the 202nd notation, about 2.82 billion years has become active. The 201st notation is 5.490 billion years and all the parameters which define it are active. Every notation is always active.
Continuities. The most-simple, most-used dimensionless constant, π (pi), is never-ending, never-repeating, always the same, a simple ratio and a number that has been carried out trillions of spaces. It is a dimensionless constant like no other. Circles and spheres take on a shape, size, dimensionality, and even a mass and energy. Part of π (pi) does not. It remains dimensionless. That quality of pi, continuity-order, is assumed to be what defines the infinite and infinity.
Symmetries. At the same time, a hypostatic topology emerges. With real numbers, all extensions of the Planck base units by doublings, the symmetries of circles, spheres, and sphere stacking emerge. From sphere stacking, tetrahedrons and octahedrons emerge. With just these two Platonic solids, the other geometries unfold. It is all hypostatic simply because it cannot be measured directly. It is all happening below our thresholds for measurement.
Harmonies. With continuity and symmetry as the core of this cosmology and ontology, the dream of Pythagoras, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Einstein, Wilczek and so many others — the harmony of the universe — is realized within a hypostatic domain between the planckscale and the CERN -scale of measurements.
Finite-Infinite. That quality of π (pi), symmetry-relations, is assumed to be what defines the infinite and infinity. This finite-infinite relation is a primary real. Continuity-symmetry-harmony are manifest within the finite, within the infinite, and within the bridge that connects the two.
Everything, everywhere, for all time. Because everything builds on each other, the first notation may well be “behaving” the same as it did within the very initial instant. The progression through to the 196th notation, has a cumulative total of 300 million years. These notations provide data that is not available in any other manner within science today.
Work is underway to interpret this base-2 or “quiet expansion” data in light of current work within cosmology including big bang cosmology and the beginnings of large structure formation. This model gives us everything we have now, but cleans up basic problems and opens new avenues for exploration…