The original scales based on 201+ base-2 notations and big bang epochs


Go a working summary here. Go to all the numbers (horizontally-scrolled chart).

This image shows an approximate correspondence between the Exponential Universe and the big bang epochs as currently understood by thought leaders within big bang cosmology.  The first three epochs of the big bang cosmology are guesses. There is no consistent mathematics and logic to support their claims.

This image also shows the finite-infinite nexus. Where these two lines cross is the beginning of pi and its continuity-symmetry-harmony. Always dynamic and always present, it is the value equation.


  1. The originating page titled, “A Quiet Expansion of the Universe”
  2. We were developing a STEM tool: Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics.
  3. The current homepage is usually the most relevant:
  4. A homepage asking Stephen Hawking and Alan Guth to take a look.
  5. Neil Turok on Stephen Hawking’s big bang
  6. Flooding the Big Bang Theory
  7. The Lucasian Professors
  8. The Chart, the charts

Base-2 notation from the Planck base units to to this day in 202 doublings outlines the universe and is the start of a new Standard Model that unites Cosmology and Particle Physics.

Kristina Starklofft

Archives of the Max Planck Society
Archiv der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Boltzmannstr. 14
14195 Berlin, Germany

Courses & Lectures
Royal Society, Senior Fellow in Residence, The Kavli Royal Society International Centre
YouTube:  Dec 18, 2017

Within this website:

First email: 21 January 2020

Dear Dr. Kristina Starklofft:

Congratulations on all that you doing to preserve the best among our scholars.
I have a deep and abiding affection for Max Planck and his base units.

MaxPlanck1947Is it your office where the Vetter printing of Max Planck hangs today? Does your museum/library gift shop sell a replica?
So entirely delightful. That it was painted in my birth year, 1947, is sweet. That it is an artistic image, probably the last prior to his death, gives it even more vibrancy.

How very special.

May I use it with our website?
I might include it within any one of the following pages:

Pilot Programs Proposed for 16 USA Communities

Any form of scientific elitism wastes valuable time and energy…

Max Planck opened the question, “What is a quanta of energy?”

Recognizing a key insight by Max Planck


Thank you so very much.

Most sincerely,


Max Planck, 1947, by Ewald Vetter, painter, Max-Planck Gesellschaft

PS. With every use, the picture would have the two line description
and the picture itself link to your website. -BEC

#1 of 202 base-2 notations that encapsulate our universe

Chart | Homepage | Notations | Please Note: Only those links — words and numbers — highlighted in yellow are active.
0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7| 8| 9|10|11|12|13|14|15|16|17|18|19|20|21|22|23|24|25|26|27|28|29|30|31|32|33|34|35|36|37|38|39
80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93 | 94| 95 | 96 | 97 | 98|99|100|101|102|103|104|105|106|107|108|109
200|201|202|Originating homepage.

A Study of Notation #1
The Numbers: A doubling of the Planck base units.

The first doubling
of Planck Time 
The first doubling
of Planck Length
The first doubling
of Planck Mass
The first doubling
of Planck Charge
1.07823×10−43 (s)
3.2324×10-35 (m)
2.4268×1034 (kg)
3.7510×10-18 (C)
8, maybe 64

Background:  The chart begins with the Planck base units within Notation #0, assumed to be the nexus of transformation between the finite and infinite. All the numbers, the ratios of universals and constants, especially the never-ending and never-repeating numbers of pi (defining each of the Planck units), are present. It begs for answers to so many questions:
• Is an infinitesimal sphere the first manifestation of something in the universe?
• If not spheres, then what?
•  If spheres, does it follow that the first natural function is the stacking of spheres?
• Does cubic close packing of equal spheres begin instantaneously?
Is there any other way that this mix of numbers with actual physical dimensionality begins to build?”
•  Is there one or are there many initial thrusts of the universe?
•  In these first instants, are there multiple tracks of development? Are there natural groupings of the first spheres? Is each an attractor or repeller What about the formula that is driving each Planck number? What about the formulas that drive transcendental or irrational numbers and the other dimensionless physical constants?
•  Does each track generate “point-free” vertices or are both redefined? Freeman Dyson (IAS) would say “eight” dimensional analysis how many point free vertices become available within the first doubling from Notation #0 to Notation #1?

Observation: Within today’s scientific work, there are measurable units of charge and mass that are smaller than the Planck Charge and Planck Mass. It begs the question, “What are the implications?

Hypothesis: Continuity, symmetry and harmony manifest within infinitesimal units of space and time, yet within parameters that measure charge and mass are measurable units that are smaller and these appear to exist within the modulus-or-nexus of transformation between the finite and infinite.

Review:  The three known measurements that are smaller than Planck Charge:
•  5.34×10−20 C The charge of down, strange and bottom quarks
•  1.068×10−19 C The charge of up, charm and top quarks
•  1.602×10−19 C The elementary charge, e, i.e. the negative charge on a single electron or the positive charge on a single proton

Questions abound:
•  If there can be no pre-Planck Length and pre-Planck Time, are these ratios the first actual finite values within the transformation nexus between the finite and infinite?
•  Could these be the earliest possible measurements of the radii and diameters of circles and spheres?

The many measurements of mass that are smaller than Planck mass:  What are these numbers telling us about the nature of mass? From Wikipedia: “Unlike other physical quantities, mass-energy does not have an a priori expected minimal quantity, as is the case with time or length, or an observed basic quantum as in the case of electric charge. Planck’s law allows for the existence of photons with arbitrarily low energies. Consequently, there can only ever be an experimental lower bound on the mass of a supposedly massless particle; in the case of the photon, this confirmed lower bound is of the order of 3×10−27 eV = 10−62 kg.”  (19 September 2017: Here is yet another fundamental challenge to the logic of the Big Board-little universe.  We will just have to take one step at a time!)

Although the Planck mass scale is somewhat disconcerting, the top end of our scale is 1.399×1052kg within notation 202.  When that number is more carefully calculated for the current time, it will be closer to 4.4506×1052 kg, the mass of the observable universe as estimated by NASA.  The National Solar Observatory calculates it to be closer to 6×1052 kilograms.

“Just A Second now.

More Observations: Of the chart’s 202 notations the first moment of creation is Notation #0. But rather surprisingly, the very first second of the universe is out there. It requires no less than 143 doublings. Remember the Wheat & Chessboard stories.  That’s just 64 doublings.  To get to that first second of this universe requires two complete doublings of the squares of the chessboards (128 doublings) plus 15 more! It falls between notation 143 and 144. [8] That is well over two-thirds of the way through the entire chart.
Though the first second is a key, the first ten steps or doublings are even more key.  These first ten notations (a really real Big Ten) are on a scale that heretofore has had no meaning for scholars (or for me), and this Big Ten has never been studied per se by the academic community. I believe it is where we must start.
A consideration: Doesn’t it appear that time is being redefined? It looks less like an absolute duration (Newtonian time) and more like a processing time. Perhaps it is a bit more like exascale computing [9] (which would be painfully slow by comparison) than that which is measured and then fads into some whispery the past.
Memories. As a child we would play games and have to count to ten, 1001, 1002, 1003… each count approximating a second. Dub-Lub. Could we say that these first 144-to-145 notations are the initial pulse of the universe? Just that quickly an exquisitely-deep complexity comes alive. Though we’ll attempt to make sense of each notation, notation by notation, it seems that all those notations, 1-145, or The First Three Seconds, should be taken as a whole. Of course, that title is a take-off from the work of Nobel physicist, Steven Weinberg, who wrote The First Three Minutes in 1977. I am sure Weinberg could not have imagined that there are over 150 doublings of the Planck units to get to his pivotal action!
The first year, of course, is a light year, and it is between notations 168 and 169.  The universe is at about the size of our solar system.  Perhaps the first year of one’s own life provides a good analogy. I speculate that we will all know what we have to know within those 169 notations. Thereafter, all the details that follow pick up on the history that is academic research and knowledge.

A little summary of notation #1

First we have the Planck scale with Planck Time (and light) built into all the equations. Then, the transcendental, irrational and incommensurable numbers have a thrust that is woven within the thrust of the Planck Charge, which is woven within the thrust within the four forces of nature — gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force, and the weak force. Then, there are dynamics of all the other non-ending, non-periodic numbers such as pi and Euler’s number. Some of these were identified in a posting about numbers.

Sphere to tetrahedron-octahedron couplet
Imagine this dynamic from the beginning of time where every sphere is pushing out the next.

Today’s visualization of notation #1 generating spheres since the first moment of time to this very day, hour, second, nanosecond, attosecond, yoctosecond, right to the infinitesimal interval known as Planck Time. I see this notational sheet actually layering on top of itself as imaged with Thomas Hales analysis of Kepler’s stacking of cannonballs and it literally creates a symmetry between today and the first moment of creation defining the emergence of Notation #2 (and all subsequent notations) and the definition of the moment within Notation 202. Note that the processing time for each subsequent layer is 50% slower than the prior layer. That could account for dynamics within close-packing of the spheres. Also, as the notations increase so do the circles and spheres from the earlier notation.

What a wild-and-crazy image that is!

To keep track of all the details, I have started a compilation for each notation, [14] Though it is very incomplete, it is a place to park ideas, comments, questions and insights, so I ask you to please be patient, however, your suggestions may prove especially powerful. Please know that you are always welcomed here.

There is much more to come. This is a working first draft.

The Speed of Light Is “Close Enough” Using Just the Planck Units, then applying Base-2 Exponential Notation to Planck Time and Planck Length

Note: This article was first published in March 2015. This version has been updated several times in 2017 and 2018. The original version is preserved within the website (where it was first published): Small Business School.

Précis. By using Planck Length-and-Planck Time and the simplest mathematics (multiplication by 2), a speed of light is determined within each of 202 base-2 notations from Planck Time to the Age of the Universe. The experimentally-defined speed of light is 299,792,458 meters/second in a vacuum. Planck Length divided by Planck time equals 299,792,422.79 meters/second (using the SI units — these new SI base units were redefined in 2019 — where Planck Length  is 1.616255(18)×10-35 meters and Planck Time is 5.391247(60)×10-44 seconds). At one light second, the Big Board-little universe data is off by less than .1% from the experimental data.

Calculations. Yes, to date, the simple calculation, dividing Planck Length by Planck Time, renders 299,792,422.79 meters/second. In our initial count, over 160 notations are over 299,793,000 meters/second. The lowest calculation is within notation 76 which is 299,759,426.55 meters/second.

The fastest or highest calculation is within Notation 16 where it is at 299,982,157.27 meters/second.   The variable range, from a high of 299,982,157 to a low of 299,759,426, is just 222,720.72 m/second.

Ten percent of the total is 29,979,245.8 m/second. One percent is 2,997,245.8 meters per second. One-tenth of one percent is 299,724.58 meters per second.

Conclusion: The variations on the speed of light throughout all 202 notations is less than .1% of the speed of light measured in the laboratory in a vacuum.

Planck Numbers. These most-fascinating, magical numbers have been questioned since Max Planck introduced them in 1899. Largely ignored, the place of the Planck Base Units did not become a focus of the scientific community until Frank Wilczek (MIT, Nobel laureate, 2004) wrote a series of articles, Scaling Mt. Planck (Physics Today) back in 2001 and 2002 [1].

Yet, even today, these numbers are still questioned by many.

Looking for some boundary conditions within which to work, our New Orleans high school geometry class engaged the Planck Base Units as a starting point to construct their model of the universe [2]. Their primary operating assumption was that continuity and symmetry are the foundational concepts for universal constructions. As a geometry class they were looking to see how they could tile-and-tessellate the universe [3]. Our group found a bit of a correspondence between data derived from experimentation and data derived purely by mathematics using Planck Length and Planck Time.

There are three calculations that were particularly noted in the process of developing this base-2 chart of the basic Planck Units to their largest known values, particularly the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe.

 1: The universe can be contained within 202 doublings of the Planck Length and the Planck Time [4]. An initial fact of applied Planck mathematics is that the entire known universe can be ordered in 202 necessarily-related groups by using base-2 exponential notation. The chart is simple to calculate; it was a project that started in a high school geometry class. Unlike Kees Boeke’s base-10 work in 1957 (also in a high school), this chart begins with the Planck Units and gets its order through the Planck Units and the base-2 progression as well as the observed-and-imputed, simple, embedded geometries [5] which adds another dimension of order, i.e. symmetry.

2: Between notations notation 143 and 144 is a light second.

Experimentally defined over the years [6], the small-scale and human-scale notations are in some manner of speaking archetypal. At one second we are looking at the raw universe just one second old. If the entire universe is dynamically adjusting itself, nothing is static, all notations are dynamic and active, we can begin to hypothesize at which notation visible light makes its appearance and then study the simple mathematics to discern why light speeds up or slows down within each notation.

3: There is much more to learn about the nature of light.

Though as noted earlier, the Planck Base Units were virtually ignored until MIT professor Frank Wilczek began his earnest study of them in Physics Today (June 2001) [9]. C. Alden Mead, who upon reading the Wilczek article, commented in the “Letters” section about his work back in 1959 that argued for the use of the Planck Length. Wilczek acknowledged that Mead had been an early pioneer to advocate for the use of the Planck Length [10] as part of experimental data.

It also seems that this approach of our New Orleans high school geometry class is a first. Senior editors of Wikipedia told me that they could no longer publish an article on their site because it was “original research.” Though readily admitting that this work is idiosyncratic, we have persevered since December 2011. By applying base-2 exponential notation, first we found no less than 202 doublings or groups. By dividing the entire scale in half, we found ourselves right in the middle of it all, a Human-Scale universe. By dividing in thirds, there was a natural division between the small-scale, human-scale, and large-scale universe. Within each scale and within each group, we know that there is much more to be uncovered. We have just started to open this door and are working to discover more.[11]

In 2002, Wilczek reflects, “It therefore comes to seem that Planck’s magic mountain, born in fantasy and numerology, may well correspond to physical reality.” [12]

Here our students and teachers conclude, “The space-time continuum is really real even when using discrete steps.”


[1] PHYSICS TODAY, 2001 & 2002
[2] https:/
[3] https:/
[8] https:/
[10]…/Alden-Repsonse323.pdf From American Institute of Physics, New York, NY, PHYSICS TODAY, S-0031-9228-0111-220-2, 2001 p15
[12] , PHYSICS TODAY, August 2002

26 faces of time within 202 notations that encapsulate our universe

Left Yellow Arrow
Right Yellow Arrow


You’re experiencing this moment, the Now.
Are you experiencing all 26 faces of time?

I answer, “Yes, you are.” by Bruce E. Camber a first draft (your comments welcomed)

1. The Now2028. Day16015. Picosecond – 104Informal, unofficial
2. Billion YR1999. Hour15516. Femtosecond – 9422. Mecosecond – 34
3. Million YR18910. Minute15017. Attosecond –8423. Duecosecond – 25
4. Thousand YR179 11. Second 14418. Zeptosecond 74 24. Trecosecond15
5. Year (YR)16912. Millisecond 13419. Yoctosecond6425. Tetrecosecond 5
6. Month16513. Microsecond – 12420. Rontosecond-54SI Certified (BIPM):
7. Week 16314. Nanosecond-11421. Quectosecond – 4426. PlanckTime 0

1017 1014 1010 107 106 104 1 10−3 10−6 10−9 10−12 10−15 10−18 10−21 10−24 10−27 10−30 10−34 10−36 10−39 10-42 10−44

Preface. This article starts with this moment in time — yes, right Now — and then works back to the very first unit of time, called PlanckTime. The question is, “Might you also be experiencing the other 25 faces at the same time?” I say, “Yes, necessarily so.” To that end, our focus today is on the continuity-symmetry-and-harmony of time. We postulate that at Notation-0, the Planck base units generate infinitesimal spheres as defined by pi (π) and within a finite-infinite relation. The imperfections (fluctuations) of this emergence of infinitesimal spheres are also a key part of this study.

This article will be a bit long and it will take awhile, possibly a few years of updates and recompiles, before it is finished. This first iteration has 26 pages of references each associated with each of the 26 faces of time. There are just 21 SI-certified numbers of time. Four of the pages do not even have an officially-recognized name from our international governing bodies (BIPM, CODATA, ISO and NIST).

This article is a sequel to the last homepage, Simple Model, and to our 2017 NASA study, the UniverseClock. That study was essentially based on determining the number of seconds that define our universe. Although it starts at PlanckTime (or the PlanckSecond), it immediately went to the first whole second which is within Notation-144 (the eleventh face of time within this study) and then to this very day and time.

The Now contains all 26 first faces and every possible unit of time.

  1. The Now: Within Notation-202, it is always today, this hour, this minute and this second. Although at any moment in time, humans do not compute must faster than a millisecond (even during sleep), if all time is now and all notations are eternally building on each other, simple logic tells us that we are experiencing the other 25 faces of time and each is contributing to our experience. If all of human history is within the Now and it starts at the PlanckSecond over 13.81 billion years ago, even that first PlanckSecond and today’s PlanckSeconds are contributing to each of our Now experiences. Also, if the experience of the “First Billion” years is shared by every living thing — our unique experiences are all within an infinitesimal slice (arguably only about 400,000± years) of Notation-202 (which is 10.98 billion years) — we all have substantially more in common than not. It is obvious to me that we’ve got to stop all the nonsense and bring on a deeper understanding of continuity-symmetry-and-harmony, the essence of time and both the finite-and-infinite.

    Just a few working notes about this page: I said to Hattie, “I bit off a bit more than I can chew with this homepage. I’ve never thought about the simultaneous experience of every possible face of time. There’s a certain logic to it, but it’s daunting.” This page takes what the Loop Quantum Gravity people say, “all time is now,” more seriously than most.

    Each face of time reminds us to be part of the universe in a different way. Each face gives us a different feel of our role in the universe. There are only eight of these faces that are even part of our daily vocabulary. There are four faces of time that are yet to be formally named; nobody really knows them. So, let me try to introduce you to all these faces of time. There are twelve you know. Eight you know well, but today you hopefully will see another part of those other 12 and learn a little about all 26! -BEC

  2. The First Billion Years: Every notation has a range. Notation-199 spans between Notation-198 and Notation 200. Not everything in the universe is a billion years or more. So, let us ask the question, is there an actual moment in space-time when things turns from 999 million years to one billion years? Of course, that moment in time will always be closer to one notation than the other. The actual number of seconds to make up a billion years is 43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds. The duration of this PlanckTime doubling is 1.3727 billion years. Notation 198 is 21,659,118,009,280,000 seconds and its duration is about 686.806 million years. That 4.331×1016 seconds is very-very close and within Notation 199.

    One billion years is hard to conceive. To put it into perspective, the earth has been calculated to be 4.54 billion years old (plus or minus about 50 million years). A billion years is known as an aeon; the next smaller group of time is a million years. So, a billion, a thousand-thousand-thousand, is a very long duration. One way to think about it is, “More galaxies!” Obviously, our solar system, older than earth, is estimated to be 4.6 billion years. The Milky Way, estimated to be 13.6 billion years in duration, was here before the Solar System.

    Blackholes or dark mater? Once the first 64 notations are acknowledged by academia and science, we can begin to straighten out the range of speculations around blackholes. The studies and debates about the dynamics of blackholes have been unwittingly hamstrung without a grasp of those notations. This page is part of my earnest struggle to begin to grasp its meaning.

    There are places in this universe that are turning a billion years old right now. What does it look like? How is it building on the prior notation, then all prior notations, and then with all the more current or “newer” notations? To attempt to enter such a space-time will hopefully evolve over time. Currently, all we can do is ask questions and think about it.

    Whereas the PlanckTime doublings are the consistent measurement across the entire grid, the top level labelling changes. From the PlanckTime to the first second at Notation-144, the labelling is in seconds. Then it changes according to the categorizations of our solar system and the naming conventions of humanity. Then it becomes consistently based on the year from Notation-169 to Notation 199.

  3. The First Million Years: Within Notation-189, we find the first million years. Notation 188 is 2.1151×1013 seconds while Notation-189 is at 4.2302×1013 seconds. There are 31,556,952,000,000 seconds in a million years (that’s 31.556955 trillion seconds) which is just a bit closer to Notation-189 than Notation-188. It is good to recognize these natural groupings, Notations 199, 189, 179, and 169 based on years. The next group of numbers — 165 for a month, 163 for a week, 160 for a day, 155 for an hour, and 150 for a minute — are all human perception based on our solar dynamics. Each is basic and defines who we are. Yet, those notations are “the firsts” for the universe. The next group will be based on seconds. From Notation 144, the first second, it goes by tens down to 34, and then Notations 25, 15, and 5. Please remember that this is a first pass at seeing the universe in terms of Planck Time and the “natural” time groupings that followed.

    In this model, all the notations are always active. There is always something turning a billion and a million years old. We use these firsts to remind us of the full dynamics of the universe at any one moment in time.

    We would not see the universe as it was in the very first million years. It would not be identical to how that domain looks today because it will have had incorporated 13,810 million years of relational changes (expansion or growth).

    Much more to come… We will be back!

  4. The First Thousand Years: Within Notation-179, Notation 178 is 20,655,744,561 seconds and Notation 179 is 41,311,489,123 seconds. Called a millennium, the first 1000 years is 31,556,952,000 seconds. The first thousand years falls just within notation-179.

    Our history is naturally cast within thousand years cycles. You could think back and ask, “What was happening in 1023?” But, that would be a history lesson. Is there an eidetic or archetypal, 1000 year point in the universe when it goes from being 999 years to 1000 years? What would that time-and-space look like? It raises more questions. The scholars looking at the data from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) actually believe the images they are seeing are the first look and feel of the universe 300,000 years after the universe had its very beginning moments. Is it? Or, is it as the universe looks today at about the 300,000 year time-and-space? That’s a very odd question and part of the puzzle.

    So, yes, our history is naturally cast within thousand years cycles. We study our history in blocks of 1000 years. At any point in time, we can imagine what it was like 1000 years ago. But, that’s not what we are asking. If indeed all time is now, the question is, “What are we looking at with redshift data? …with carbon-14 dating? Our oldest records of human-like species is over 2 million years old. In the time frames we are discussing, that’s just a very small sliver of Notation-202.

    We are just opening up this discussion about “all time is now.” Ultimately it is all based on that first infinitesimal sphere, the first manifestation of a thing at Notation-0. If these spheres are being generated at about 539 tredecillion spheres per second and they literally make the universe by filling it at extraordinary densities, we have a new definition of a blackhole and we have yet another issue to rethink. So, if the notational function is just a counting function, what is space-and-time? Questions, questions, questions… can we assume or hypothesize or hypostatize that two infinitesimal spheres are within Notation-1, four in Notation-2, eight in Notation-3, sixteen in Notation-4, and 32 in Notation-5? That count is kept on line 8 of our horizontally-scrolled chart and it would be shifted two notations to the left. Much more to come...

  5. The First Year: Within Notation-169, we find the first year. Notation-168 is 20,171,625.54 seconds and Notation 169 is 40,343,251.097 seconds. Using 365.2425 days per year and 86,400 seconds per day, there are 31,556,952 seconds in that first year. So, the first year falls within Notation-169.

    The first year is important for everything. Yet, at Notation-169, it is only the first year of the universe. I postulate that the first 169 notations begin with eidetic structure within the earlier notations and here they become archetypal. Plato’s eidos and Karl Jung’s archetypal will be redefined with the mathematics and physics of Langlands programs and operadic algebras in homotopy theory and string theory, LQG, SUSY, CST, SSM, and others. Every prime notation opens possibilities for new applications and configurations.

    Time and space are redefined within this model. Although all time is now, it is also part of the nature of the definitions of functions of spheres. To keep this page. relatively short, new developments will be entered into the page just for a notation, i.e. Notation-169 to attempt to keep this page from getting much too long. Those pages are in the early stages of development.

  6. The First Month: Within Notation-165, using 30.436875 days per month (based on a year of 365.2425 days divided by 12 months), there are 86,400 seconds per day and an average of 2,629,746 seconds per month. It is within Notation-165 that is 2,521,453.19 seconds.

    The first month and each of the eleven
    months that follow has a face. Business people know about Month-End Closings of their financial books. You can catch things before they get out of control. Yet, here we are just thinking of how the first month of the universe might manifest. The first weeks, have given our universe a sense of itself and its emerging rules and regulations or its continuity, symmetry and harmonic relations. Eidetic structure perhaps is now best described as archetypal. In an earlier study projected next to the epochs of the big bang theory, we would be entering their photon epoch which we would redeploy as the photon processes, an ongoing part of the unfolding universe.

  7. The First Week: Within Notation-163, also a prime number, we have one sense, the universe has another. This first week of the universe — just look at the numbers — is a very different place than we had ever imagined. Here is the first week, the very first week of the universe’s coming into existence. Could we locate such a place? Surely, within every family with a new baby, they know what a week is. Even now, there are plenty of discussions about what a week from conception is and the meaning and value of each week thereafter. There is a week of all the new growth of living things. Do all things that are just a week from there first moment of beingness, share a “same space” of any kind? Is there an eidetic structure for a week? Is there an archetypal structure for a week? How could that be? Is this cluster of seconds, any different from any other second of time?

    Each of the four-to-five weeks of a month has a face.

    We are just starting our explorations of eidetic forms and structure and archetypes.

  8. The First Day: For living things, each day defines a period between being asleep and being awake. For inanimate or inorganic things, is there any differentiation? Are all the minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, and years blended? The only things that differentiate that finely are those things with some kind of consciousness. Notation-160 is therefore a distinction between the organic and inorganic. Is the parsing of time within seven days a week significant or a function of being within a solar system?

    Do all things that are just a day from their first moment of beingness, share the “same space” of any kind? Is there an eidetic structure for a day? Is there an archetypal structure for a day?

    Of course, the very first day of the universe has a face
    . There is such a thing as “the first day of everything” but it is certainly not shared by everything. Is there any part of this universe that has a “first day” that is shared by everything?

  9. The First Hour: Yes, Notation-155 is another distinction between the organic and inorganic. Is the parsing of time by hour significant or just another function of being within a solar system?

    Do all things that are just an hour from their first moment of beingness, share a “same space” of any kind? Is there an eidetic structure for an hour? Is there an archetypal structure for a hour?

    The very first day of the universe, of course, has a face. There is such a thing as “the first hour of everything” but it is certainly not shared by everything, everywhere for all time. Is there any part of this universe that has a “first hour” that is shared by everything?

    That is face of the hour that we are in search to define uniquely

  10. The First Minute: Also, Notation 150 is a refinement and a distinction that probably is only appreciated by organic things. Might there be a possible parsing of time by the minute that makes a difference within the universe? Do all things that are just a minute from their first moment of beingness, share a “same space” of any kind? Is there an eidetic structure for a minute? Is there an archetypal structure for a minute? We know it if organic but only as a measurement of the spaces between a breath of air or conversion of energy to sustain life.

    The very first minute of the universe has a face of some kind. But, is there such a thing as “the first minute of everything” that is shared by everything, everywhere for all time? Is it eidetic and archetypal? What part of this universe has a “first minute” that is shared by everything?

    This is face of the minute that we are in search to define uniquely

  11. The First Second: Notation-144 (143 – .60116 seconds, 144 – 1.2023 seconds).

    There is definitely a face of the second: 539 tredecillion spheres per second
    . The logic of those 539 tredecillion spheres per second has been studied and argued in many places within this website. If there is one infinitesimal sphere per unit of PlanckTime and Planck Length, it is a calculation of a very different cosmological constant. The universe “as-it-is” is wall to wall with infinitesimal spheres. In these earliest faces of time, the densities and speed-of-transactions would require the greatest efficiencies. There would be no room or precedent for fluctuations. The universe would be perfect, exceedingly smooth, perhaps for millions, even billions of years. We’ll re-examine the densities and ask questions of the experts, both scholars and scientists who would know when the densities become low enough enough for the most simple five-tetrahedral structure to manifest. Then would come the five-octahedral, or ten or twenty tetrahedral complexes might manifest and become systemic. Some experts in the studies of neutron stars may be able to tell us.

  12. The First Millisecond: Within Notation- 134 (1.1741×10-3 s) 1000 milliseconds – one thousandth of second.

    For most people, a millisecond is meaningless. It obviously needs a huge and important face within our life. If you love the horses and races of any kind, you know the millisecond. It is the unit of the race. It is also the interface between humans and machines. It is also the edge of perception of living things. It is anticipated that it is the edge of consciousness, and the beginning of the finite-infinite relations. Perhaps it is the edge between “the perfect” and “imperfect” or between that which has fluctuations and indeterminacy and that which does not. The densities of the infinitesimal spheres is low enough that the five tetrahedral gap that Aristotle missed can now manifest. The suspicion is that they do not manifest eidetically or even archetypally. At some point the densities of the infinitesimal spheres will be low enough that five tetrahedral structure can manifest systemically. There is a domain when free will can overcome the thrust for continuity-symmetry-harmony.

  13. The First Microsecond Within Notation 124, (1.1466×10-6 s or 10−6) or a millionth of a second.

    A millionth of a second needs a face; it is beyond imagination so we have a lot of stretching to do.
    Those who work with lasers and computers certainly know about microseconds, nanoseconds. and picoseconds. We will defer to them and those involved in artificial intelligence and the nature of intelligence. All of our discussion are in light of continuity-symmetry-harmony of the earliest infinitesimal spheres. That is a heretofore unrecognized perfection within physical space-and-time. The universe has barely begun and it already has virtually unlimited possibilities for complexity.

  14. The First Nanosecond: (10−9) Notation-114 (one billionth of a second), 1.1197×10-9 seconds, Notation-115 is 2.2395×10-9 seconds, Notation-116 is 4.479×10-9 seconds, and Notation-117 is 8.958×10-9 seconds.

    That billionth of a second has many faces, yet its most prominent face is a computer chip.
    Artificial intelligence became mature with the nanosecond, one billionth of a second. It was young when just within the microsecond, a millionth of a second. At one time, we thought the human capacity for differentiation was the millisecond or one thousandth of a second. Today, we are postulating that humans also function within the nanosecond range all the way down into the quectosecond domain and even further into the next four domains that have only been provisionally named.

  15. The first Picosecond: 10−12 Notation-104 (1.0935×10-12 s) one trillionth of a second.

    A trillionth of a second has a huge face
    within our technologies today. We will exegete that statement over time because it is also the archetypal domain for so much of life, especially human life.

  16. The First Femtosecond: (10-15) or one quadrillionth of a second. Within Notation 94 1.0678×10-15s ( 2.1357×10-15s, 4.2715×10-15s, 8.543×10-15s).

    The Femtosecond has a face; it was first given life by Egyptian scholar, Ahmed Zewail, while a professor at Caltech, he was the first to calculate the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy. For that work he he was awarded the Nobel prize in 1999. Femtolaser surgery was the next big breakthrough and the rest is history. For those of us outside this domain, we need to know that femtosecond processing is part of who we are. We can’t feel it, but we know it. We call it intuition. It’s an “aha” moment. In 2018 Donna Strickland and Gerald Mourou received the Nobel Prize in Physics for methods of generating high-intensity, ultrashort femtosecond optical pulses.

  17. The First Attosecond: (10-18) Within Notation-84 (1.0428×10-18s)

    The Attosecond became part of this study through the Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik
    in Garching, Germany. Its director, Prof. Dr. Ferenc Krausz and colleague,  Dr. Vladislav S. Yakovlev, were the first to locate the attosecond within Notation-84. They rather quickly moved on and defined the Zeptosecond as well.

    This is so much more to come because we postulate that this is the archetypal domain of periodic table and so much of the chemistry of life.

    When a word begins to be used within popular culture, you know its meaning is being appreciated, even if not fully understood. A case in point is the DC Comics superhero, Flash, where within one of their user groups the attosecond is discussed and there is even a screen rant about it all by Justin Epps (February 2023)!

  18. The first Zeptosecond, (10-21) Within Notation-74 (1.01841×10-21s).

    The Zeptosecond, a trillionth of a billionth of a second needs a bigger face. It is the active domain for so much research today and it is in the archetypal domain of so much of physics and the Standard Model for Particle Physics. Quantum computing and superconductivity… For more

  19. The First Yoctosecond (10-24) Within Notation-64 (64 – 9.945×10-25s, 65 – 1.989×10-24s, 66 – 3.978×10-24s, 67 -7.95630×10-24s).

    An Yoctosecond needs a face
    . Beyond imagination, a trillionth of a trillionth of a second, there are a few scientists who are engaging it seriously. Although the domain of very specialized teams within physics and mathematics, we look at it in the scope of all 202 notations. Our analysis places the Yoctosecond on the cusp between particle physics and quantum physics. We might want to refer to it as beginning of an archetypal domain of transformations. Although we’ll be working to define what that means, in September 2021, Yuri Shvyd’ko and Peter Schindelmann reported, On yoctosecond science, and stirred the pot of imagination.

  20. The first Rontosecond (10−27) (Notation-54) (9.71228×10-28s, 1.942456×10-27s, 3.8849×10-27s).

    The Rontosecond needs a face.
    Within Wikipedia, this fraction of a second has been added to their listings but it has only been described as 300 rs: The mean lifetime of W and Z bosons. That designation will be meaningful to a small population of scientists. Within this website, we’ll try to give it many more flavors, colors, dimensions, and textures. Within this space, it is for systems theory, all the possible archetypes for systems. It’ll be a most fascinating area to develop. We may use some of the ongoing work of Ervin Laszlo and the historical work of Wittgenstein.

  21. The first Quectosecond (10−30) (Notation-44) (9.4846×10-31s, 45 – 1.8969×10-30s. There is no description of the quectosecond within Wikipedia. It is, for now, just listed.

    BIPM: At their meeting from 15-18 November 2022 in Paris, the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) of the International Commission of Weights and Measures (BIPM) adopted Resolution 3 making it a globally accepted name for the range 10−30 to 10−32 of the infinitesimal scale of time.

    Relations. Now, the Quectosecond also needs a face. We began thinking about it when we developed our desktop chart of the universe: In the first column and tenth columns the notations are in groups of ten. Looking at the first column, it begins with Notation-1 for the Planck Length. Today we would have that define Notation-0 as the instantiation of the first moment of space-time. Notation-1 would begin when the second and third spheres manifest. The sphere count is kept on the eighth line of data on the horizontally-scrolled chart. It is earlier work and all that data should be shifted to the left by two cells. Notwithstanding, by 10-30 seconds, we are in the range of what we defined to be “Relations.” Here within this domain we would turn to mathematicians of Langlands programs and operadic algebras in homotopy theory and to the physicists in string theories, LQG, SUSY, CST, SSM, and others.

  22. (10−33) Informally known as a Mecosecond It is Notation-34 (9.262×10-34 seconds, 35 – 1.85×10-33 seconds).

    The Mecosecond needs a formal name as well as a face
    . Over the years I had asked folks at CODATA, ISO, BIPM, and NIST to consider it, but there were no acknowledgements per se. So we will use the conventions currently in use by Wikipedia. At least there is a little consensus! In 2013 when we first developed our “desktop” version of the Big Board-little universe chart, we called this the domain for mathematics and geometries of qualities. Here would be the archetypes for textures, flavors, colors, and dimensions. This range is defined by 10−33, 10−34, and 10−35 on the horizontal chart. Once these mathematicians adopt the 202 base-2 notations and the continuity-symmetry-harmony necessarily built within it all, and once they can imagine the perfections of those first 50 or more notations, their mathematical formulations will have a place on the grid and can be integrated within what may be called a newly-revised Standard Model for the Universe. It’s a bit presumptuous, but we know that things are never quite right within the first editions! Much more to come thanks to Martin Bojowald and his colleagues!

  23. (10−36) Informally known as a Duecosecond. It is Notation-25 (24 – 9.045269×10-37s, 25 – 1.809×10-36s.

    The Duecosecond also needs a formal name as well as a face
    . This part of the scale, from 10−36 to 10−39 within the horizontally-scaled chart, includes notations 20-to-30. Within our “desktop” version of the chart, it is the domain for the archetypal formulation of substances. Again, we believe the mathematics and the geometries have been worked out within these studies: Langlands programs and operadic algebras in homotopy theory, string theories, LQG, SUSY, CST, SSM, CDT, field theories, and all the hypothetical particles.

  24. (10−39) Informally known as a Trecosecond. It is Notation-15 (14 – 8.832712×10-40s, 15 – 1.766542×10-39 s).

    The Trecosecond needs a formal name as well as a face
    . This part of the scale, from 10−39 to 10−41 brings us into Notations 10-to 20 which within our “desktop” version of the chart, is for structures. Aristotle called it ousia. Again, we believe the mathematics and the geometries have been worked out within these studies: Langlands programs and operadic algebras in homotopy theory, string theories, LQG, SUSY, CST, SSM, CDT, field theories, and all the hypothetical particles.

  25. (10−42) Informally known as a Tetrecosecond. It is Notation-5 (1.72517×10−42 s).

    The Tetracosecond needs a formal name as well as a face
    . We have adopted Plato’s formulation and call it forms. It is the domain of 10−42 to 10−44 to the PlanckSecond. Again, we believe the mathematics and the geometries have been worked out within these studies: Langlands programs and operadic algebras in homotopy theory, string theories, LQG, SUSY, CST, SSM, CDT, field theories, and all the hypothetical particles.

  26. PlanckTime. It has also been referred to as the PlanckSecond: 5.391 16(13)×10-44 Notation-0, (10-44), the first moment in Time. For more, for now, go to this explanation of this expansion.

These are the 26 faces of time. They are sketched out today. It is the beginning of a new study. Welcome aboard. -BEC


Under consideration:

  1.  Variorum De Rebus Mathematicis Responsorum, Liber VIII, François Viète, (Tours, 1593) within The Analytic Art, François Viète, translated by T. Richard Witmer, Kent State Press, 1983, Dover, 2006 Also, see John Baez analysis.
  2. Development of an infinite series, Wikipedia (retrieved 2023)
  3. François Viète formula for pi (π)
  4. Zeptosecond Birth Time Delay in Molecular Photoionization, Science (2020). DOI: 10.1126/science.abb9318 ,


References & Resources
As these references are studied, key references and resources will be added.

  1. Physical Implications of a Fundamental Period of Time, Garrett Wendel, Luis Martínez, and Martin Bojowald, Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, 2020
  2. Absence of Singularity in Loop Quantum Cosmology, 2001. ArXiv -177.

BIPM: International Bureau of Weights and Measures
CGPM: Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures
Resolution 3 of the 27th CGPM (2022) 15-18 November 2022
CODATA: Committee on Data of the International Science Council (ISC)
ISO: International Standards Organization.
NIST: National Institute for Science & Technology (USA)

There will always be more to come.


There will be emails to many of our scholars about these points.

Wed, May 24, 12:05 PM, Abhay Ashtekar, Penn State
Tue, May 23, 6:03 PM, Donna Strickland, Waterloo, Ontario
Tue, May 23, 8:28 AM, Gérard Mourou, IZEST, Palaiseau, France
Mon, May 22, 4:48 PM, Carlo Rovelli, Marseille, France
Sat, May 20, 8:04 AM, Céline Fellag Ariouet, BIPM, Paris
Wed, May 17, 6:41 PM, Martin Bojowald, Penn State
Wed, May 3, 12:48 PM, Jogesh Pati, Maryland
Tue, May 2, 10:01 PM, Adrian Ocneanu, Harvard, Penn State
Mon, May 1, 11:14 AM, Hsuan-Yi Liao, Taiwan – operads


There will also be many instant messages to thought leaders about these points.

9:49 AM · May 28, 2023 @the_xijinping I recently finished writing and editing an open letter that I would like to bring to your attention. It is about Karl Marx’s understanding of mathematics. That page will soon become a homepage. The URL is Would you like to suggest any edits?

5:11 PM · May 23, 2023 @brattray @reidhoffman The big bang is fizzling. That opens the door for new models. We have one for the global scholars to evaluate. Would you please sign the petition to have the world’s leading intellectual organizations evaluate it?

4:21 PM · May 17, 2023 @TheNormanLear @NYUEmpathy What will bring us all closer together is to drop our little worldviews and adopt a highly-integrated mathematical view of the universe. Its inclusivity teaches us about continuity-symmetry-harmony. Here’s a start: Why not?

8:23 AM · May 9, 2023 @JeffreyGoldberg The myth of “a comprehensive understanding of things” can readily be understood within the failings of our limited worldviews. Only when we have it all in context with the universe will we begin to understand. is my sandbox.
[Please note: Jeffrey is the Editor-in-chief of The Atlantic.]



You are always invited.

Keys to this page, the-firsts

• This page became the homepage on May 22, 2023. It is still very much “under construction.”
• The last update was May 27, 2023.
• This page was initiated on May 4, 2023.
• The URL for this file is
• The first headline for this article: If you start at this moment and call it the Now,
could you be experiencing all 26 faces of time?

• Teaser: 26 faces of time within 202 notations that encapsulate our universe.

Log of significant updates (with related pages):


For more, go to Also:


Virtual Reality Workshop about the Universe: Notations 0-to-202

Left Yellow Arrow
Right Yellow Arrow

Pages: Blackhole.|C.|.Empower |.Hope.|.Mistakes.|.PI (π).|.Redefined.|.Singularity | Sphere.|.TOE.|.Up

Key questions about universe
its origins and purpose

by Bruce E. Camber (earlier work next homepage)

Introduction. Timeless questions have been asked throughout our common history. Although we generally know that everything starts simply and grows slowly, when it comes to our universe, there are many very different points of view. Let’s explore the major ones and see when-where-and-how each coheres as a virtual reality (VR) program. [1]

Yes, let’s build a dynamic, ever-growing virtual reality or VR platform that encapsulates the universe in a multiplicity of ways based on current theories. This VR platform, of course, would be available to everyone. The storyboards for a VR application are first developed online so our largest audience will be all the people with access to the internet.

Before virtualization, that storyboard phase is driven by decision trees. The VR application enlivens the visuals and facilitates making quick and seamless choices creating overall flow dynamics. User behaviours are constantly recorded. Over a period of time, stats will that tell us something about each theory and those processes that capture the most attention. Through evaluations of the experience, we will determine what factors create buzz and exponentially attract the most users. One of the goals of this project is to encourage evaluations based on intellectual integrity not on the kill-or-be-killed mentalities of the gaming community, apparently still the largest VR population in 2021.

We believe that’s about to change.

Models. Our base-2 model creates a mathematical container that encapsulates all space and all time, everything, everywhere, from the beginning of time until now. It is entirely granular and each notation builds successively from the prior notations. Although it has several working titles, we shall use a “Mathematically-Integrated View of the Universe” from the first instance of space-time to the current time in just 202 base-2 notations. [2] This model has a natural inflation that engenders homogeneity and isotropy. Its first 64 notations cannot be directly measured. Actual experiments are being proposed that infer characteristics of each notation, yet the visuals for these notations must rely on logic, mathematics, and intuition. [3]

Virtual Reality experienced as a dynamic Visual Reality

Visuals at the start. Life starts starts simply. An egg cell and a sperm cell meet-and-greet and get together and the resulting growth is base-2. Circles and spheres start with two points. And, after many discussions with many scholars, the consensus is that the most simple thing within space-time is the sphere. Others argue that the most fundamental thing is some kind of a singularity. [4] Because there is a lot of confusion about the very nature of a singularity and the proper definition of a point, we project that most models based on singularities and multiverses will have many analogues within our 202 notations and a big bang VR option will be facilitated.

The First Sphere. This VR platform will give users special access to possible answers to most current open questions within particle physics and astrophysics through many of our finest living scholars. The challenge will always be to find visuals that represent these theories in graphically-interesting, yet intellectually-responsible ways.

Our model begins with a simple circle that becomes a sphere and it has just two points. Until somebody among today’s scholars does a recalculation based on current knowledge, we will symbolically use the base units calculated by Max Planck in 1899. [5] We will also refer to those by George Johnstone Stoney from a lecture he gave in Belfast in 1874. [6]

To set everything in motion, we will make several very basic assumptions:

Obviously there are many visual possibilities here. To date no other model has Notations-0 to Notation-67. Within our simple model, we assume most of the main features of every other model for the start and growth of our universe are truncated without those infinitesimal notations. [10]


Mysterious Pi (π). At the same time it is just a simple ratio — the circumference of a circle to its diameter — Pi (π) quickly becomes quite complex. Its never-ending, never-repeating series of numbers may well be our most-historical and best-known mathematical construction. Nevertheless it is always changing yet always the same. This dimensionless constant is not finite, yet its applications are finite. Its qualities appear infinite, yet are too finite to be infinite. A logical conclusion might be that pi is a bridge between the finite and infinite. One might think, because it is so ubiquitous within so many equations, that it is the first bridge between the finite and infinite, a bridge over which come many dimensionless constants. [11]

So, the mission of this business is to study and develop an experience of those key ideas and questions so it becomes a dynamic, ever-growing virtual reality platform that encapsulates the universe in multiple ways.

The Initial Focus. We will begin with our study of how the universe evolves within its scale-invariant pi (π). We’ll attempt to build a business case around pi so we can grasp the essences of pi (π) and how it bridges the finite and the infinite, and thus starts the universe. Then this business case will refocus to develop virtual reality programs to teach the most people, most quickly, about these essences.

Primary working assumption. People want to know about the essential nature of the universe and about the meaning and value of life.

Everybody associated with this emergent business is committed to developing the most compelling tools to engage the most-logical and scientific expressions of the simplicity of pi, and how that simplicity becomes the complexities of this universe. We will start with the smallest, most infinitesimal, and most-simple things and scale to the largest, most-complex things. The key qualities of pi (π) — continuity, symmetry, and harmony — will be part of each step along that scale. There will also be perfections within key qualities of both the finite and the infinite throughout each step of that scale.

Virtual Reality (VR)

Of the most compelling teaching tools today, many are found in virtual reality applications. A basic premise of this project is to simulate the greatest number of realities, most coherently and logically, and most-enjoyably and most-easily. We assume the experience will be compelling as well as educational.

The storyboard for the virtual reality applications will be part of the current website: Any lecture, any discussion, and any monologue can be virtualized.

The virtual reality applications will be alpha-tested in Nashville. Once validated, it will be released to be used by any and all Virtual Reality commercial locations around the world. Though currently a limited audience, a virtual reality application on the web will also be released.

This test site will be located in one of the busier intersections within the USA, downtown Nashville, on Broadway, at the top of what is known as Honky Tonk highway. The goal is to become the entryway to all the musical venues that line both sides of Broadway down to the Cumberland River. The goal is to be among the destination sites for all tourists, and then for the residents of Nashville, greater Nashville, then of Tennessee, and then of the USA and the world. That location is called Fellowship on Broadway (part of a complex that has been part of downtown Nashville for over 200 years).

Some of the key people on the staff of Fellowship on Broadway will be initial testers of the VR application. Once certified by our testers, a diversity of organizations will be offered to license this VR production. All commercial locations that have licensed this application will also be asked to be associated with educational, cultural and religious organizations to help further interpret the experience.

Market analysis

The first market will be people in the range from teenagers, now called Generation Z, through to the Millennials who are as old as 38. That market is the most active within the virtual reality space. Yet, the experience is being designed so the headset is wireless and the movement is not limited to a particular range. We will especially attempt to incorporate those cutting-edge technologies empowering user interactions and small group experience while within a virtual reality. The goal will be to grasp the essences of the universe, the dynamics of its start, emergence, and growth, and then its many-sided perfections and imperfections.

Some will say that one of the goals within this program is to grasp the dimensionality of the finite-infinite relation.

Currently most VR venues are out of the gaming community with its history within Sony’s Playstation, Microsoft’s Xbox, Nintendo and Sega. Many others have joined the emerging virtual reality market including HP, Facebook, Samsung and Apple. Another rapidly expanding group of VR people are coming through Google. Millions have experienced Google Earth on flat screens. The Google Earth VR is, of course, more immersive and dynamic and its influence is ginormous.

VR applications are everywhere. VR and simulations have been used for industrial training since the 1980s. There are now even VR-venues to retell the stories from scripture. Some are developing VR-experiences during the period of the dinosaurs inspired by Jurassic Park.

Anything on a flat screen can be converted to a VR experience.

Initially, there will be nothing like our application. First, it is a teaching tool. Within our new application there will be 202 venues to explore. Initially, we are projecting that there will be no less than from 1-to-10 decision trees within each notation at Release 1.00, from 10-to-100 by Release 2.00, and 100-to-1000 by Release 3. It will have an open architecture. Any developer, especially among our academic institutions will be able to contribute a decision tree.

The current time is within Notation-202 and will be for about another 8.1 billion years. The duration of the notation is 10.98+ billion years, so only about 2.83 billion years has unfolded. When this notation began, the earth was still in her earlier stages of formation. Unprecedented, this VR project, Release 1.0, will go back in time to the first moments of the physical universe in Notation-1. Notation-0 is on the bridge to the infinite, yet there will be relatively quick access to Notation-0 from within each notation, 1-to-202.

The Scope of Work. In the early phase of development, key scholars (especially their graduate students and postdocs) will be employed to help create detailed storyboards for each notation, including the notations that are higher/lower, larger/smaller, later/earlier. There are no silos of information within this model.

The best VR programmers from around the world will be employed to enliven the storyboards and create scripts. A small group of intern programmers will be part of the Nashville group to learn to virtualize code and to begin developing storylines within a notation. Multiple story lines will be part of each notation. Each storyline represents a choice and a decision tree. Many decision trees will be created with each of the 202 notations.

Background. Bruce Camber backed into this mathematical model and outline of the universe in December 2011 while helping out in a New Orleans high school geometry classes They were exploring the tetrahedron and octahedron and went inside both objects. There were 112 steps within to get into the range of the Planck scale. There were 90 steps or doublings to go out to the age and size of the universe. He has not stopped exploring those geometries. And, he has personally introduced hundreds of key scholars to that model and thousands of scholars have visited through the website. He will now be introducing the model to people with no particular interest in particle physics, astrophysics, or cosmology. They are interested and motivated to know the universe and how it all fits together.

This VR product will also introduce people to infinity and the nature of perfection in a logical, mathematical and scientific way. It is being developed to redefine infinity and to make it more approachable than the work of David Hilbert and much less illusive than the work of religions to date. A quiet goal of this program will be to have religious bodies re-engage their history and to re-context their solipsism in light of continuity-symmetry-harmony, the basic components of a sphere.

Competitive Analysis

This industry has been the domain of the gaming community. We will naturally pick up that community because it is a new VR application that addresses a subject that has never been addressed in the VR market. We will naturally become an extension of the Google Earth VR market. Anticipated is that Google will partner and license Notations 202 down to 134 as an extension of Google Earth to be able to automatically transition to what one might expect that they will name, Google Universe VR. This potential is being actively explored.

There is currently no competition until this model is discovered by other developers. Yet, a goal of this project will be to attract other developers to cooperate and develop unique products of their own based on the 202 notations. Thus, the concept of competition is redefined. There is only adoption or rejection. Because the highest affirmation is continuity-symmetry-harmony, and no particular affirmation of any particular theological narrative, we believe the rejection rate will be low. The more “knock-offs” there are of this product and enterprise, the more successful we will have become.

Intellectual Grounding. John A. Wheeler (1911-2008), an eminent Princeton physicist, wrote in 1986, ““Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, that when we grasp it — in a decade, a century, or a millennium — we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise?” It is a short piece, How Come the Quantum?, and was part of a report, New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 480, Dec. 1986 (p.304–316), DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1986.tb12434.x

This simple model is the simplicity for which John Wheeler yearned in 1986. If the universe revolves around pi (π), let us now build a business around pi. The key qualities of pi (π) — continuity, symmetry, and harmony — are a perfection and the key qualities of both the finite and the infinite.

Funding. This project is seemingly open ended, a bit like Wikipedia, yet here all relations and partnerships will share the values of continuity, symmetry and harmony.

Appendix. This document is a living document; it has no final, finished form. Updates and supporting documents will be added, especially as requested. We will be including resumes, product pictures, letters of reference, licenses, permits, patents, legal documents, and contracts.

Version .00001, Last update: Monday, September 13, 2021


Endnote & Footnotes

[1] Virtual Reality. In 2021, we are in the earliest possible stages of the use and development of virtual reality tools. Most still associate virtual realities with the gaming community. As this industry evolves, virtual reality will be increasingly used to check our logic flow. It will be an inexpensive way to check where our mathematics and our intuitions get out of synch. Within a virtual reality that has been mathematically-and-geometrically-generated, Aristotle would not have made the mistake of not seeing how the tetrahedron create gaps and cannot tile and tessellate the universe. Within a virtual reality where the sphere’s continuity and symmetry and harmony absorb all space and time on the bridge to infinity, Newton would not have presumed an absolute nature for either/or space-time. If Stephen Hawking had been able to explore such virtual realities, he may have concluded our sciences have a place within this formulation of infinity.

  • Virtual Reality (VR): Users enter a fully digital universe. Their visual and audio experience is totally virtual yet fully under their control. They can explore any part of this universe and go back 13.81 billion years. They can also follow a primordial sphere back inside the bridges to the infinite.
  • Mixed Reality (MR): Part of the experience will be interacting with others who are within the same virtual environment. Here real-world content (a person) becomes virtual content. Also known as Augmented Reality (AR), in this VR environment, people can help people to understand and grasp the subtleties of this virtual experience.
  • The only difference between the quiet expansion and the big bang theory is the first picosecond which defines the first three epochs in the big bang theory. Yes, the Planck Epoch, Grand Unification Epoch, and Inflationary Epoch are exceedingly short. Within our base-2 and Planck scale model, those processes involve as many as forty doublings before the Electroweak processes begin, and as many as another 60 to 100 additional doublings before the Quark-then-Hadron processes begin. And, within this model, we are still within the first second of the unfolding universe. That is a lot of space for pure mathematics and geometries. 

[2] 202 base-2 notations. Our first chart follows Planck Length. It is visual, logical, geometrical, mathematical, and simple. We were lucky; the simple logic of cubic-close packing of equal spheres gave us a rich foundation within which to build. Our second chart in 2014 had 202 rows with Planck Time and Planck Length. More charts followed. The current working chart emerged in 2016. Based on the simple results, it was concluded that:

  • Euler’s base-2 is a very different and unprecedented model of the universe that describes what just might approximate the actual expansion of the universe.
  • 202 notations is enough to encapsulate the universe for another 8.15+ billion years before moving into Notation-203. Notation-202 is 10.98 billion years in duration. It appears that the most-generally accepted estimate for the age of the universe is now 13.81 billion years.

[3] Notations 0-64: Max Planck, Albert Einstein, and David Hilbert never learned there are at least 64 base-2 notations before a particle or sub-particle will ever be discerned. Those notations amount to a not-so-secret universe that has already been accessed through logic, mathematics (Langlands programs, string and M-theory, SUSY, etc.) and intuition. We will be reviewing several scholars who have been proposing experiments to confirm each of these notations. Part of this virtual reality experience may be short statements from scholars about such work.

[4] Singularity. It seems that without engaging the concept of infinity, there can be no proper definition of a singularity. I remember as a child learning about the point in elementary school — no length, no width, no shape and no size; it only has a position. Perhaps if that teacher followed with “that defines a necessary relation,” I might have settled down. More to come…

[5] Max Planck in 1899. Our model begins with a simple circle that becomes a sphere and it has just two points. Until somebody among today’s scholars does a recalculation of the Planck base units based on current knowledge, we will symbolically use Max’s base units. Max was a pessimist; our natural arrogance prevents us from being absurd to ourselves for believing in such fundamental errors for so long. I consider the “Big-3” to be from Aristotle, Newton, and Hawking.

[6] Belfast in 1874. A copy of Stoney’s lecture is online here. Although Planck gets most of the credit for the emergence of natural units, there is much to be learned from George Johnstone Stoney. We’ve only just begun our studies of his 1874 lecture he gave in Belfast. There is so much more to discern.

[7] One primordial sphere per unit of primordial time. The concept seems straightforward and relatively simple on the surface. One can imagine that the old greats, perhaps starting with Archimedes, imagined a primordial sphere. None of them had the natural units of Planck or Stoney. Their calculations may be off a little; their general concept is totally empowering. We have a definition of the smallest unit of time which logically defines the first unit of time. It is infinitesimally small. It is a starting point. And, with the estimate that the universe is 13.81 billion years old, we have a range. What follows is a natural inflation. We will come back to these concepts over and over and over again. Here is a keyway from the universe to our world.

[8] 539 tredecillion infinitesimal spheres per second. It is an entirely visual statement that has never in history been considered. It is a stretch of one’s imaginative capacity. 539 tredecillion! More to come…

[9] Cubic-close packing of equal spheres. Another highly visual process, cubic-close packing as far as we know today, has never been considered at the Planck scale and as a fundamental process for the start and expansion of our universe.

[10] All Cosmological Models. In much the same way an encyclopedia can discuss various models of the universe, there are many tools within virtual reality that can make visual transitions to other models. Many of the scholars with whom we have worked over the years are committed to a different model, yet they gladly share information regarding their perception of our differences. The transitions to those other models must be done without judgment; their scholars will be helping to create the visualizations!

[11] Many dimensionless constants. How many? That’s disputed. Some scholars say 26 are necessary to create the universe, others 31. NIST lists over 300 and Simon Plouffe quite significantly used his computers to generate over three billion. Most would concur that pi and e, Euler’s equation, are the most prominent two, but that core group of 26 to 31 must all become visual. That is a daunting challenge. Can we visualize the most basic processes that generate the first moment of space-time, matter-energy, and electromagnetism-gravity. The equation for e is challenge enough!

Until we try, we will never know what is possible.

More to come…



1. Storyboards and Decision trees. Many segments have already been mapped beyond the chart of 202 notations. This project will cause everyone of the 1000+ pages on this site to be reworked.

2. Virtual Reality Developers and Development tools. Although tools like Unity are primarily for game development, such applications expedite the development of VR solutions and Unity, as an example, has been used in automotive, construction, engineering, manufacturing, media-entertainment, and transportation. There are thousands of developers and hundreds of tools.

3. Primordial Sphere, Pi and Dimensionless Constants. The primordial sphere opens a re-examination of the key qualities of continuity-symmetry-harmony. Though measured quantitatively, the ideal or pure form of all three do not exist in space-time. Along with our dimensionless and dimensionful constants, the finite-infinite relation is re-examined

4. Cubic Close Packing of Equal Spheres (ccp): Highly-visual, ccp is a major study within this model.

5. Base-2 Exponential Notation: Quite visual, base-2 notation is also a major study within this model.

More to come…



General email to many scholars: “I invite you to join us to help make a virtual reality out of our 202 base-2 notations (from the Planck base units to the current time). You may be familiar with Google Earth. There is also an application called Google Earth VR. Although just a small slice of Notation-202, it is an excellent educational tool to explore the world virtually. Part of our development will be a seamless transition in and out of Google Earth VR. To get much earlier, back down into Notation-201, we will the use actual images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Yes, even still pictures can be virtualized. All those images can take us back into Notation-197 within large-scale structure formations.

“Getting from Notation-196 back to Notation-1 will require imagination with highly-informed points of view. We will be going through every key phase described by the big bang theory back to her Quark Gluon Plasma phase (estimated to be contained within Notation-134 to 135). Big bang cosmology runs out of phases and we are a long way to Planck scale physics. The challenge is to create a virtualization of a theory that has very few ideas to go deeper. The virtualization becomes uniquely ours as we struggle to define and breathe life into our earlier notations.

“We will turn to you with many questions. It should be an important and enjoyable exercise.

“Ultimately, this application with all its sub-applications and code will be given to all the participating partners and universities and schools. Because the audio guide will initially only be in English, you and the school could readily change the audio to whatever language or dialect you choose.

“Now might I turn to these specific questions….. “

More to come…



@Tyrielwood VR BG 2021! Which Headset…? Excellent. Thank you. Great history. Priceless footage. How about VR from the first instant of the universe to the current time through 202 base-2 notations? The numbers are here:

More to come…



September 8-11: For four days we welcomed over 300 scholars from around the world including people from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the USA.

Of course, we welcome your participation.


Key Dates for this document, Virtual


Our base-2 mathematical model with everything, everywhere for all time

Is This A Passageway To A Theory of Everything?

by Bruce Camber, New Orleans, LA 70123 (October 2015, revisited July 20, 2021/2))

Abstract. A very simple ordering system that encapsulates everything, everywhere throughout the universe and throughout all time since the very beginning until the present moment is based on the Planck base units, pi, and multiplication by 2 (or base-2 exponential notation). Since December 2011, a small group of high school students and a few of their teachers have been trying to figure out what to do with their simple mathematical model. Findings to date are presented with the hope that the academic-scientific community can tell them how best to proceed.

Introduction. Since December 2011, a few high school teachers and their students have been puzzled by their very simple view of the entire universe. It seemed so simple and so elegant, it was easy to quote an American theoretical physicist, John Archibald Wheeler (1911-2008), “Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, that when we grasp it— in a decade, a century, or a millennium — we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise?”
Cf. the Ref [1].

Behind Wheeler’s question is a shared intuition that somehow simplicity and beauty are fundamental to science and life. We cannot imagine how there could possibly be a more simple model of the universe, i.e. one that begins at the Planck base units and within 202 notations dynamically encapsulates and appears to order everything, everywhere, throughout all time within a basic quadrant, all by multiplying-by-2 the smallest units of the most basic constituents of life (the Planck base units of length and time) until we are out to the very largest possible measurements of each.

History does not escape this model. It is all there from the beginning of time to the fullness of this moment, the Now. Even the elusive neutrino does not escape this model! And, the unrecognized substrate that gives rise to the simple neutrino is postulated.

Asking for Help. An entire small-scale universe, so robust as to be beyond imagination, is outlined, first within a chart of the Planck base units that extends out to their natural current limits, Cf. the Ref. [2]. Then, there is an initial analysis of those numbers, Cf. the Ref. [3].

The earliest introduction to our work was posted in January 2012, Cf. the Refs. [4a] and [4b], and then, on about a monthly basis, we have posted our simple progress, Cf. the Ref [5]. That chart and the rationale are our de facto pleading to engage the scientific – academic community to analyze, dissect and trisect this work, “What is wrong with this model?”

“Not encyclopedic, but new research.” An astute Wikipedia editor from MIT deleted our first attempt to write an article about our work about base-2 exponential notation from the Planck Length to Observable Universe, Cf. the Ref. [6]. It was deemed to be original research, not encyclopedic work and it had no primary academic references. So, it began to strike us that our work on December 19, 2011 was somehow original. We were so sure that statement could not be true, it took over a year to begin to realize that it just may be true… that base-2 notation from the smallest to the largest possible measurements of a length had been an academic blind spot.

The first 60-to-67 notations. Though the substrate appears to be the mystery, we have spent a fair amount of time guessing about its most general nature. In our very first chart of the “Big Board – little universe” a number of guesses were made about the first 60+ notations. A year later more guesses were made within a new version of the chart that we dubbed “Universe Table”
Cf. the Ref. [7], and then “Universe View.”

Simple logic and a little intuition can be powerful tools.

Given the entire universe has been notated using simple mathematics (multiplying by 2) , basic concepts (Planck units), and imputed structural geometries, there is a skeletal outline to begin to ask, “What’s there?”, and to ask others to think about it. It seems to be a natural home for all the abstractions that academia loves but has no ordered system within which to give them some kind of universal-but-particular structure. Here consider the enigmatic mix of concepts within philosophy, theology, and psychology. Within this model each should find a place within those first 64 notations.

Perhaps periodicity is a product of essential symmetries within the universe. Every student knows in some manner of speaking, frequencies and numbers jive. There is an inherent dance within the universe. Frequencies, forms, and waves dance with numbers, points and particles. It’s the old subject-object issue all over again.

Prior to Marconi’s work within radio, nobody could image how sound could be broadcast. Then came television and we all became quasi-scientists. One of our more speculative postulations is that the essential modulating and computing functions of the human brain originate from within notations 50 to 60. This simple model opens up the back end of the very small as well as the top end to include all 201+ notations to postulate how these small-scale forms become human-scale archetypes that manifest within our epoch within our large-scale universe.

Of course, entirely speculative, but it all has a thread of simple logic which makes it cohesive. It is a bunch of numbers looking for a theory. Perhaps it might qualify as a pathway, perhaps a door, to a theory of everything. Why not? Yes, we ask, “Why not?”

Next Steps. At the time in 2011, as part of an ongoing discussion about basic structures, distinguished mathematician, Prof. Dr. Philip Davis (emeritus Brown University and NIST), insisted that the sphere is more simple than the tetrahedron and, of course, he was correct. A sphere can be created with just two vertices and it takes four vertices to create a tetrahedron, the next most simple three-dimensional form.

Continuing within our most speculative framework, it might be that the sphere and vertices fundamentally define the small-scale universe in a system of forms that give rise to a substrate of archetypes of structure, substance, qualities, relations, and systems.

To open that exploration is to understand the role of Pi (π) and the dimensionless constants as gateways to the infinite, as well as those universals — order-and-continuities, relations-and-symmetries, and dynamics-and-harmonies — that seem to be better options to define the infinite than space and time.

One of the first articles that I am requesting select mathematicians to analyze thoroughly was little read and highly criticized when it was first released by its authors. For some, it will be nonsense. Yet, it involves some serious mathematics and even more serious conclusions. Ref. [8] is more than bold and has engendered strong responses. What matters, however, is the cogency of the mathematics. So some of the finest, young and old mathematicians from around the world are being asked to examine the article, its mathematics, and conclusions. If it begins to stand the weight of such examination, and it is determined that Pi π is within the heart of all the dimensionless constants as well as the other physical constants, our simple small-scale substrate will have all the structure it needs to build out the rest of the universe.

Conclusions. It has taken us awhile to regain the confidence to write another article. We know this area of research is near and dear to many, many exquisitely trained scientists, logicians, philosophers and mathematicians. We are just high school folks. How could we possibly have stumbled onto a pathway that could lead to a theory of everything? Perhaps the only answer is, “It takes a certain naïveté to open a new door. We can only hope that it is to a more gentle and beautiful view of life and all of reality.”


Acknowledgements. My wife, Hattie Bryant, has been a loyal believer with a pragmatic skepticism that keeps me on my toes. Though it has taken years to get to this point, she has hung in there. How could one ask for anything more? There have also been many other people on this path, many-too-many to mention, for whom I will be eternally grateful. They know who they are, and I thank you.


  1. J.A. Wheeler, How Come the Quantum? Annals of the New York Academy
    of Sciences, 480 (“New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement
    Theory”), pp. 304-316 (1986),doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1986.tb12434.x
  2. B. Camber, Five Base Planck Units, (2015, 2016)
  3. B. Camber, On Developing A Rationale For A Working Model Of The Universe
    Based On A Quiet Expansion
  4. B. Camber, “Big Board – little universe:
    B. Camber, The original Wikipedia article (March 2012)
    B. Camber, An exploration of 101 steps from the smallest Planck length
    to the human scale, and then 101 more

    steps out to somewhere near the edge of the observable universe”
  5. B. Camber, “Is There Order In The Universe?
  6. B. Camber, “The Planck Length, Base-2 Exponential Notation, and Nesting Geometries.”
  7. B. Camber, “Universe Table – Human Scale”.
  8. S. Waterman and M. A. Whitehead, “A Review of a Self-Consistent Field
    Approach To the Physical Constants: All Physical Constants are a Function of Pi”. In
    Cascades Festschrift in Honour of Professor Emeritus M. A. (Tony)
    Whitehead, The Richard Hart Symposium, McGill 27th-29th, June 2010,
    Cascades (2011), pp. 172-184,


More Resources on this website to carry on this discussion:


Could the first 64-notations-out-of-the-202 be our common ground?

by Bruce Camber

A First Draft

Introduction. One of my quiet goals in life has been to understand how concepts somehow transcend our diverse-and-sometimes-opposing points of view. Yet, nothing seems to work for groups of people who have been hating each other for centuries; peace-makers are hard-pressed to come up with a concept that heals such deep divisions.Tensions and divides are everywhere… and yes, these divides also exist within the sciences.

Over the years I have turned to a rather diverse group of scholars1 (going back into the 1960s) who have been wrestling with first principles and our understanding of the foundations of life and of our universe. Some of their concepts just might might help make a difference in the way we understand ourselves, our histories, our sciences and even our religions.

We started working on our base-2 chart of the universe in December 2011. It has become apparent to us that within this chart of 202 notations, there are many concepts that change our worldview and our views of space, time and infinity. We are aware of how idiosyncratic it is!

The first 64 notations out of 202 are most unusual. These may be common grounds of a most fundamental nature that might address age-old questions in physics and cosmology.

In 1899 Max Planck defined four fundamental natural units. He defined the numbers, but they were so unusual, he ostensibly ignored them. Only a few scholars1d picked up on his numbers over the next 100 years. In 2001 Frank Wilczek2 began to pull those Plank numbers free from numerology,3 and Planck’s base units began getting more consistent attention. Today, science tends to recognize the Planck units, i.e. their potential to become part of (1) an integrative theory about the nature of things, even a starting point for creation, and (2) the beginnings of complexity, a concept that helps us to understand the foundations of the sciences, mathematics, logic, and epistemology.

Geometries. Now, for a little perspective on our work, we were high school geometry people4 who in 2011 followed a very simple tetrahedral-octahedral complex5 back 45 steps (halving at each step) down among elementary particles and then another 67 steps to the Planck scale.Being rather naive about it all, we then decided to start with Planck’s base units and multiply by two (2). Sure enough, in 112 steps we were back in the classroom and in another 90 steps we were at the current expansion of the universe.6 We asked, “Did we just encapsulate everything, everywhere, for all time? …the entire universe in just 202 base-2 notations or doublings?

The Chart, A Map of the Universe. Although there are many blanks spaces, the chart seemed to be the beginning of a simple map7 of the universe using base-2 (doublings). We learned that the conceptual foundations of base-2 (exponential functions) were introduced to the world around 1740 by the Swiss mathematician, Leonhard Euler (there’s always so much to learn). Rather unwittingly, we took Euler’s base-2 to the 202nd power and have now begun to ask questions about its context in light of the nature of creation, space, and time.We had been unaware of the 1957 work by Kees Boeke in his private school, De Werkplaats, in Bilthoven, Holland. Boeke did his base-10 chart, Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps8 and over time it became sensationally popular.

Our chart is a bit different. First, we have our geometries. Second, we start with the Planck units. Third, we have a scale of the Planck’s units from the smallest units of space and time to the largest. Fourth, we have the current expansion of the universe within the 202nd notation. Fifth, our chart is 3.333+ times more granular than base-10. Sixth, this chart mimics life’s natural doublings. And seventh, our base-2 chart has a built-in, all natural inflation.9That is quite a lot, but then, it really began to challenge us:• Mathematical confirmation of the speed of light. We discovered between the 143rd and 144th notation, a simple mathematical confirmation of the speed of light,10 that validated both the distance and the time units.

That’s a key; it actually completes the simple logic of this chart. It has a mathematical, functional, and conceptual wholeness.

Dark energy and dark matter defined. Looking further, we observed the first 64 notations couldn’t be reached by CERN laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland or by all the experts at the Max Planck Institute in Garching Germany; they have held the record11 for the shortest unit of measured time. Those first 64 notations are too short and too small to ever be measured by physical tools. So, what is all that aggregating mass and energy? A simple, logical conclusion: it is the “impossible-to-define” dark energy and dark matter.12 As we bring it into the light of day, I believe we will discover it is also our long-sought-for common ground.

Retrospective. Granted, that’s rather radical for simple people using simple logic. Yet, once opened for inquiry, this virtually unexplored domain of just over 64 notations looks like it can also give us the footings to create a bridge13 between quantum mechanics and general relativity, and between the Langlands programs and string theory. These are not incompatible concepts but different faces of a common foundation just before those few transformations that precede the 67th notation where particles and waves are finally observed.

In 1999 NATO gathered our most elite astrophysicists and cosmologists14 living at that time. All were scholars of structure formation. At no time did they have a discussion about the Planck base units. Nobody was asking, “What could be the earliest manifestation of the Planck base units?” For us, twelve years later in 2011, it was the only question we wanted to try to answer.

Space-time defined by spheres.15

Looking around the scholarly world, it became obvious that we were unwittingly jumping on a bandwagon with Carlo Rovelli and Robert Muller who found space-and-time to be derivative, discrete and quantized. In our model, each notation builds on the prior notation(s). Each notation is part of the operational whole. Each is active and seemingly forever. Space and time are defined by pi (π), continuity, symmetry, and harmony. A simple circle, then a sphere, becomes a key nexus for transformations, all functions with qualities that describe (1) the infinite, (2) a finite-infinite bridge,15 and (3) the inherent quality and actual quantities that define the finite and our very first instant of time.


This is such a different perspective.16 In a very rudimentary way we’re coming full circle. As I explore the common grounds between pi (π), space, time, continuity, symmetry and harmony, there are both quantitative and qualitative shared expressions. Taking a rather speculative leap of faith, I believe these are also the foundations of ethics and aesthetics.16

Of course, altogether too simple for most, I know this will be bit difficult to sell but as a people and global community, what are our options? …continue going on the way we are?Quantitative science, qualitative living.17

Some time ago, in one of my many statements online, I said it would be wise for science to be critical of theology. Science can inform theology, yet theology can also inform the sciences. There can be mutual respect. So, I asked, “What might we learn from the core insights from within religious beliefs?” To create an example, I went back into my family’s traditions. Given the Abrahamic faiths have the attention of about 57% of the world’s population (that includes Jews, Christians and Muslims as well as the Druze, Bahá’í and Rastafarians), an example of such respect might be this very different interpretation of the Genesis story shared by all Abrahamic faiths. The antithesis of disagreements, nastiness, and even violence. In the face of hostility, there is symmetry and harmony as a foundational understanding18 of the very nature of our very beingness. Given all notations are always active, what we consider to be history is the active encoding of our universe.

That is, I would conclude everything you say, do or think; it all impacts the look and feel and quality of our little universe.You make a difference. And, that difference is greater than one could ever imagine.#It is refreshing to find people out on the web who are also shining their light in these seldom visited spaces and who are open and joyful in the process. If you, or anybody you know, has such a vision, please let us know! We would enjoy meeting you online. Thank you. -BEC

  • For more, go to these prior homepages:
  • A Simple Model – 12 points absorb the universe in 202 steps.
  • It’s been “top down” too long.  It’s time to build from the “bottom up”
  • Transformations – Cubic close packing, period doubling, Fourier transform

Common grounds — The first 64-notations

Every concept can be improved even if it seems complete unto itself

Questions, questions, and more questions


Endnotes and Footnotes: (currently the most heavily edited area of this work)

1. Scholars: In less cynical times, most of us believed that the truth always rises. And, some of us have had great faith that scholars engage that truth most readily:

1a. The most recent scholars to whom I have turned (and a few have disappointed)

1b. 77+ scholars in 1979. The project was called “An Architecture for Integrative Systems.”

1c. Influential, today, such work does make a difference.

1d. Aggregating articles and papers about Max Planck’s base units. To date, these are most substantial that I’ve found. If you can add any to it, I would be grateful. -BEC

2. Frank Wilczek: In his Physics Today article, “Scaling Mount Planck II: Base Camp,” Wilczek says: “The strong and weak couplings equalize — at roughly the Planck scale! Planck, of course, knew of neither the strong nor the weak interaction, nor of quantum field theory and running couplings. The reappearance of his scale in this entirely new context confirms his intuition about the fundamental character of the Planck scale” (fifth paragraph).

These are not coincidences. Numbers are numbers. Functions are functions. And, as well, our chart of numbers tells an important story of our time. Here is a highly-integrated mathematical scaling of the universe. Academic openness and integrity should subject this new conceptual frame of reference to a rigorous analysis.

3. 2004 Nobel Laureate and the Planck numbers: Wilczek’s three articles about the Planck base units in Physics Today stirred the pot; yet, when he received his Nobel Prize in 2004, all his writings took on a new vibrancy and importance. Wilczek became part of an elite group of celebrity physicists. His analysis of the Planck scale set these numbers apart in a most-special category even though there are other similar methods to generate fundamental numbers.

4-5. High school geometry people: Straying just a bit from the textbook, the teachers were fascinated with the way the octahedron and tetrahedron, two of Plato’s solids, were inextricably woven. Some of the students became equally fascinated.

6. Current Expansion, a chart: Starting with Planck Length in December 2011, Planck Time was added three years later, and Mass and Charge were added in February 2015. Today’s working chart emerged in April 2016. It was our first horizontally-scrolled chart whereby any one of the Planck numbers could be readily tracked. Notation 202 has a duration of 10.9816 billion years, and the current expansion defines the Now, this current moment of time which is shared everywhere throughout the entire universe.

7. Map of the Universe Using Base-2 (or doublings): Euler was a mathematician’s mathematician. He opened the way to infinitesimal calculus and a most-penetrating analysis of the infinite. We believe Euler will be instrumental in helping us interpret our charts. In 1988, 240 years after being published, one of Euler’s most seminal work, Introductio in analysin infinitorum (1748), was finally translated into English by John D. Blanton. Others quickly followed. We will be using an online translation by Ian Bruce. Of our 202 doublings, from the first notation to at least the 67th notation, could readily be considered infinitesimal. Our goal is to begin to understand the relation between the infinite and the infinitesimal, and we invite you on this journey with us.

8. Kees Boeke’s base 10 work. Here is a precedent for our work. In 1957 in a high school in Holland, headmaster Kees Boeke developed a wonderful teaching tool showing the relative sizes of things with his book, Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps. Within a short time, it had its champions and today it has become well-known through the world as an IMAX production and several online iterations. It appears that at no time did any scholar attempt to establish causal efficacy between successive notations.Using base-2, the challenge becomes apparent.

9. All Natural. With the work of Alan Guth (MIT) and so many others in the astrophysics community, the rapid expansion and continued inflation of the universe had become a major issue and stumbling block. Causal efficacy is stretched and strained. In the 1999 conference on structures, the most-elite inner circle of of cosmology threw up their hands and said, “Let’s come up with a better theory.”In our simple model a natural inflation is readily observed from the start. Several doubling mechanisms have been identified, however, the most-simple doubling, sphere stacking at the infinitesimal domains, could readily account for most all other doubling phenomenon.This explanation is sweet because it is so simple.

10.  Speed of light. The electromagnetic spectrum in some sense of the word extends from Notation 1 to 202. Let us start a deep search of the literature that explores this bandwidth beyond the first possible visible light (within the 94-and-95th notations). What is the initial very, very small charge? Does each new sphere bring and equal charge and do these aggregate with each doubling? Within the chart of numbers, it is assumed that there is an aggregation because at one second, between the 143rd and 144th notations there is a mathematical confirmation of the speed of light.

11. Measuring an interval of light. The Max Planck Institute in Garching Germany has held the record for measuring the shortest interval of time. They are down into the attoseconds (10-18 seconds). It is a long way to go to get to Planck Time at 5.39116(13)×10-44 seconds. Our understanding of the current range is limited. It goes from the somewhat familiar nanoseconds (a billionth of a second) to picoseconds, then to femtoseconds, and finally into attoseconds. Beyond the attosecond there are zeptoseconds and the yoctosecond 10−24, but SI units recognize nothing smaller. References:

12. Dark energy-matter. Just look at the chart and observe the line for coulombs and the line for mass. Each notation “fills up” so every notation has a percentage of dark energy and dark mass. This would be the most simple explanation for dark energy and dark matter. A science writer was complaining, “I’m the only one who doesn’t have a dark energy and dark matter theory.” So, I wrote to her and said she would be most welcome to adopt ours as her own. You would be welcomed to do the same! Our first analysis, October 18, 2018, is here.

13. Bridges to build. For over 100 years there has been an insurmountable divide between quantum mechanics and relativity theory. Some of the smartest people on earth have been unable to create that bridge. First, all the big bang talk obscured the primary playing field. They now have 64 notations within which to work. It might also help if these exquisitely smart people would create a bridge between the Langlands programs and string theory. All the factors involved with those two bridges will also be involved in building a bridge between the infinitesimal and the infinite (another look). All key bridges, none have been built because the experts and scholars have not had room to think or breath. Most have been unaware of those 64 doublings with 19 prime numbers with which to work. Our scholars’ imaginations have been hamstrung with particles and waves.

14. NATO and Structure Formation. At the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, the consensus among the world’s best scholars was that the big bang theory needed to be revised. The net-net. These scholars departed from this conference and many engaged in multiverse speculations, and speculations, and speculations. George Ellis, who authored a seminal work (PDF) with Stephen Hawking in 1974, has an excellent commentary, Physics on Edge (Inference: International Review of Science, VOL. 3, # 2, AUGUST 2017), on the fractured belief systems among scholars who study these issues. That seminal work, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time, was highly influential, but failed to understand the infinitesimal structure of space-time.

15. Bridge Finite-Infinite-Divide: Not often discussed, a Google search in October 2019 with delimiter quotes rendered just 674 results, most referring to a May 24, 2016 article in Quanta Magazine. By using the word, bridge, as a noun, i.e. the “Finite-Infinite Bridge,” Google pulled up just six results of which three are from our work here.Key words to explore further: Carlo Rovelli Robert Muller derivative, discrete and quantized. pi (π) continuity, symmetry, and harmony circle sphere a key nexus for transformations

16. May the circle be unbroken: Not often within this kind of discussion are the subjects of ethics and aesthetics engaged, however, within our exploration of concepts that can bridge the finite and infinite, continuity, symmetry and harmony were applied to replace absolute space and time. Within those three concepts an understanding of both aesthetics and ethics emerge.

17.  Science & Theology: Too much “positional” time and energy is spent on this topic. Open questions should be clearly and carefully stated without all the positional gestures and maneuvers. We know there is incompleteness. We know that both sides of the equations have “stood their ground.” That is not enough. We need to do better. If we open up the dialogue of first principles in light of the first 64 notations, I predict that ground will be fertile. Not only will the Abrahamic faiths benefit, all religions including atheism, might discover common grounds. The creation story, the old Genesis story, can be opened up for all.

18. Universals: One of my earlier considerations of the emergence of constants and universals

Yes, work continues today, Saturday, October 26, 2019… thank you for your patience.One of the next articles for this site will use both expressions, Bridge Finite-Infinite-Divide, and Finite-Infinite Bridge in the title and subtitle. Comments? Please email me (BEC) or complete the form below.

Please send along your comments or questions.


References, research, and resources:

Set Theory, Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory, Future Summary, WilczekArts, Twelvefold way The zeta function Euler’s formula Unifying Lattice Models, Links and Quantum Geometric Langlands via Branes in String Theory, Meer Ashwinkumar, Meng-Chwan Tan, Quantum q-Langlands, Correspondence Mina Aganagic, Edward Frenkel, Andrei Okounkov 2007 – No time – Rovelli as seen in Discover magazine